(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "40th to 42nd Annual Report of Commissioners on Fisheries and Game of Massachusetts (1905-1907)"

1 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/40thto42ndannual00mass 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 25. 



REPORT 



"commissioners 



Fisheries aotd Game 



Year exding- December 31, 1905 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1906. 



K \ 



■ 

/ 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication 



CONTENTS 



Report. 

PAGE 

General considerations, • 1 

Appropriations, 1 

Scope of the duties of commissioners, 1 

Sea and shore fisheries, li 6 

Fresh and cured fish and bait, 1, 4, 12, 17 

Mollusk fisheries, 1, 5, 31 

Lobster industry, 1, 4, 31, 173 

Recreation fishing, 1 

Inland fisheries and propagation of game fishes, . . . . 2, 5, 44 

Protection and propagation of useful birds and mammals, . . . 2, 55 

Enforcement of fish and game laws, • . 2, 71 

To furnish information, 3 

Sea fisheries, 6 

Statistics of annual yield, 6 

Methods of marketing, 10 

Sail v. power, 10 

Disasters, 13 

High liners of the fleet, 14 

Herring, winter herring fishery at Newfoundland, 17 

Cod, 22 

Mackerel, 24 

Total catch in North American waters, 1900-05, 27 

Halibut, 28 

Pollock, . 28 

Whiting, 29 

Inspection of fish, 29 

Dogfish, 29, 97 

Seaweeds, 29 

The Powder Hole reservation, 30 

The lobster fishery, . . 31, 173 

The shellfish industries, 31 

Clams 34 

Scallops 37 

Quahaugs, 41 

Oysters 43 

Inland fisheries, 44 

Change of regulation of fisheries in ponds stocked later than 1904, . . 44 

Pollution, 45 

Game fish, 46 

Shad, 46 

State fish hatcheries, 48 

Report from Sutton hatchery, 48 

Report from Hadley hatchery, 52 

Winchester and Adams hatcheries, 54 

Fish not furnished for private purposes 55 

Mortality of fish, 55 

Dams and fish ways, 55 



iv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Game, . 55 

A valuable asset of the State, 55 

Ruffed grouse, 57 

Forest fires, 58 

Woodcock, 58 

Quail, 59 

Upland plover, 60 

Pinnated grouse, 61 

Shooting season, 63 

Ruffed grouse reared in confinement by Prof. C. F. Hodge, .... 65 

Propagation of birds and mammals at Sutton hatchery, .... 69 

Propagation of birds and mammals at Winchester hatchery, ... 71 

Fish and game laws and their enforcement, 71 

Summary of, 71 

Classification of arrests, 72 

Purposes of the game laws, 76 

Obstacles to enforcement of game laws, 78 

Killing of birds for millinery purposes 81 

Sunday hunting, 83 

Smelt seining, 83 

Work of the "Scoter", 84 

New legislation recommended, 87 

Courtesies, 91 

Permits issued : — 

For possession of egg-bearing lobsters, . .92 

For birds and eggs for special purposes, 92 

For quail for propagation, 92 

For sand eels for bait, 92 

For pound net in Buzzard's Bay, 93 

For taking lamprey eels for scientific purposes, 93 

Report upon the damage done by dogfish to the fisheries of Massachusetts, . 97 

Scope of the report, 97 

Habits and life history, 99 

Food, 102 

Breeding habits, 102 

Extermination impracticable, 103 

Nature and extent of damage by dogfish, as indicated by special reports, . 103 

Dominant species, 152 

Causes of increasing numbers of dogfish, 152 

Various methods which have been suggested for checking the incursions 

of dogfish, 154 

Development of an economic demand for dogfish, 155 

The dogfish reduction works at Canso, N. S., 156 

Similar plants elsewhere, 158 

Dogfish as food, 159 

Other commercial possibilities, 161 

Conclusion, 167 

Report upon the lobster fisheries, and the causes of their decline, . . . 173 

Is the lobster actually threatened with commercial extinction, . . . 173 

Condition of the fisheries elsewhere, 177 

Causes of the decline, 181 

Conditions introduced by man responsible, 182 

The increased demand, 182 

Lobster meat problem, 186 

Effect of the present laws, 190 

Methods of protecting adult lobsters, devised in Cape Breton, . . .192 



CONTENTS. v 

PAGE 

Report upon the lobster fisheries, and the causes of their decline — Concluded. 
Legislative action which seeks to increase the reproductive capacity of the 

lobster must protect the adult. 197 

Legislation should adequately protect the lobster from its enemies, . . 199 

A close season, — advantages and objections, 200 

Results under the present 10|-inch law, 203 

Proposed new law 204 

The proposed law combines close season and 9-inch law, .... 213 

Would increase the number of eggs produced, ...... 213 

Would improve the quality of eggs produced, 213 

Objections 213 

Appendices. 

A. Lists of commissioners of fisheries and game in the United States, . . 217 

B. Distribution of food fish, 224 

C. Distribution of pheasants, 231 

D. Distribution of Belgian hares, 233 

E. Arrests and convictions, 234 



CnMtraratoealijj ai ^uzmtymrttB. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit their fortieth annual report. 

General Considerations. 

Appropriations. — The total amount appropriated and avail- 
able for the various branches of the work for the year 1905 
was $52,165. The distribution of the various amounts is defi- 
nitely fixed by law. In general, $9,000 was designated for 
use in connection with the sea and shore fisheries ; approxi- 
mately $5,700 was used for the benefit of the inland fisheries 
and game, in the propagation of fish, pheasants and hares, 
and the stocking of ponds, streams and covers; approximately 
$26,000 was expended in enforcement of law, both on land 
and on the sea coast; for salaries of the commissioners, $5,620; 
and approximately, $3,500 for printing, postage, clerical and 
office expenses, and travelling expenses of the commissioners. 
The exact details of expenditures are to be found in the report 
of the Auditor of the Commonwealth. > 

Since 1866, when this department had its origin in the 
necessity for the protection of the fisheries of the Connecticut 
and Merrimac rivers, the scope and importance of the work of 
the department has steadily increased. Under its considera- 
tion now come : — 

(A) The sea and shore fisheries: (1) fresh and cured fish 
and bait, yielding to the first handlers over $5,000,000; (2) 
the mollusk fisheries (clam, scallop, quahaug, oyster and 
" winkles," yielding over $500,000; (3) the lobster industry, 
producing in 1902 1,005,367 pounds, at about 11 cents per 
pound, valued at about $109,725, and in 1905 approximately 
500,000 pounds (426,471 lobsters), at about 18 cents per 
pound, valued at over $95,000, — a total from the ocean of 



2 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

$5,704,000 at first hand, or upwards of $15,000,000 in the 
hands of the consumer; (4) the recreation sea fishing (notably 
in Buzzards Bay), which is capable of very great development. 

(B) The inland fisheries, covering the maintenance of the 
remnants of the fish which our ancestors wisely deemed should 
belong to all the people in common, but unwisely destroyed 
in incredible wastefulness. It is our aim to care wisely for 
this heritage which our fathers so ruthlessly slaughtered and 
wastefully dissipated. 

(C) In a similar way it is our province to protect the few 
survivors of our formerly abundant game birds and mammals. 
The wild turkey and the passenger pigeon, the great auk and 
the " rafts of duck " are gone forever. But by careful con- 
sideration the grouse, quail and beneficial birds can not only 
be maintained, but increased beyond present numbers, thus 
guaranteeing to the farmer and to the suburban resident the 
best possible protection against insects injurious to vegetation, 
and as well against mosquitoes, midges and such annoying 
pests as are the food of martins, swifts and swallows. 

For the direct benefit of the rural population, both perma- 
nent and transient, every possible effort should be directed to 
maintaining and increasing the beneficial, particularly the in- 
sectivorous, birds, together with the game birds, notably the 
quail. For their contribution to healthful sport the grouse 
family should be increased. Above all, the responsibility of 
the hunter should be determined. The hunting license now 
required for unnaturalized, foreign-born inhabitants has done 
this in a considerable measure. Its more obvious limitation 
is found in the small number of paid deputies which can be 
employed for patrol duty. 

(D) To this department is entrusted also the enforcement of 
the fish and game laws, except in the waters of Buzzards Bay, 
patrolled by the State police boat " Lexington." The enforce- 
ment of fish and game laws is notoriously difficult, and de- 
mands much special knowledge, careful observation and rapid, 
accurate judgment. Our aim is to secure a " square deal " 
for the farmer, the sportsman, the public and the game. 

The detailed reports upon these various branches of our 
work follow under the separate heads. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 3 

This department further is daily called upon to furnish in- 
formation to individuals, to corporate interests, to representa- 
tives of foreign governments, to the members of our State 
Legislature or to the national authorities at Washington. Espe- 
cially under the direction of our late honored chairman, Capt. 
J. W. Collins, many facts of economic biology which have been 
of great commercial value have been very successfully pointed 
out to our citizens. We trust that these efforts may be sus- 
tained. 

The most serious handicap upon the work of the commis- 
sioners is perhaps the cramped quarters of our single room. 
Lack of space compels the storage at Winchester of the records 
of work of previous years ; three desks and a stenographer's 
table leave scant accommodations for the necessary correspond- 
ence files, books of reference, specimens, etc. There is not 
standing room within when all the regular deputies are present. 
Important work is at the mercy of all sorts and conditions of 
interruption, so that in this room it has become absolutely im- 
possible to despatch in a satisfactory manner the large amount 
of routine work which has become necessary, not to mention 
the special investigations which must be carried out. The se- 
clusion necessary for the rapid and correct disposal of business 
matters cannot be maintained in the present quarters, to which 
all persons have direct access. Our late chairman was com- 
pelled to establish a private office and work room outside the 
State House. The present chairman also has found this neces- 
sary. 

It is a source of satisfaction to note that the efficiency of 
enforcement of the game laws has been notably increased this 
year. Unsatisfactory reports have been decidedly less fre- 
quent, and those which have been received can be directly 
traced to: (1) an insufficient number of paid deputies to 
properly cover the territory; (2) an undeveloped public spirit, 
which does not forcibly condemn an offence against public 
property (e.g., fish and game), though vigorously suppressing 
similar offences against private property; (3) material and 
verbal defects in certain fish and game laws; (4) a misconcep- 
tion of the fact that this commission does not longer enforce 
the Sunday fishing laws. 



4 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Four of our unpaid deputies have proved recreant, and have 
been removed. Several have resigned, voluntarily and other- 
wise. 

The commission made a personal investigation of the con- 
ditions connected with the winter herring fishery in Newfound- 
land, in which many Massachusetts vessels engage. All sorts 
of rumors surrounded the situation. Many Gloucester owners 
hesitated to send vessels to the treaty coast for herring. The 
lack of definite information was an effective check upon Yankee 
enterprise. Upon our return from Newfoundland at North 
Sydney, Cape Breton, October 12, we had a conference with 
the masters of the Gloucester fleet, and made known to them 
the results of our visit to St. Johns, Bay of Islands and other 
ports and fishing grounds of Newfoundland. We informed 
them that it was, in our opinion, not within the power or in- 
tention of the Newfoundland authorities to interfere with the 
American rights of fishing on the treaty coast; but that New- 
foundland authorities did intend to limit the Americans defi- 
nitely and strictly to the treaty coast and to the provisions of 
the treaty, for the purpose of securing to the Newfoundland 
merchants the pecuniary benefits of the Newfoundland fish- 
eries. In the past the profits have gone to the Newfoundland 
fishermen and to the Gloucester and Nova Scotian vessels, to 
the practical exclusion of the Newfoundland merchant. These 
merchants are now playing the political game for the purpose 
of securing a share in this trade, which is at present valued at 
not less than $500,000 per annum to Massachusetts, and is 
capable of almost indefinite development. 

The commission has made a personal investigation of the 
lobster industry of the Maritime Provinces and Newfound- 
land. From the Straits of Belle Isle to St. John, N. B., the 
evidence and testimony are upon the following points indubi- 
table. Similar reports have been received from Maine, but as 
yet we have no first-hand knowledge. The average size of the 
lobster is annually diminishing ; the number caught is less ; the 
price is increasing; the number of pots required to supply the 
demand is greater; to secure a supply, a wider area must be 
fished ; the average catch per pot is less. A constantly increas- 
ing number are being marketed, either entire or as meat. Small 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 5 

lobsters, 8 to 10y 2 inches, are most satisfactory for eating; 
they sustain transportation, and reach the market for live lob- 
sters in better condition. Small lobsters are most desirable for 
canning. The idea of protecting the adult and marketing only 
the immature is spreading. It is now seriously opposed only 
by persons whose business may be adversely affected (though 
it is probable that such would prove but temporary), and by 
the apathy of those who fail to realize that the formulation of 
the proper lobster laws cannot be left to persons whose sole 
aim is to make money from the sale of lobsters, without ref- 
erence to the future supply. The arguments are given on 
page 190. 

The commission has made a personal study of the damage 
inflicted on the fisheries of this State by dogfish, the results 
of which are set forth in a part of this report which has also 
been published separately. (See pp. 95-169.) 

Consideration has been given to the shellfish industries of 
the State, for the purpose of ascertaining the productive capac- 
ity of the areas under, present conditions inhabited by scallops, 
clams, quahaugs and oysters, and of advising upon the adop- 
tion of the best methods of utilizing and increasing the pro- 
ductive capacity of these areas. 

We have definitely ascertained the causes and conditions of 
the decline of the scallop industry of the State, and have made 
important recommendations concerning the regulation of the 
industry. (See pp. 37-41.) 

Attention is called to the fact that with our present facili- 
ties it is not possible to rear sufficient trout fry and fingerlings 
to satisfactorily stock the public streams. (See p. 44.) An 
up-to-date hatchery, with adequate rearing pens, is impera- 
tively needed. 

The standards set and maintained by our late honored chair- 
man shall not be lowered, and his words shall still apply : " It 
is the ambition of this commission to secure the largest results 
in the public interest for the outlay made. . . . The commis- 
sion is not cognizant of a single dollar that has been misspent. 
We hope to merit the continued confidence in the satisfactory 
and economical disbursement of public moneys." 



6 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Sea Fisheries. 

Taken as a. whole, this has been a very satisfactory season 
for the average deep-sea fisherman working for the general 
market. 

The tendency toward the extension of " shack " fishing still 
continues. This practically accounts for the increasing quan- 
tity of fresh fish landed. The strength of the fresh fish market 
has led to the more thorough exploiting of our own fishing 
grounds. 

The prices of marketable fish of all kinds through the year 
averaged $2.41 per hundredweight at Gloucester. 

For the year 1905 the total quantity of fish of all kinds 
landed at Gloucester was 112,459,818 pounds, as compared 
with 103,528,924 pounds in 1904. 

The production of fresh fish during 1905 was a record one. 
The total number of fishing craft coming to Boston in 1905 
was 544. Of this number, 368 were vessels and 176 boats of 
various kinds, — gasolene boats, launches, etc. The number 
of trips made was 3,832 in 1905, compared with 4,056 in 
1904. 

Over 100,000,000 pounds of fresh fish were landed in Bos- 
ton during 1905, which is a record. The increase was largely 
in fresh haddock. There was also an increase in halibut and 
other kinds, but a falling off of 2,000,000 pounds in hake over 
1904. The total number of pounds of fresh fish of all species 
landed in Boston in 1904 was about 86,000,000. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


^tl 


© 


iO 


© 


© 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


CI 


© 


© 


o 


o 


o 


© 


OS 


o 


h~ 


o 


CO 


CM 


CM 


CO 


© 


CO 


CO 


© 


































1—1 


o 


>o 


h~ 


"* 


CO 


r^» 


CM 


tH 


CM 


u5 


r^ 


Of) 


CN 


CO 


© 


r^ 


7—1 


o 


on 


T- f 


os 


1— 1 


iO 


CO 


CO 


3— * 


os 


oo 


CM 


kO 


© 


CO 


tH 


CM 


CO 


to 


»o 


o 


© 


to 


o 


© 


© 


as 




ICS 


T—t 


































CO 


os 


CO 


CO 


ko 


1— 1 


>o 






oo 


CM 


© 


CO 




CM 




CM 






















1— 1 











I •■* 

co" 



i-H to co © 

to t>- i-^ ■** 

H O O C5, I 

o' d to aT 

^ H 'jl H 



I I 





© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


to 


© 


O 


CO 




© 


O 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


i— i 


o 


o 


© 




<o 


© 


© 


Tfi 


T* 


CM 


^H 


o 


© 


to 


© 


i—i 


© 


T-* 


to 1 


































m 


"* 


■rti 


© 


tH 


CM 


CO 


Tti 


CM 


oo 


© 


r>. 


-«* 


»o 


«-H 


to 


•a 




to 


r- 


h*. 


^ 


CN 


to 


-H 


■«■* 




rH 


OS 


to 


cm 


CO 


s 


kc 


«o 


OS 


CM 


CO 




OS 


r^ 


to 


© 


r^ 


CO 


kC 


I— t 


■«*l 
































Ph 


CM 


1—1 


i— i 


t» 


«— 4 


-* 


CO 






o 


1-H 


to 


<* 




CO 


CM 


1-H 






1— 1 














r-f 


























© 


CO 


uO 


r>. 


iO 
























MH 


«o 


CO 


os 


CM 






2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


CM 


© 


t^ 


© 


00 


1 


1 1 




















































CO 


uO 


a) 


T* 


CM 






c3 




















CM 




r~ 


CM 






M 

































© 


© 


© 


© 


»o 


© 


»o 


CO 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 




CO 


CO 


r^ 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


■<* 


f^ 


© 


© 


t^ 


t— i 


CO 


CO 


«c 


*o 


CO 


© 


"<* 


CO 


«* 


CM 


CO 
































as 


1— t 


■^ 


^ 


r^ 


iO 


r>- 


CO 


to 


© 


»— 1 


CO 


© 


CO 


fl 


CO 


CO 


CM 


as 




as 


CO 


o 


>o 


1—1 


»o 


CO 


»o 


CM 


«o 


>— i 


CM 


CO 


© 


o 


CO 


© 


^ 


Tti 


CM 


tH 


© 


kO 




t^ 
































CO 


'-i 


CM 


CO 


CO 


to 


t>. 






»o 


f-H 


CO 


kO 




Tji 



I I 



Tfl © t>- © CM 

GO »0 O kO kO 

CM © CM CO t^ 

<N CO N CO* N-" 

CM CO CM 



g a> « - bo 

s 1 f | |* J 1 1 I 1 £ 1 | 1 § 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 







o 










O 


O 


OS 




o 




OS 






o 










o 


o 


CM 




o 




CM 






1 ©. 


1 


1 


1 


i 


o 


o 


o 




©. 




© 


































00 










c 


X 


CO 




o" 




CO 




CO 


TP 










'- 


t^ 


<* 




o 




"* 




"O 












t^. 


t>. 


X 




OS 




t>. 




C 




























3 












1— < 




b- 




CO 




^" 




«2 
















oo 




CO 




CM 


M 




























e 




























CJ 




























N 
































o 




























TIH 




























1 CM 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1 


I 




I 




1 




(4 
























































§ 




























pa 






























o o 


O 


o 


O 


© 


o 


o 


TJ< 




o 




tP 






o o 


o 


© 


C 


c 


o 


o 


CM 




o 




(M 






CM rJH 


^ 


o 


©, 


©_ 


c 


o 


OS 




©. 




C75 
































o5 


t>- O 


c 


CO 


o" 


CO* 


o 


o 


X 




co" 




tH 




'S 


CM iO 


c 


<o 


C 


t>. 


o 


© 


CM 




b- 




© 






CO 


CO 




CM 




CO 


X 


«o 




t>^ 




CO 






























£ 
















co" 




1—1 




iO 


















o 




CO 




CO 


^ 


















T— 1 








T-\ 


9 




























OS 




























H 






























to CM 


© 


o 


O 


o 




















CO iO 


c 


CO 


© 


X 


















"3 


CO CM 


3 


CO 


© 


co 


1 


1 


1 




1 




1 




u 


1— ( 


co 




^H 




















§ 




























P3 






























o o 


o 


c 






- 


o 


X 




o 




X 






O O 


© 


o 






3 


© 


1—1 




o 




1—1 






CM tH 


q 


© 


! 


1 


© 


o 


X 




q 




X 
































00 


UO CO 


o 


x~ 






c 


o 


o 




©" 




C5 




C 
3 


-^ ^ 


-r 








o 


o 


o 




iO 




© 




CM 


X 








rv 


"<f 


"* 




CO 




1—1 




O 
















cm" 




TiT 




t>^ 


















T-H 




Tfl 




»o 


» 


















1—1 








1— 1 


« 




























© 




























FN 






























CO b- 


c 


























CM ~H 


o 
























i2 


CM CM 


CM 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 




1 
































u 


T-H 


-r 
























cl 




























tf 




























a 

CO 
00 






. 




. 






. 


03 
O 

4-= 

03 

an 

CO 
CO 


• 


!-. 
CD 
— -> 
CO 
CD 
O 
f3 
O 

3 


• 








• 




- 






• 


CO 


• 


-3 


• 




a 




















J3 






> 


















*-l 




rt 






PS 

w 

X 
















CD 


CO 

X 

CO 


^-s 


S-4 

CD 

— ' 
CO 
CD 
CD 

O 

3 






& 
o 

O 

o 












of 

_ 




CO 
CD 

o 

p 
o 

3 


CD 

3 
c 

3 


CD 
■+J 

CO 

CD 


o 

CD 




o 












O 

-O. 




-4J 

CD 




O 


H 


^31 

o 




<! 
















CO 


CD 


CO 


+3 




O 










to 


2 


„ 


TS 




13 


o3 












wf 


o 


p 


CO 


S3 


c 


^5 


S3 


co 














>• 






oa 


ci 




o3 








co 

* £3 




. 


J3 


<*+ 


o 

CD 




co 
*-> 




CD 
co 






CD C3 

■a a 




~ 


13 


"ail 




Is 
o 

H 


13 
H 


O 


3 

O 

H 


CO 

CD 

> 










*j 


co 


co 


o 
















o a 

3w ffi 


, r -1 , 


zi 


o 


CD 


CO 
















£ 






•- 


fe 


§ 













1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 





T— 1 


tO 


co 




o 


CO 


o 


CO 




00 


CO 






CO 


1— ( 


o 


1^ 




©* 


O 


s 




o 


CO 


CM 


c^ 




















. 


i>r 


1 !>-" 


Os" 


1 


cm" 


X 


vH 


to 


w 


CO 


os 


o 




CO 


co 


CM 




O 




GO 


^ 




CO, 


»o 


CM 


rH 




















co 


to 


© 




to 


oo" 


OS 


t^ 




CO 


co 


CM 








-tf 


CO 
1—1 




o 


CO 


CM 




o 


o 


o 


^ 




t> 


to 


OS 




o 


CO 


■<# 


CO 




°l 


I «o 


CM 


1 


OS 


T*l 


CM 


to 




















* 


to" 


co" 


"tf 




CO 


00 


co 


t^ 


9 


CO 


o 


CO 




CM 


CS 


os 


Tfl 


a 


co 


to 


OS, 




!>;, 


©, 


CM 


CM 


pa 




















© 


t^ 


t> 




CM 


co" 


CS 


■<* 




CO 


tH 








1_H 


^ 


»o 




to 


CM 


o 




O 


o 


CO 


CO 




1—1 


to 






o 


o 


rH 


OS 




CM 


1 00 


tO 


1 


CM 


CO 


CM 


to. 




















M 


r^ 


co" 


00 




h>- 


co 


OS 


!>-" 


9 
9 


«o 


CO 


c 




OS 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


tO 


CO 


CO 




o 


oo 


©„ 


CM 






















© 


o 


co" 




co" 


t^ 


co" 


CO 




CO 


** 










^ 


CM 




co 


"* 


CO 




o 


o 


o 


CO 




i-H 


1—1 


00 




o 


o 


CO 


OS 




CO 


I CO 


IO 


1 


o 


o 


■<* 


1— 1 




















91 

© 


CO 


to 


OS 




t^ 


CO 


o 


os 


t^ 


CS 


t^ 




CO 


CM 


CO 


CO 


9 


CO 


CO 


»o 




CD, 


©, 


OS, 


OS 






















CD 


CO 


cm" 




cm" 


o" 


CM 


o<r 




CO 


CO 


1—1 






1—1 


tO 


tO 




'f 


1— 1 


o 




o 


o 


■<* 


OS 




CM 


T* 


o 




o 


o 


CO 


CM 




»o 


I o^ 


CO, 


1 


co. 


CO 


CD 


CO 




















9 
9 


CM 


©" 


co" 




co" 


Os" 


os 


<* 


l> 


CO 


OS 






CM 




CO 


OS 


°i 






t^. 


o 


CO, 
























l& 


CO 


CM 






o" 


t>T 


co 




CO 


CM 








rH 


-* 


CM 

rH 




CM 


o 


HH 




o 


o 


CO 


CM 




OS 


tO 


CM 




o 


o 


OS 


co 




CO 


CO 


CO, 


1 


o 


o 


CO 


OS, 




















9 
9 
9 


r-t 


tO 


t>." 




Os" 


1—1 


co" 


co" 


»o 


CO 


r» 




CM 


o 


CM 


CM 


o 


CM 


CM 




c i. 


o 


T— 1 


OS, 


p* 




















^ 


00 


iO 




co" 


r>T 


1—1 


CO 




CO 


CM 










»o 


CM 






































aj 










be 

c 


bb 
























o 










J- 1 


s_ 






a 


















CM 
32 








o 
e3 


Qi 


s 














a 

N 

o 

(4 


o> 














q 


«H 


o 


_!■ 


























CJ 


-i=a" 


03 




73 


t/3 






* 


o 


o 


ci 


c3 


rr- 










3 












_r 


— 


^ 


TJ 


'O 


c 


CO 




J % 


rt 


o 




C3 


c 





13 










3 


S 


o 


■*-i 




) ~ 




c 


o 


o 


f-l 


o 






,rj 


c3 


tfH 


«fH 


bD 


H 






CO 
03 


—j 




£ 


■4-i 






h c3 U 


5-, 


^ 


o 


*c3 






fa OJ fa 


fa 


m 


123 


£ 


cc 





10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Methods of Marketing. — Up to the present the sea fish sup- 
ply has heen so abundant and readily accessible that compara- 
tively little attention has been given to developing apparatus 
for capture, or to devising improved methods of handling for 
market. The market for quantity already exists, and the de- 
mand for quality is increasing. The call for improved tech- 
nique in marketing fish is thriving. Mark the increase in 
special brands, in retail markets arranged with particular ref- 
erence to cleanliness, attractive methods of display, etc. So, 
too, the wholesalers, the owners and the masters of vessels must 
prepare to meet this demand for quality, in addition to quan- 
tity. 

Sails v. Power. — The first and most important feature, the 
reduction of time between the actual catching and the table of 
the consumer, is being met by the increased adoption of power 
boats. The romance of the fisheries is rapidly departing. The 
up-to-date Captains Courageous now no longer brave the storm 
in sail-driven boats, but escape the peril by the aid of power- 
driven craft. Not alone is human life safer (if proper pre- 
caution is observed concerning fire), but more regular connec- 
tions can be made with daily express trains and steamers, by 
which the day's catch can be in the Boston or New York mar- 
ket in the morning following the catching. The longer time 
upon the fishing grounds means more fish. The better condi- 
tion of the fish means higher prices. Less labor at the oars is 
necessary in case of unfavorable winds. And, finally, the year's 
total profit, barring accident, is certain to be a handsome excess 
over that of the sailing craft under identical conditions. In- 
stances are not uncommon on our coast where a boat, when 
equipped with a suitable " auxiliary " engine and screw, has 
yielded an increased profit of $5,000 or over. 

In a similar way, as the power dory and the mastless power 
launches are replacing the picturesque sailing dories and " sprit- 
sails " for shore fishing, the fishing steamer is destined to drive 
out the beautiful schooner. But the same sturdy genius and 
courageous enterprise which has made the Massachusetts fishing 
schooner, with her yacht-like lines, the superior in speed and 
safety of all other fishing craft, still exist to make the Massa- 
chusetts fishing steamers safer for the crew, more productive 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

to the owners, and, by being more speedy in the dash for the 
market, give better service to the public. 

With the building of larger and speedier vessels the im- 
portance of taking advantage of favorable market conditions 
is increased. The development of wireless telegraphy promises 
increased usefulness when it can be utilized to direct vessels 
to a favorable market. So, too, it may become possible by 
wireless telegraphy to acquaint other vessels of the presence 
or absence of fish or bait in definite localities, thus reducing 
the cruising expenses and increasing the number of trips pos- 
sible during the season. 

Yet it cannot fail to bring a pang of regret to lovers of the 
beautiful on the sea that the realm of romance should be thus 
invaded by the rampant spirit of utilitarianism, and to think 
that in a very few years the graceful fishing schooners of Mas- 
sachusetts may meet the fate which is already overtaking the 
sailing craft of the Great Lakes. 

The " Nautical Gazette " says : — 

In spite of the fact that practically all steam crafts, even those in the 
lumber trade, are finding enough to keep them busy, there are dozens of 
schooners at ports on Lake Michigan which have not been under sail 
with a cargo this season. There are more which have made a trip or two 
since April, but most of them are now compelled to lie at their docks 
and dry out their seams under the rays of a torrid sun. 

The day of the sailing craft as a factor in lake transportation has 
certainly passed, and complaints of dull times among their owners a 
year or two ago are doubled during the present season. 

In former years the schooner found various means of employment, 
carrying alabaster, pig iron, slabs, pulp wood, cement and many other 
commodities, but they have none of these to fall back on now. The 
steamer has taken their place in practically all. There is some hope of 
the schooners having something to do later, but the prospect of their 
owners laying up a profit for the season is decidedly meager. 

There is, however, little reason to believe that such a develop- 
ment in the fishing industry means decadence to the superbly 
daring seamanship of that hardy race which in our national 
life has contributed so notably of valor in war and of sturdy 
industry in peace; nor does it by any means follow that the 
wage-earning capacity of the crew should be diminished. It 
is but another instance of machinery replacing hand labor. 



12 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The almost universal economic experience is that such is, on 
the whole, beneficial. The doom of the fishermen is not yet! 

It should be noted, however, that the conditions under which 
the market fishery is carried on in Massachusetts are not iden- 
tical with those of the market fisheries as carried on in Germany 
or England. The more notable points of variance appear to 
be: (1) the ocean bottom, which may tend to make European 
methods of trawl fishing less satisfactory here; (2) on account 
of the greater speed of our fishing vessels and the proximity of 
our fishing grounds to the market, as compared, for example, 
with those of the North Sea, fishing steamers in the Massachu- 
setts fresh fisheries would seem to have less advantage over 
sailing vessels than is the case in European waters. 

The iron steam trawler " Spray," built upon the model of 
the Grimsby trawlers, went into commission early in Decem- 
ber. She is the pioneer otter trawler in American waters. She 
was built by the Eore River Shipbuilding Company, and is 
owned by a local company organized by local capital. She 
is especially interesting as an example of the advanced type 
of fishing vessel and of fishery methods which long experience 
and a heavy market demand has evolved in other waters. The 
success of the otter trawling method in the New England fish- 
eries may revolutionize the fishing industry on this side of the 
Atlantic as it has on the North Sea. 

Apart from the difficulties necessarily connected with the 
application of new methods to new conditions, there appear 
certain advantages. Among others are: (1) the possibility of 
fishing in wind and sea when a dory could not live; (2) in- 
dependence of bait supply, and fishing can be prosecuted day 
and night; (3) the risk of tending trawls and separation from 
the vessel is eliminated. 

The discussion of the Hay-Bond treaty and of questions 
connected with it — e.g., reciprocity, continental free trade, 
protection of the salt fish industry of Gloucester, the depend- 
ence of Massachusetts fishermen upon Newfoundland bait, the 
rumors of retaliatory measures, prohibition of fishing, seizure 
of vessels, raising a higher tariff wall against imported fish and 
fish products — have happily led to no inconsiderate actions. 
The events and the discussion of conditions have called atten- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

tion to the reciprocal advantages of a minutely complete under- 
standing of the problems. In a similar manner it has been 
demonstrated that present conditions are not altogether satis- 
factory. There have been times in the past three years when 
it would have been to the great financial advantage of Massa- 
chusetts vessels to be able to procure squid, herring and capelin 
in Newfoundland. So, too, there have been times when our 
vessels might have carried bait {e.g., squid and sand-eels) or 
even several kinds of readily portable merchandise {e.g., oil 
clothes, boots, shoes and rubbers, etc.) to Canada and New- 
foundland, to advantage of the people of both countries. Ob- 
vious results of the defeat of the Hay-Bond treaty appear in 
the greater development of the bait fisheries of Massachusetts; 
the extension of cold-storage and freezing plants; the develop- 
ment along the Nova Scotia coast, notably at Canso, of cold- 
storage establishments, where squid and herring can be bought 
by vessels from all ports. Thus the keen business sense of 
the Nova Scotian merchants, aided by the wise consideration 
given to the development of the trade by the Canadian Depart- 
ment of Marine and Fisheries, seems likely to acquire much 
of the money formerly paid to the individual Newfoundland 
fishermen distributed in small groups along the southern and 
eastern shores of that island. Many of these fishermen have in 
years past each " baited " annually upwards of 10 " Yankee " 
vessels at $40 per baiting; and the loss of this money falls 
heavily upon a people who have practically no other source 
of ready cash. Instances where our fishermen have lost an 
unusual amount of time or money through the curtailment of 
baiting privileges at Newfoundland harbors are very infre- 
quent, and do not warrant serious consideration. Personal con- 
tact with the Newfoundland fisherman at his own home con- 
vinces us that an unduly heavy burden has been cast upon him, 
rather than upon the Massachusetts fishermen or upon the con- 
sumers of fish in the United States, as the Newfoundland gov- 
ernment and merchants have hoped and expected. 

Disasters. — As a direct result of the development of an 
improved type of larger and stauncher fishing vessels (of which 
the " Grampus," designed by our honored late chairman, Cap- 
tain Collins, was the pioneer), for two consecutive years not a 



14 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

single fishing schooner has foundered, and no wrecks have been 
attended with loss of life. The deaths from exposure have been 
lessened from the development of the practice of supplying the 
dories with food and water, so that in the event of missing 
their vessel the men have an improved chance of being picked 
up or of rowing to land. With the increasing custom of fishing 
over wider areas, the loss from collisions has decreased. Of 
the total of 11 vessels destroyed, 3 were lost (all loaded and 
homeward bound) last winter while engaged in the Newfound- 
land frozen herring trade. The crew were saved; vessels and 
cargoes total loss. Schooner " Golden Hope " sprung a leak and 
sank off Bay of Islands, N. F. ; schooner " Bessie M. Devine " 
went ashore and caught fire at Whitehead, N. S. ; schooner 
" Edward A. Perkins " went ashore at Louisburg, Cape Breton. 
Three of the Gloucester banking fleet were also lost, but happily 
the crew were saved. Schooner " Hazel Oneita " went to pieces 
on a ledge off Cape Sable, N. S. ; schooner " Puritan " mis- 
stayed and was a total loss on Stag Bocks, near Canso, N. S. ; 
schooner " Columbia " run down and sunk by steamship 
" Sverra " off North Sydney, Cape Breton. Of the other 5, 
schooner " James Driner " struck on Romer Shoal ; the gaso- 
lene boat " Columbia " burned off Block Island ; schooner 
" Alice S. Hankes " caught fire from explosion of the binnacle 
lamp ; schooner " Clara " sank off Point Judith ; schooner 
" Veteran " sank off Wood Island, after going ashore off Cape 
Elizabeth, Me. 

The total loss of life was 21, including 3 men drowned 
at the wharves while attempting to board their vessels, 6 who 
died on shipboard or in hospitals after landing, and 1 who was 
drowned in his dory as the result of an epileptic fit. Seven 
widows and 10 orphan children were left. The total value 
of vessels and outfit was $74,350; insured for $44,259. 

High Liners of the Fleet. — The fishing year just closing 
has, all in all, been a successful one. Good catches have been 
made, and generally high prices realized. Some of the salt 
bank cod fishermen have made extra large season's works, and 
this in spite of the fact that they were denied the usual bait- 
ing privileges at Newfoundland. It is the opinion of the lead- 
ing salt banking captains that they have done as well, if not 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

better, than if they had the privilege, and their bait bills have 
been less by many hundreds of dollars. 

The high line of the salt bank fleet was the trawling schooner 
" Elector/' Capt, Clayton Morrissey, who also held the honor 
last year and in other years. The " Elector " made two trips, 
starting in March and closing her season early in November. 
On her first trip she weighed off 291,000 pounds of salt cod, 
stocking $9,735, the crew sharing $225. On her second trip 
she weighed off 226,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking $9,527, 
the crew sharing $231.80. Thus for the season she landed 
517,000 pounds of fish, stocked $19,262, and the crew made 
$456.80 each. 

Another excellent record was that of schooner "Aloha," Capt. 
John Mclnnis, also in the trawl salt bank cod fishery. On 
her first trip she weighed off 183,000 pounds of salt cod, stock- 
ing $5,623.56, the crew sharing $92.79. On her second trip 
she landed the biggest fare of the season, 305,000 pounds of 
salt cod, stocking $12,753.12, — the highest stock for the year 
for a trawling salt banker on a single trip, and also one of the 
best on record; the crew shared $266.59. For the season the 
" Aloha " landed 488,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking $18,- 
376.68, the crew sharing $359.38. 

Another fine season's work was that of schooner " Independ- 
ence II," Capt. Joseph V. Cusick, also in the trawl salt bank 
cod fishery. On her first trip she weighed off 281,000 pounds 
of salt cod, stocking $8,864.35, the crew sharing $151.07. On 
her second trip she weighed off 216,000 pounds, stocking 
$9,249, the crew sharing $171.76. Her catch for the season 
was 497,000 pounds, the stock $18,113, and the share of each 
man $322.83. The share was not so large in proportion as 
that made by some of the other crafts, because, where most of 
them carried 9 dories, or 20 men, this craft had 10 dories, or 
22 men. 

Schooner " Arbitrator," Capt. Wilson Spinney, also made 
a fine season's showing, and probably the best of any of the 
trawl salt bankers carrying 8 dories, or 18 men. On her first 
trip she weighed off 229,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking 
$7,721.16, the crew sharing $181. On the second trip she 
had 214,000 pounds of fish, stocking $9,537.43, the crew shar- 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ing $242.42. For the season she landed 443,000 pounds of 
salt cod, stocking $17,258.59, the crew sharing $423.42. 

The high line of the dory hand-lining salt hank fleet was 
schooner " J. J. Flaherty," Capt. Fred Le Blanc. On her 
first trip of the season this craft weighed off 151,000 pounds 
of salt cod, stocking $5,500, and on the second trip she had 
294,000 pounds, stocking $12,960, — the largest stock on a 
single trip for the year for either trawlers or dory hand liners, 
and also one of the largest on record in the dory hand-line 
fishery. On this latter trip the high liner of the crew earned 
$325. For the season the " Flaherty " landed 445,000 pounds 
of salt cod and stocked $18,460. 

Schooner " Gladiator," Capt. Joseph Spinney (his first trip 
as skipper), on a single trawl salt bank cod-fishing trip, weighed 
off 260,000 pounds of salt cod, stocking $10,259, the crew 
sharing $314. 

Of the flitched halibut fleet, which fishes the far northern 
waters of Bocalieu Bank and Davis Strait, the schooner " Ar- 
butus," Capt. Charles Fleggore, was high line. The vessel 
weighed ofi 90,208 pounds of flitched halibut and 34,830 
pounds of salt cod, stocking $7,517.92, the crew sharing 
$182.92. 

The leader of the Georges halibut fleet was schooner " Kineo," 
Capt, John Stream, which from April to October 20 stocked 
$20,403, the crew sharing $606.15 each. Captain Stream has 
been high line of this fleet for several seasons. 

Schooner " Squanto " of Duxbury, Capt. Daniel McDonald 
of Gloucester, is credited with being high line of the bank hali- 
but fleet, with a stock of $22,000. 

Schooner " Tacoma," Capt. Adelbert Nickerson, has also 
clone well in this fishery, stocking a little over $20,000. 

Schooner " Agnes," Capt. James Goodwin, and " Cavalier," 
Capt. Robert Porper, have each stocked $14,000 since April 
in the bank halibut fishery. 

The attempt at seining codfish in the vicinity of Sable Island 
was made again this year. Schooner " Tattler," Capt. Alden 
Geel, and schooner " Emma E. Witherell," Capt. Thomas Ben- 
ham, sailed from here April 6, the former returning July 1 
and the latter June 25. Both fished with purse seines. The 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

" Tattler " had 376,000 pounds of salt fish and the latter 
283,000 pounds. Unfortunately, but few codfish were found 
in the shoal water, where they generally school on the smooth: 
sandy bottom, and the greater part of each fare was pollock. 

One of the best stocks made in the fisheries for the year 
was that of schooner " Lucania," Capt. Martin L. Welch of 
Gloucester. This vessel engages in mackerel seining in summer 
and haddocking in winter. Since her first trip of the season,, 
haddocking, Oct. 14, 1904, to the close of her seining season, 
Sept. 19, 1905, she made the big stock of $39,030.33. Of this 
amount, $18,879.79 was made mackerel seining and $20,150.54 
in haddocking. 

Notable among those prosecuting the shore fisheries were : — 

Schooner " Mary E. Cooney," Capt. Erank Cooney. From 
Jan. 1 to about Nov. 25, 1905: vessel's stock, $28,864.34; 
crew's share, $1,135.43. 1 

Schooner " Beldino T. Domingoes," Capt. Manuel P. Dom- 
ingoes. From Jan. 1 to about Nov. 25, 1905 : vessel's stock, 
$27,689; crew's share, $1,069.49. . 

But the high liner of the entire Massachusetts fleet was 
schooner " Mary C. Santos " of Provincetown, Capt. Manuel 
D. Santos, with a gross stock of $42,240.38, with 10 dories 
and a crew of 23 men. The crew's share was $1,071, from 
Jan. 9 to Nov. 29, 1905. 

In October immense schools of cod appeared off the Pips of 
Monomoy. In November these struck off the Chatham shore 
in such numbers that during November and December over 
$50,000 worth of cod were taken by the Chatham people alone. 

Similar conditions obtained at Provincetown. 

Herring. — Herring, both fresh and salt, show a decided 
falling off in quantity and quality. The fall herring fishery 
both on Massachusetts shore and on the treaty shore of New- 
foundland was a disappointment, on account of the scarcity of 
the fish. 

In view of the value to Massachusetts of the Newfoundland 
herring fisheries, and in consequence of the lack of exact in- 
formation here, with absence of reports which were certain to 

1 This vessel has made one trip since I received these figures, and stocked about $2,000. 
— W. W. Nixon. 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

be imtinged by reflections of personal interests, Commissioners 
Field and Delano were delegated by His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor to make a personal investigation for the purpose of secur- 
ing first-hand information upon the winter herring fisheries in 
Newfoundland, in the interests of the Massachusetts fishermen. 
The commissioners recognized the importance of the question, 
and the nature of the peculiar circumstances which led to the 
present delicate situation. 

They left Boston September 26, and on the return left Bay 
of Islands, N. F., October 13, arriving in Boston October 18. 
Their observations are embodied in the following report : - — ■ 

To His Excellency William L. Douglas, Governor of the Commonwealth, State 

House, Boston, Mass. 

Sir : — The chairman and Mr. John W. Delano, of the Massachusetts 
Department of Fisheries and Game, returned October 18 from Bay of 
Islands, St. Johns, N. F., and Sydney, Cape Breton. They have inves- 
tigated the winter herring fisheries in Newfoundland, in the interests of 
the Massachusetts fishermen. 

The conditions there have been extremely complicated; as a matter 
of fact, it is simply a game of chess. The purpose of the Newfound- 
land government is not alone retaliation for the rejection by the United 
States of the Hay-Bond treaty, excluding Newfoundland dried and 
salted fish from the United States ports, but is more directly for the 
purpose of controlling the Newfoundland fisheries in the interests of 
the Newfoundland merchants. If the Americans were not present as 
purchasers of fish, the product would be bought from the fishermen by 
the local merchants, and in general the fishermen would be paid in goods, 
or a small price in cash, somewhere from 65 cents to $1.25 per barrel. 
These local merchants, in turn, would sell to the shipping merchants, 
chiefty in St. Johns, who control sailing and steam vessels, as well as 
the sealing and the Banks fishing fleet. There are very few instances in 
Newfoundland where fishermen own the whole or a part of the vessel, 
as is the case in the United States and Nova Scotia. The general out- 
line in which the ministry is endeavoring to push out the Massachusetts 
and the Nova Scotian vessels is shown in the following quotation from 
the St. Johns " Evening Herald : " — 

A company will be formed with a capital of $100,000, in $50 shares, to he open to 
the public, every business man in the city contributing, but restricted to one-quarter 
of the entire capital. Vessels will be hired, our excellent banking fleet given the 
preference, and the winter herring fishery, both bulk, salted and fresh, will be con- 
ducted at the Bay of Islands, and the prices paid equal to any ever given by 
Americans, while the cargoes will be marketed at Boston and vicinity. 

The government have been asked to enforce the act stringently, see that 
Americans conform to our fishery rules, and give them no opportunity to land ; at 
the same time prevent our own people selling to them, no matter what inducements 
are held out. The company ask in return a small bounty, equivalent to 50 per cent. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

of duty paid on herring entering United States ports. This, it is thought, will 
enable our people to compete with the Yankees, and in fact prevent anything like 
the cargoes they have had in the past being obtained. Those interested request the 
government to do this for one year only, believing that it will more rapidly bring 
the Americans to their senses than anything else ever attempted. When the project 
was laid before members of the Executive by A. F. Goodridge, Esq., chairman, 
Hon. John Harvey, secretary, and the committee, the government asked for time, 
and have meanwhile wired Sir Robert Bond respecting the proposition, and are 
awaiting his reply. Until the promoters have received a definite answer, there can 
be no attempt to carry it to a conclusion. The idea appears to be a commendable 
one, and it will at least mean the distribution of a large sum of money among our 
fishermen, that, in the event of the law being enforced, without such would be lost 
to them and the revenue. The promoters fully realize what can be done, and those 
who were opposed to the Hay-Bond convention and the fisheries act of this year are 
now favorably impressed with this scheme, and, whether supporters or opposed to 
the government, are willing to help all in their power. If this is done, it will 
conclusively prove to banking owners they are just as able to conduct the herring 
fishery as our American friends; and, instead of having their craft lying up in 
November and December, can utilize them profitably in this work. It will 
strengthen the hands of the government, and all that is needed is another steamer 
with the " Fiona " to protect our people and carry out the law. The duty on 
herring going into the States in foreign bottoms is £ of a cent, per pound x»n salt, 
and 1 on fresh ; while it is estimated a capital of say $20,000 will be ample to carry 
out the business. 

From the Newfoundland point of view it is rather a question of trade 
and of local polities, i.e., the government and the merchants v. the fish- 
ermen, than the broader question involved in the Hay-Bond treaty, 
though each move of the " Yankee " is carefully watched, and a corre- 
sponding move to checkmate is prepared. 

The attitude of the fishermen can best be understood from the state- 
ments made to us, of which the following is a fair example : — 

Up to this past summer we have been selling bait to 10 or 12 vessels which have 
come to us regularly every year. We receive $40 cash for baiting each American 
vessel. This means from $400 to $500 every summer. During the past summer, 
however, no American vessels have been in for bait. The result is, we have had 
the bait on hand, and have been obliged to throw it away. This means a direct 
loss of $400 or $500 to every family in this harbor. 

This same condition obtains all along the south, east and west coasts 
of Newfoundland. The recent decision by the Newfoundland ministry, 
that the fall and winter herring fisheries were included in the bait restric- 
tions, was received with feelings of dismay by the individual fishermen 
on the treaty coast, notably at Bay St. Georges, Bonne Bay and the Bay 
of Islands. At the latter place the feeling is unusually strong, for the 
reason that the Nova Scotian and the Massachusetts fishing vessels have 
annually left in the hands of the fishermen, as a price of the herring 
and other supplies bought, not less than $100,000 in cash. The Bay of 
Islands is a series of advantageously located fishing hamlets, where the 
herring are caught in October and November within a cable's length of 
the fishermen's homes. The quantities are incredible, and a vessel may 
be loaded in a very few days, so that this $100,000 or more becomes 
available within six or eight weeks after the herring strike. 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The state of mind of the fishermen can best be gathered from the 
following quotations, from the " Western Star/' published at the Bay 
of Islands October 11 : — 

* 

Despite public and private agitation of the suspension of the bait act against 
Americans, the government still remain firm in their intentions to strictly enforce 
the law during the fall and winter herring fishery in Bay of Islands. The " Star " 
has endeavored to plainly state the position in which our fishermen are, and we 
have also pointed out the futility of enforcing the bait act. But no amount of per- 
suasion seems to reach the heart of the government ; and now our fishermen must 
console themselves with the knowledge that the herring fishery this season will not 
be prosecuted as formerly. They have been hoping against hope, with the expecta- 
tion that the powers that be would see the wisdom of taking advantage of the 
suspending clause, and thus allow American vessels to secure cargoes in the same 
manner they have in years past. But no ; our men must sit idly on the banks of the 
Humber, and watch the Americans taking herring from their doors. The fisher- 
men say they are not going to allow this state of affairs to exist; for if the 
Americans are allowed to take their own herring, which they claim to have a 
right to do according to the treaty of 1818, and if they are willing to purchase from 
our men, they (the fishermen) contend that they are entitled to a share of the 
spoils. Two vessels are now in port, supplied with salt and nets, and have come 
prepared to do their own fishing, if our men are prohibited from fishing for them ; 
and we learn that a great many vessels are fitting out at Gloucester to come here. 

Our fishermen have become so indignant over this fishery question that a mass 
meeting of over 300 men was held Monday night in the C. E. Institute. The place 
was literally packed, and over a hundred were unable to gain admission. Mr. James 
Barry was called to the chair, and Mr. A. L. Barrett was chosen secretary. A free 
discussion took place, and every speaker expressed himself highly indignant with 
the government for keeping in force the bait act. A committee of 12 was appointed, 
and the following memorial was drawn up, which was telegraphed to His Excel- 
lency the Governor yesterday morning : — 

" "We, the fishermen of Bay of Islands, and others directly interested in the fall 
and winter herring fishery, at mass meeting assembled, do hereby memorialize that 
His Excellency the Governor in Council put in force the suspending clause as pro- 
vided in the foreign fishing vessels act passed by the Legislature last spring. 

" We do also protest against the request advanced by the merchants of St. Johns, 
as it would, in our opinion, put a premium on monopoly, and in the mean time does 
not safeguard our interests. 

"We do further declare that the situation as at present is an outrage against 
those whom it should benefit ; inasmuch that we are prevented from selling our 
herring to the Americans, while in the mean time Americans can come and catch 
herring themselves. 

" If our requests are not granted immediately, we shall be compelled, in justice 
to ourselves and families, to seek other ways and means to engage with Americans. 

" We would also direct the attention of His Excellency the Governor in Council 
to what took place in Fortune Bay a few years ago, when Capt. Solomon Jacobs 
seined herring against the wishes of the people, and the result. If a similar 
occurrence should take place here, who will be responsible? 

" Whereas, In times past we have been ignored in our requests by the Colonial 
Government; we do hereby 

" Resolve, That this memorial be telegraphed direct to His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor, trusting the same will be placed before his ministers without delay. 

" We respectfully solicit an early answer, to avoid further trouble." 

There are involved two distinct phases: (1) the Newfoundland 
government seeks to prevent off-islanders from buying herring and 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

bait, for the ultimate purpose of (2) controlling- the fisheries industries 
with Newfoundland capital, through the agency of its own population 
and vessels. 

It is a fact that Massachusetts and Nova Scotian vessels have in the 
past hired the Newfoundland fishermen on the treaty coast to assist 
in catching and freezing the herring. This, from the Newfoundlander 
point of view, is tantamount to buying the herring, except in the one 
case the captains buy the time and labor, and in the other they buy the 
products of that time and labor. 

We could find no grounds for the statement " that the ' Fiona's ' com- 
mander has strict orders to seize any American vessel fishing in the 
Bay of Islands," and are of the opinion that such orders have not been 
given. On the contrary, we believe that the Newfoundland authorities 
are acting for what they believe to be the interests of Newfoundland 
as a whole, and hope to secure a wider market for the Newfoundland 
fisheries. The issue is distinctly and alone upon the question of markets, 
and how the trade shall be carried on, not upon the question of the 
rights of fishing under the treaty of 1818. The Newfoundland authori- 
ties seek to compel Newfoundland fishermen to deal with Newfoundland 
merchants, instead of selling direct to Massachusetts and Nova Scotian 
vessels. The St. Johns, N. F., " Telegram," October 10, says : — 

Two American schooners are here [Bonne Bay, N. F.], and both will respect the 
treaty, and are prepared to catch their own herring. Fishermen sent message to 
government this morning to explain their attitude. They seem determined to fish 
and sell herring, even if they have to take forcible possession of the American 
schooners to do so. 

There can be no question that the bait act at present is far greater 
hardship to the Newfoundland fishermen than to the Massachusetts 
fishing vessels; while the refusal of the Newfoundland authorities to 
permit the purchase or sale of herring, or the hiring of Newfoundland 
fishermen to catch herring, or to assist Massachusetts crews in catching 
herring, falls with greater severity especially upon the communities at 
St. Georges Bay, Bonne Bay and Bay of Islands, whether the proposed 
Newfoundland company for shipping fish materializes or not. 

The Massachusetts commissioners had a conference at North Sydney, 
October 14, with the captains of the Massachusetts vessels in the harbor, 
bound for Bay of Islands, and gave them the above information, at the 
same time advising that vessels come equipped with men and gear suffi- 
cient to catch fish without depending upon landing or upon the New- 
foundlanders for fish or assistance. We also gave our opinion that it 
might be possible to ship men legally outside the three-mile limit, and thus 
evade the local regulations; but we strongly advised against such action, 
until this point had been ruled upon by the United States or English 
authorities. In spite of all the rumors of a demand for a Newfoundland 
license, and of seizure if such license were not procured, it did not 
appear possible to your commissioners for the Newfoundland authorities 
to nullify the rights actually guaranteed by the treaty, or to make any 
local regulations which would tend to do so. There is no evidence that 
the Newfoundland authorities contemplate the prohibition of fishing by 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Massachusetts vessels; but the intention is to draw the lines strictly to 
the guaranteed rights, i.e., to enter harbors, bays, etc., to catch fish, and 
for the purpose of shelter, of repairing damage, or purchasing wood 
and obtaining water, and for no other purpose whatever. 

The captains and crews expressed the opinion that all Massachusetts 
fishermen intended to respect the local laws and regulations to the letter 
while in Newfoundland waters. The following, from the Sydney " Daily 
Post," October 14, is a tribute to the fishermen : — 

For the past week there have been between 75 and 100 fishing vessels anchored in 
the harbor, hailing principally from Gloucester and Nova Scotian ports. These 
floating homes contain in the vicinity of a thousand men, and a more law-abiding 
community it would be hard to find. Fishermen, when they get ashore, according 
to the general idea, are invariably prone to getting drunk and creating a disturbance, 
eventually landing in jail. The custodians of the peace have but five arrests to 
report in their seven days' watch on the movements of this transient population. 

Still, the question is a complex one, and the next move on the chess 
board may bring hi unforeseen complications. It is our opinion that, 
if the Newfoundland fishermen are not permitted to sell their herring, 
they will interfere with Nova Scotian and " Yankee " vessels catching 
herring in their own " front yards," so to speak ; and seines may be 
destroyed under cover of darkness, in spite of the good offices of the 
" Fiona " and of the able representative of the State department and 
of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, Mr. A. B. Alexander, who is 
now at Bay of Islands. Realizing this, the captains of the fishing ves- 
sels at Sydney have drawn up a petition to the proper British authorities 
asking that a war vessel may be stationed at the Bay of Islands during 
the months of November and December. They recognize, of course, 
that the search lights are all that are necessary to preserve the peace. 

At Halifax we had the privilege of meeting the Honorable, the Min- 
ister of Marine and Fisheries of Canada, and of asking his consideration 
of the expediency of stationing a British cruiser at the Bay of Islands 
during the winter herring season. 

At the request of the Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of State, we are 
forwarding to him a copy of this report- 
Respectfully submitted, 

George W. Field, 

Chairman. 

Cod. — The bank cod fishing fleet left about April 1. The 
denial of fishing privileges in Newfoundland waters other than 
those of the treaty coast, under the modus vivendi license sys- 
tem, caused some inconvenience to those who came unprepared 
with bait seines for catching their own bait. On receipt of the 
news, capelin nets were shipped to Nova Scotian ports, where 
they were put on board the vessels. 

The early bank fleet therefore were somewhat delayed by 
failure to seine bait on the south and east coast of Newfound- 




Pish houses and "flakes," Cape Broyle, Newfoundland. 




Toads Cove," a typical shore fishing village, Newfoundland. 




A Newfoundland harbor. 




Gloucester fishing vessels in Bay of Islands, Newfoundland, 
for fall herring. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

land, while the ice prevented access to the treaty coast and to 
the Magdalen Islands, where bait could be procured. It has 
become a custom for our banking vessels to call at Newfound- 
land ports to buy bait and to ship men. There were advan- 
tages to both parties. But it has proved that Newfoundland 
bait is by no means essential to Americans; on the contrary, 
it was a distinct advantage to us to be compelled to develop our 
own baiting facilities, and generally speaking abundant bait 
supplies were secured at a considerably less price than had 
previously been paid to the Newfoundland fishermen. This 
experience has led to such a development of our own baiting 
facilities that in the future we should be able under ordinary 
circumstances to provide for the baiting of the Massachusetts 
fleet, and in favorable bait seasons to sell bait to our less fortu- 
nate neighbors. 

Though the general tone of the market has been at times 
unsatisfactory, particularly in the case of the Grand Banks 
fleet and of the mackerel seiners, the shore cod fisheries have 
been remarkably good, and prices both for fresh and salt fish 
have ruled very high, even to such a degree that upwards of 
600,000 pounds of salted cod have come to our Boston market 
from the Pacific, and in addition an increased quantity of hali- 
but has come to the Boston market by refrigerator cars from 
Vancouver. 

On April 15, steamer "A. B. Nicker son " seined 40,000 
pounds of cod off Wood End, Provincetown. This is claimed 
to be the largest lot ever taken in those waters with seines. 

Similar reports of unusually good catches come from all the 
Pip fishing grounds on the Massachusetts shores, especially in 
the autumn. This strike came too late to be figured in the re- 
turns given in Appendix G. The great relative abundance of 
cod and other non-migratory fish close to our shores seems to 
point clearly to the success of the methods adopted by the United 
States Bureau of Eisheries, and to. the practical value of the 
two United States fish hatcheries on the Massachusetts coast 
at Woods Hole and Gloucester. During the past year billions 
of cod fry have been hatched from eggs which would otherwise 
have been destroyed or been of slight practical market value. 
These fry from these eggs have been planted off our shores. 



24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Here seems to be the logical method of dealing with our 
fisheries. Depletion of the fishings, either local or general (or 
with some species both), is certain to follow as a result of in- 
creased demand, when the fishing methods are notoriously un- 
wise, as in the case of the lobster at present. The true solution 
lies not in limiting the demand through prohibition of the use 
of certain apparatus, nets, traps, beam and otter trawls, etc., 
or of particular methods of fishing, but rather in develop- 
ing methods likely to secure an increased supply of fish, such 
as artificial propagation, and the prohibition of fishing in cer- 
tain areas where normal breeding may go on undisturbed by 
man. It would be exactly as logical to forbid the use of 
machines for planting and digging potatoes or other agricul- 
tural produce, or to forbid the use of cattle as food, or as a 
source of leather, etc., because the natural supply has become 
curtailed by human requirements. The true economic solu- 
tion is the protection of the necessary number of breeding 
adults, to ensure an adequate supply of eggs, and the protection 
of the young up to a marketable size. The problem on land 
and sea is similar. Marine farming and grazing are coming 
necessities. The possibilities of development of animal food in 
the water is far greater than upon land. The only difference 
is, that on land our ancestors long ago met and conquered the 
difficulty. The next generation may be compelled to solve this 
problem of marine farming and grazing. We, as a race, are 
not familiar with the details of the first and greatest struggle 
in the development of agricultural methods by our forefathers, 
and therefore hesitate to attack the more novel but ultimately 
more profitable cultivation of the sea and its shores. 

Mackerel. — The exceptionally warm weather of March 
aroused hope that the southern mackerel trip, a lottery at 
best, might this year furnish improved chances. By the last 
of March steamers reported large schools of mackerel off Hat- 
teras. During early April the fleet were obliged by gales to 
seek harbor inside the Capes of Virginia, so that during the 
month of April few mackerel reached the market. One seiner 
landed 2,100 large, fresh mackerel, averaging about 2 pounds 
each, at New York, about April 26, which sold at 50 cents 
each in N"ew York and 65 cents in Boston. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

The first mackerel from Massachusetts waters to arrive in 
Boston came from Chatham, on or about April 26, — a single 
specimen. 

The catch of the New England fleet up to April 29 was 61 
barrels, against 865 barrels in 1904, 8,331 barrels in 1903, 
14,227 barrels in 1902, and 5,496 barrels in 1901. 

Early in April the great school of fish appear with unfail- 
ing regularity off the Capes of Virginia. In this neighborhood 
they usually remain for three to five weeks, then practically 
disappear, to strike again off Eire Island, N. Y., where they 
usually remain perhaps two weeks. By the middle of May a 
large school may be expected off Block Island, and another 
large school passes eastward and strikes off the southern Nova 
Scotia coast. During May the best fishing is usually off Block 
Island and on Georges Bank, frequently extending inland to 
the shores of Cape Cod. Many of the seiners, in addition to 
the supply of ice necessary for running the fish fresh to mar- 
ket, carry salt and provisions, so that the fish may be shipped 
to Boston or New York from Newport, Woods Hole or Prov- 
incetown without the necessity of a stop to refit. 

The following clipping from the Boston " Globe," August 
18, well indicates the method of fishing during the summer, 
when the mackerel are off the coast : — 



Woods Hole, August 17. The mackerel fishing boats, about 50 in 
number, that have been tied up here for the past two days on account 
of bad weather, got under way this morning for the fishing grounds. 

The fishermen report the mackerel in big schools in the sound and off 
No Man's Land, and believe that the season will be one of the best for 
many years. 

The fishermen from all along the bay shore and from the towns of 
the lower Cape and Provineetown and Wellfleet have joined the fleet 
here during the past week, and they are having the best luck for many 
years. 

On Monday, which was the last day that the little catboats could stand 
the weather on the fishing grounds, several seiners put in their appear- 
ance, and the fishermen say that they are afraid, the seiners will scare 
the fish, and that small boats will not get such big fares. In any event, 
the fishermen say that there are mackerel enough for all this year, and 
they are a happy lot. 

They make daily runs to and from the fishing grounds, landing at the 
dock here, where Capt. John Nagle, well known all along the Atlantic 
coast among the fishing fleet, takes them and prepares them for market. 



W FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In this way the fishermen are able to land their fares early in the even- 
ing, then turn in and get a little sleep before they start out for the 
fishing grounds at 3 in the morning. 

Sixty-eight barrels were landed here one day last week. This was the 
record for one day thus far this season, but the best fishing days are yet 
to come, so the fishermen say, and they expect that the record will be no 
less than 200 barrels, or even twice that number if they get a whole day 
of good weather. Many of the catboats have power in them, and these 
make quick time to and from the fishing grounds, regardless of the 
weather conditions. 

" Dave Nickerson," who was high line two years ago, and who came 
near being lost in the ice pack last winter off Monomoy Point, the life 
savers at great peril rescuing him from his little yacht, is here; also 
Capt. Walker Harding of Wellfleet, formerly a surfman at Cahoon's 
Hollow United States life-saving station. 

The fishermen here are all expert mackerel catchers, and their opinion 
as to the season's catch is that it will be one of the best for many years. 
Capt. Harry Curry of Monument Beach is also with the fleet here. 

On June 28, 29,000 mackerel, a record-breaking number, were landed 
at Newport, R. I., by the auxiliary schooners " Salada " and " Mary Z. 
Harty," both of Gloucester. The "Salada" brought 14.000 and" the 
"Harty" 15,000. 

The high liner of the mackerel seining fleet was Capt. Thad- 
deus Morgan of the schooner " Constellation/ 7 who completed 
his season's work September 21. His vessel stocked the mag- 
nificent total of $38,000, and the crew's share per man was 
$785.68. These are both seining records of the season. These 
records have been excelled but once in the history of Mas- 
sachusetts mackerel seining, when Capt. Solomon Jacobs set 
the high-water mark by stocking over $40,000. 

As a whole, both the years 1904 and 1905 have been lean 
years for onr mackerel fishermen. The comparative totals are 
given below. The price has averaged higher than last year. 
A larger number of vessels have participated in the catch, and 
there has been a more equal division than in former years. 
While the year has been a disappointing one to the netters, the 
Cape shore salt catch was the largest for years. There was a 
large showing of mackerel on Georges, but it was reported 
that very few schools were stopped. All along the shore large 
quantities of " tinkers " appeared, which the fishermen believe 
to be a favorable prophecy for next season's catch. Thus we 
may hope that 1906 may furnish a full season's catch, and 
that it mav not be necessary for so manv of our best men and 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



27 



vessels to abandon the mackerel fisheries early in September, 
as was the case this year, on account of poor fishing. 

The aggregate catch of mackerel in North American waters 
for the past six years is as follows : — 



Total Catch of Mackerel in North American Waters, in Pounds, for the 
Years 1900-05, inclusive. 





1900. 


1901. 




Salt. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


Fresh. 


United States, 

Canada, .... 


17,593,400 
14,087,200 


9,885,600 
5,475,800 


13,478,200 
13,789,800 


10,417,200 
4,089,200 




1902. 


1903. 




Salt. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


Fresh. 


United States, 

Canada, .... 


9,106,800 
6,948,400 


13,756,200 
3,535,800 


8,878,400 
12,959,800 


14,129,200 
7,470,200 




1904. 


1905. 




Salt. 


Fresh. 


1 
Salt. Fresh. 


United States, 
Canada, . 


5,794,600 
2,400,000 


9,360,400 
1,201,800 


5,818,000 

2.240,000 


9,980,400 
1,752,600 



Total catch of fresh and salt mackerel, 204,149,000 pounds, divided as 
follows : New England fleet, 128,198,400 pounds ; Canadian fleet, 75,950,600 
pounds. 

It is worthy of serious consideration whether or not the sup- 
ply of mackerel is declining. 

In general terms it seems unlikely, for the reason that the 
total catch in the relatively small section of the vast oceans 
inhabited by this swiftly migratory fish must be inconsider- 
able, when compared with the total number of individuals. In 
case of the mackerel, we are dealing with a fish which trav- 
erses practically every part of the North Atlantic, — not one 



28 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

which is distributed over a limited area, as is the fact with 
the lobster; nor are we lying in wait for a species which re- 
sorts annually to special, well-defined and readily accessible 
breeding places, as do the shad, salmon and alewives, where 
the adults just at the time of egg laying are captured in great 
numbers for market. 

Nevertheless, the catching of adult breeding fish wherever 
found, and the young " tinkers " in the fall of any size what- 
ever, by the combined American and European fleets, must in 
time cause the inevitable decline. If it has not already ap- 
peared, it is due to the vastness of the ocean and the countless 
numbers of the mackerel. 

Halibut. — For the past few years the Boston market has 
depended almost entirely upon the Pacific fresh halibut sup- 
ply. The Atlantic halibut fleet has greatly diminished. This 
year the smallest fresh halibut fleet for many years brought 
to market 2,324,700 pounds, — an increase of 400,000 pounds 
over last year. 

The flitchecl halibut fleet did poorly. From a fleet of nearly 
70 sail and an annual catch of upwards of 20,000,000 pounds, 
the Massachusetts halibut fleet has dwindled to 12 or 14 ves- 
sels and about one-tenth of the former catch. The cost and 
hazard incident to bringing fish from these far-distant fishing 
grounds is too great to meet the competition resulting from the 
proximity of the Pacific halibut banks to the railroad termini 
on the Pacific coast. The abundance of fish and improved 
methods of transportation and refrigeration have won the mar- 
ket. 

Pollock. — The pollock catch has been the best on record. 
Though the banner trips have been made during the autumn 
fare, from September to December, these fish were reported 
in great abundance in the early spring. The following re- 
port from Provincetown indicates the conditions there during 
April : — 

Provincetown, April 17. Nearly 500,000 pounds of pollock have been 
taken in Provincetown harbor during the last five days. Boston's fresh 
pollock market has been glutted by the catch. During the past three 
days the fish have appeared along the entire harbor front, and seem 
increasing in numbers. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

It is a source of great surprise that so few inland fishermen, 
who enjoy the song of the reel, should be ignorant of the gamy 
strength, active nature and fighting courage of the pollock. 
There is no more certain chance for sport than fishing for 
pollock at Provincetown with rod and reel. The general pub- 
lic have no conception of the enormous quantities of pollock 
which have been either marketed fresh in Boston or landed 
at Gloucester for salt curing. Upwards of 60 sail were occu- 
pied during the months of September, October, November and 
December, each vessel making two or three trips a week. 

It is reported that the cook on one of these crafts " made 
$500 since the latter part of September." Another report has 
it that the " crew of another vessel have averaged $35 each 
per week since we started in the latter part of September, and 
have been home two or three times a week; " and " that ain't 
so bad." 

Whiting. — There are decided evidences that this fish is 
gaining ground in the market. 

Inspection of Fish. — There have been no requests during 
the past year for the inspection of fish, under chapter 138, 
Acts of 1902, and no fees have been received. 

Dogfish. — An extended report upon the damage done to our 
fisheries by dogfish is to be found on pp. 95-169. 

Seaweeds. — Large possibilities in the development of vege- 
table sea foods exist on the Massachusetts coast. At present; 
attention is given to but two species, Irish moss (Chondra 
crispus) and dulse. 

The methods of securing Irish moss are destructive to such 
an extent that some of the rocks are almost completely de- 
nuded. The Irish moss fisheries at Scituate are capable of 
great improvement. The season for gathering extends from 
May to September. If the gathering should be regulated with 
reference to the spawning season of the plant, the supply might 
be increased, and the fishermen thus be able to secure a larger- 
quantity per day. The crop of 1903 was valued at $31,050. 

Dulse is considerably prized by our foreign-born citizens 
from the south shores of Europe, and is generally on sale in 
the fruit stores. 

Dr. H. M. Smith of the United States Bureau of Fisheries,. 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

who has studied the seaweed industries of Japan, has called at- 
tention to the fact that species similar to those "utilized in Japan 
to the extent of $2,000,000 worth annually are abundantly 
growing wild and neglected in the shallow waters of our 
bays. Under Japanese methods certain species of these plants 
make delicious salads, other species yield valuable jellies, while 
others are useful as condiments. An experimental study, to 
develop methods for utilizing this source of wealth, should be 
instituted in Massachusetts, where, from Dr. Smith's observa- 
tions, the possibilities are at least equal and perhaps superior 
to those in Japan. 

The Powder Hole Reservation. — In accordance with Re- 
solves of 1905, chapter 54, the commissioners took " full 
control of the Powder Hole, so called, at Monomoy Point in 
the town of Chatham." The description and statement was 
duly filed Nov. 27, 1905, and recorded in the registry of deeds 
at Barnstable. 

Previous to this taking, we made observations aud experi- 
ments which appeared to indicate the great value of this special 
locality, on account of its adaptability for the study of the 
natural history of the lobster, clam, quahaug, scallop, oyster 
and winkle, all of great economic value to the people of this 
Commonwealth, either directly as food or as bait for the sea 
and shore fisheries of this region. 

Capt, George W. Bloomer of Chatham was placed in respon- 
sible charge of this Powder Hole reservation; and with the 
active interest and co-operation of the other fishermen and resi- 
dents we hope for large results, which will benefit not alone 
the residents of that section of Cape Cod, but through them the 
general public. 

The definite purpose of the work there is to devise a com- 
mercially practicable method of rearing lobsters to a market- 
able size. Fortunately, also, favorable opportunity appears 
here to study the habits and life history of the scallop, with 
a view to the possible rehabilitation of this declining industry, 
which in past years has brought large amounts of money to 
the towns on the South Shore of Cape Cod. 

The clam flats are well adapted for the growth of both the 
long clam (Mya arenaria) and in places also the sea clam 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

(Mactra solidissima) , and thus offer special opportunities to 
study both these animals and their enemies. The quahaug or 
"little neck" (Venus mercenaria) can also be reared. Thus 
the natural conditions are unusually propitious for the study 
of methods for increasing the annual yield of these animals. 
As the advantages and importance of the work become known 
to the people of those localities, the heartiest sympathy and co- 
operation will develop. 

During the spring and summer of 1905, 267 egg-bearing lob- 
sters were placed in the Powder Hole. More than 4,000,000 
young lobsters were hatched from their eggs. During the 
hatching period we found in the immediate neighborhood of 
the hatchery that the water was swarming with just-hatched 
lobsters, at the rate of 6 to each cubic foot of water. The lob- 
sters were rapidly scattered by currents, so that cannibalism 
was prevented. Between July and November, 1905, 642 green 
egg lobsters and 98 male lobsters were put in. These were 
supplied with food. It is expected that these lobsters will 
safely pass the winter here in the 20 feet of water. Should 
this prove to be the fact, we shall turn attention to some 
method of controlling the ravages of such fish as we find prey- 
ing upon the young lobsters; and, with the control of the 
enemies of the lobsterlings, a practical commercial method of 
rearing young lobsters may be possible. 

The Lobster Fishery. — A discussion of the decline of the 
lobster industry, its causes, and a probable remedy based upon 
biological experience, is given at length on pp. 171-214. 

The Shellfish Industries. — Almost the entire Massachusetts 
coast formerly had extensive and very valuable mollusk fish- 
eries. Our location is fortunate, since zoologically our coast 
is the point where the habitats of the northern clam (the soft 
clam, My a arenaria) and of the southern clam (the quahaug, 
hard clam or little neck, Venus mercenaria) overlap. On our 
coasts the area between tide marks was formerly inhabited by 
huge quantities of soft clams, and the muddy patches just be- 
low low-water mark produced great numbers of quahaugs. In 
the estuaries of our rivers and creeks were extensive native 
oyster beds. On our shoals it was possible to gather hundreds 
of thousands of bushels of scallops. To-day all is changed. In 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

a few places it is still possible to get a relatively few clams 
and quahaugs. The scanty yield of scallops will not exceed 
30,000 gallons. The natural oyster beds have all but dis- 
appeared, either " fished out " or buried under the debris of 
civilization. The total yield of the shellfisheries is valued at 
close to $500,000 annually. Yet the areas can again be made 
to produce the normal yield. The value of the annual catch 
should be increased tenfold, and incidentally furnish increased 
opportunities for labor, for coopers, tinsmiths and other arti- 
sans, for transportation companies, and so on all along the line. 
Again, like the Pilgrims at Plymouth, we may " suck the 
abundance of the seas " and find health and wealth. 

The opportunities for development are alluring. The condi- 
tions parallel those of agriculture, except that in case of marine 
farming the crops are more certain, i.e., are not subject to so 
many fatalities. The money value of the crop per acre is only 
equalled by the results of the most intensive farming. Net 
profits of $500 to $1,000 per acre are frequent. The capital 
required is small. The skill required to guide and to assist 
nature is slight. The labor is practically limited to the harvest. 

That we are not to-day securing the maximum yield of the 
areas suitable for growing shellfish is due to the increased de- 
mand, which has led to unsystematic digging of clams and the 
destruction of seed scallops. Pollution of the flats has led to 
destruction of much spat which is smothered in the slimy 
sludge of sewage. The 'present laws have placed the mollusk 
fisheries completely in the hands of the Philistines of town 
government. Petty local jealousies, unsystematic tenure and 
uncertainty as to private and public rights have prevented the 
development of private enterprise. By the system of town 
control we have escaped neither the dangers of monopoly nor 
of continued depletion of the supply, while the facts concerning 
the public ownership of the shellfisheries are in danger of be- 
coming obscured. 

During the past summer the commissioners have begun a 
series of experiments to determine the most practical methods 
of increasing the yield of shellfish under different conditions 
of tides and currents, soils, etc., and also facts in the life his- 
tory of the edible mollusks, in order that by complete knowl- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

edge we may better take advantage of natural processes. Mas- 
sachusetts, by natural conditions of its coast, its markets as 
great centers of food distribution, and its large number of sum- 
mer residents, is peculiarly fortunate. Practically limitless 
quantities of shellfish can be profitably handled. 

During the past season the work has been laid out for the next 
two years. The following statements are but preliminary to the 
complete report. 

The work upon the food mollusks has been carried on under 
the general direction of the chairman, and immediately in charge 
of Prof. James L. Kellogg of Williams College, perhaps the best 
authority on this continent upon the clam and oyster. The 
work has been carried on, with great credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of all, by the biologist to the commission, D. L. 
Belding, A.B., assisted by Mr. E. L. Buifum and others. Mr. 
Belding's report follows : — 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — I herewith submit my report for the year 1905, as 
follows : — 

Since I began work as biologist for the commission, June 26, I have 
devoted my time, with the exception of two weeks, entirely to the in- 
vestigation of the shellfish of Massachusetts. These two weeks were 
spent in examining the conditions of certain fresh-water ponds, in 
response to petitions requesting the commission to stock them. 

The necessity of improving our shellnsheries has become at the 
present day a matter of great moment. This has been brought about 
chiefly by the increasing scarcity of our once abundant supply. 

For the first time in its history the Commission on Fisheries and 
Game has received appropriations for the investigation of edible shell- 
fish. For some reason the shellnsheries have been totally neglected from 
a scientific point of view, and very little investigation has previously 
been conducted. This is especially true of the clam, quahaug, and scal- 
lop. As the oyster has received a fair share of attention, my work this 
summer has been confined chiefly to the three former. 

The experiments undertaken are for the most part of a preliminary 
nature, and especially devoted to the biological investigation of the life 
history and growth of these shellfish, as only from a thorough and 
complete knowledge of the life of these bivalves can results tending 
towards the improvement of the shellnsheries be obtained. 

A handicap to the work, which became more apparent as the sum- 
mer progressed, was the lack of a laboratory. At least a temporary 
laboratory is essential to a systematic observation of many details in the 
life history of these shellfish. 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Clams. 

It is hard to realize that the flats of this Commonwealth, once so 
thickly set with the soft-shelled clam (My a arenaria), are rapidly be- 
coming barren; but statistics in our clam fisheries show a decided de- 
crease in production. There can be no doubt that wasteful exploiting 
by man has been the chief cause of the destruction of our clam flats. 
The clam flats of Essex furnish an example of this. Large portions of 
these, once bearing immense numbers of clams, now lie unproductive, 
and yet the conditions appear just as favorable for the growth of clams 
as in former days. The result of this decrease has thrown many hundred 
clammers out of business and now our future clam supply, both as food 
and bait, is seriously threatened. 

The plan of the clam experiments conducted by the commission the 
past year is based upon three main objects : — 

1. In the first place, experiments have been made to deter mi Tie the 
rate of growth of the clam. Two important questions are considered 
under this head: (a) How soon can a marketable clam be produced? 
(o) What are the causes influencing the rate of growth, and the condi- 
tions that cause this rate to vary? 

2. The second object of these experiments is a commercial one, in- 
cluding all parts which relate to the practical side of clam culture. Arti- 
ficial clam beds have been planted, both on productive and barren flats, 
the size of the beds being based on an acre as the standard. The amount 
of small clams planted was measured in terms of quarts, and the yield 
estimated by the same standard. The chief object of this side of the 
work is to conclusively demonstrate that methods of successful clam 
culture are easier than oyster culture, and that by assisting nature the 
yield of the clam flats can be greatly increased and that profitable clam 
farming can be conducted. In following out this line the average and 
the maximum production per acre under different conditions are being 
determined by experiments. 

3. The third object of these experiments is to ascertain the actual 
yield of the clam flats of Massachusetts. The reasons for scattering our 
experiments along the coast are: (a) the average yield of the whole 
coast could thus be determined; (b) a comparison of the rate of clam 
growth in different sections of the coast could be made; (c) all locali- 
ties which produced clams could share alike, as it was not desired to 
confine all our experiments to any one town in particular, to the neglect 
of others. 

Method of Work. 
I. Protection of Beds. — To insure the success of the experiments, 
it was found necessary to have some means of protection from the en- 
croachment of clammers. Although it was almost impossible to keep 
careful guard of all the beds, as they were scattered along the coast, 
the following methods were used, with fairly favorable results : — 

1. Printed notices were posted on the beds. 

2. The experimental beds wherever possible were situated under the 
direct observation of certain gentlemen interested in their success. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 

3. In a few cases the method of covering the surface with wire net- 
ting, securely fastened in the sand with long wire staples, was used. 
This did not interfere in the least with the growth of the clams, and 
made digging impossible, furnishing absolute proof whether or not the 
bed had been disturbed. 

II. Location of Experiments. — Artificial beds have been planted at 
Dartmouth (Slocum's River), Onset, Monument Beach, Woods Hole, 
Harwichport, Nantucket, Chatham, Monomoy Point, Provincetown, 
Gloucester, Essex and Wheeler's Point (Annisquam River). Sixty ex- 
perimental beds have been prepared, and are under observation. 

III. Size of Clam Beds. — Two sizes of beds have been planted : 
(1) %oo of an acre, or 435 square feet; (2) M.000 of an acre, or 43V2 
square feet. The reason for these sizes was to keep all records in 
terms of an acre for the practical side of the experiment, and also 
because these were the most convenient sizes for computations. 

The method used to fix the location of these beds consisted of a 
double set of posts, one set sunk level with the surface, the other 4 to 
5 feet high. The ranges of the bed were then taken. The precaution of 
a double set of posts was made in case the ice took away the high posts, 
for the sunken posts could be located by the ranges, and thereby the 
boundaries of the bed found. 

IV. Seed Clams. — The clams planted varied in size from an inch 
to an inch and a quarter. Measurements of these were made as fol- 
lows: (1) length of shell; (2) average number per quart; (3) number 
of quarts planted; (4) a table of volumetric displacement of different 
sized clams was made. In making this, large quantities have to be 
considered because of the error caused by the residual water in the 
clam. The clams for planting were usually obtained near the bed, 
although in a few cases they had to be brought from distant points. 
Careful account of the amount of seed clams and of the time required 
to obtain these has been kept; also, how they were kept, and their con- 
dition when planted. 

Y. Clearing the Bed. — The most tedious part of the work was 
taking from the bed, before planting, the clams which were naturally 
there. The necessity for this is obvious. (1) It is important to know 
exactly what was planted in the bed. (2) An accurate record of the 
natural yield of the beds is desired. 

VI. Methods of Planting. — Several methods of planting were tried. 
The best way for the experimental beds was the individual planting 
of each clam. The method consisted of making a hole either with a 
pointed stick or finger, and dropping in this the clam, siphon end up. 
Clams can be thus kept at the right distance from each other. Lines 
were marked out either by string stretched across the bed, after' the 
manner of garden planting, or by grooves made with a marker. 

The practical method for large beds is merely sowing the clams and 
spreading them evenly over the surface. It has been found that a small 
clam can burrow into the sand faster than a large one. An inch clam is 
a very rapid burrower, and therefore is an excellent size to sow. The 
only trouble with this method of planting when applied to small experi- 
mental beds is that the tide bunches the clams together, causing them to 
go into the sand in clusters. This can be helped somewhat by turning 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

over the surface of the ground. Dr. Mead of the Rhode Island Fish 
Commission found that a greater per cent, would burrow when the 
ground was dug over than when left undisturbed. A method used some 
years ago in Essex consisted in breaking the surface with long-toothed 
rakes before sowing. 

A third method of planting, used for exact work, was obtained by 
constructing a light framework of laths, containing exactly %ooo of an 
acre, and divided into square feet by heavy cord. At the time of plant- 
ing, this frame was placed upon the bed, the corners fitting upon the 
sunken posts. Clams were planted with different arrangements per 
square foot, both in numbers and size, and a record kept of this. When 
the clams are removed, the same frame is replaced, and the exact posi- 
tion of each square foot of clams can be obtained. 

VII. Wire Baskets. — In determining the maximum production per 
acre an important question was, how many clams to the square foot 
could exist, and what arrangement of those would afford the best growth 
and simplest method of digging. 

Wire netting (one-inch mesh) was buried perpendicularly in the sand 
in the form of squares, each containing one square foot of surface. This 
seemed an advantage over tiles, as the open mesh was a nearer approach 
to natural conditions. A number of these squares were placed in the 
beds, and different numbers and arrangement of clams of the same size 
planted. In many cases the clams were notched with a file, — a sure 
way of indicating an increase in growth. 

The conditions which govern the growth of the clam, although in 
appearance simple, are nevertheless very complex. The conditions in 
one locality may be entirely different from those in another, so it is 
hard to set down any rigid set of rules concerning the growth of the 
clam. During the past year experiments have been made to illustrate 
the following conditions and their effect upon the growth of clams: 
(1) Comparison of growth in rapid and slow currents; (2) the food 
of the clam, and its influence upon growth; (3) growth in crowded and 
thinly planted beds; (4) growth under low water and under various 
lengths of tide; (5) relation of density of water to food and growth of 
clam; (6) effect of chemical nature and condition of soil; (7) com- 
parison of growth of different sizes of clams under same conditions; 
(8) enemies, such as starfish, Lunatia (commonly known as "winkle"), 
etc. 

A part of the work undertaken this summer was the planting of 
artificial beds on barren flats. Flats were chosen where the conditions 
appeared favorable to the growth of clams, but which were then barren, 
and had been thus for many years. Most of these experiments were con- 
ducted at Essex, and many of these flats had once been productive. An 
especially interesting and important side of the work is to prove that 
hundreds of acres of our clam flats now unproductive can be reclaimed 
and made profitable. The methods followed were similar to those used 
in the other experiments. 

Hardly anything is known about the conditions determining the set 
of young clams. The egg of Mya unites with the male cell in the 
water. After fertilization a ciliated embryo is produced, which swims 
in the water for a week or more. During this time it is under the con- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

trol of the tides and currents, with the result that it often is carried 
great distances. When the right conditions are present it sets both 
below low water and between the tide lines, although in most cases the 
clam does not strike good ground, and soon dies. Often the set is 
extremely irregular; one place will have a very heavy set, while another 
will have none; one locality may have a heavy set one year and not any 
the next, thus proving that the success of a set is determined by a com- 
bination of favorable conditions. 

The sets of young are often very heavy. Observations are now be- 
ing taken of a very heavy set in Annisquam River, where in many 
parts the clams are as thick as 600 to 1 square foot of surface. These 
clams average one inch in length, and are forcing each other out of the 
ground by their growth. 

A set may appear any time in the summer, and even in the fall, the 
set in Annisquam being as late as August 20. 

A biological survey of the Massachusetts clam flats is now under way, 
with the following objects in vieAv: (1) probable area of clam-produc- 
ing flats; (2) the area of barren flats capable of producing clams under 
proper cultivation; (3) those flats which can be cultivated at slight 
expense, and those at greater expense; (4) biological conditions of these 
flats. 

Experiments for next year will be conducted along the following 
lines, in addition to those already begun: (1) Experiments with different 
designs of spat collectors will be made in order to determine the most 
satisfactory means of successful spat collecting for commercial pur- 
poses. (2) Accurate and systematic observations of the spawning sea- 
son will be conducted, with the following points in view: (a) length of 
season; (b) conditions influencing this; (c) size and age of a clam when 
it spawns; (d) which furnishes the best spawn, old or young clams. 
(3) Study of early life history. (4) Enemies. (5) Further growth 
experiments on a commercial basis, and study of conditions influenc- 
ing the growth of shellfish. 

Scallops. 

The common shallow-water scallop (Pecten irradians) inhabits the 
waters south of Boston. In the past this shellfish has been exceedingly 
abundant in the coast waters of Cape Cod and Buzzards Bay. For 
many years its value as a commercial commodity was unknown. The 
last two seasons have shown a rapid decline in the scallop fisheries, re- 
sulting this year in a great scarcity of scallops along the Massachusetts 
coast. 

An important part of the summer's work was obtaining reliable in- 
formation concerning the life and habits of the scallop, upon which a 
definition of the term " seed n scallop could be based. 

The general law in regard to the capture of seed scallops (section 84, 
chapter 91, Revised Laws) reads as follows: — 

Whoever takes seed scallops from the flats or waters of the Commonwealth shall 
be punished hy a fine of not less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars for each 
offence ; but such penalty shall not he incurred by any person taking such scallops 
who returns them alive to the flats or waters from which they were taken. 



38 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

As this law now stands, it is useless, as no conviction can be ob- 
tained when the term " seed " scallop is not defined. For this reason 
there is a distinct need of. a corollary to the law, which will define the 
term " seed " scallop. 

The life of a scallop under natural conditions covers usually from 
twenty to twenty-two months, only a very few scallops ever passing the 
two-year mark. Knowledge of this fact is important, when the spawn- 
ing season is considered. A scallop spawns when a year old, the spawn- 
ing season in Massachusetts lasting through June and July. As the 
majority of scallops do not live more than twenty-two months, it is at 
once apparent that the scallop spawns but once in its lifetime. Apply- 
ing this to the term " seed " scallop, we come to the conclusion that a 
seed scallop must necessarily be less than one year old; that is, a scallop 
which has never spawned. Therefore a seed scallop will be defined by 
designating it as a scallop of the last summer's set. 

Considering the fact that in general a scallop spawns only once, it 
is immediately apparent that any wholesale capture of seed is pecul- 
iarly a menace to the future of the scallop industry. The scallop 
entering upon its second winter can be taken without injury to our 
scallop fishing, as it has spawned the previous summer, and the majority 
are destined to die during the approaching winter, either at the hand 
of nature or of man. Although each seed scallop is capable of pro- 
ducing at least 100,000 eggs, relatively very few of these eggs reach 
maturity, and only by overcoming adverse natural conditions. In this 
way any destruction by man soon makes itself felt. This year shows a 
scarcity in the scallop market, and it cannot be denied that man as well 
as the last severe winters has been a potent factor in this scarcity. A 
surprising feature is that the fishermen who take seed scallops do not 
seem to realize that they are injuring their own interests, but put forth 
the excuse that the winter would kill the scallops if they did not take 
them. By waiting another year the fishermen could reap these advan- 
tages: (1) larger scallops, (2) better prices, (3) less labor, (4) and 
above all, insure the future of a profitable industry. 

To a person unacquainted with the rapid growth of young scallops 
it may seem incredible that scallops spawned early this summer are 
large enough for market. The chief amount of growth occurs in the 
summer, and a scallop will be little larger next spring than late this 
fall. Although there are scallops of all sizes, owing to conditions of 
growth and differences in time of spawning, the majority of young 
scallops are of a size profitable to capture. With an increasing 
demand in the market, a greater quantity of seed is taken, as only 
when prices are high does the capture of seed scallops become profit- 
able. In this way a relation is established between scarcity in the 
scallop supply and the capture of seed. Wherever large scallops are 
abundant, it does not pay to bother with the seed; but where there 
are no large scallops, the seed will be captured, as is shown at 
Chatham, where seed scallops were the only kind taken this season. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 



Statistical Work. 

Per Cent, of Seed Scallops taken. — The method of work con- 
sisted in visiting shell heaps at various scalloping centres, and de- 
termining by count the per cent, of seed taken. This work was car- 
ried out early in the summer and in the fall at the height of the 
scalloping season, when the catch could be observed. 

As a rule, the percentage is not high. The lowest per cent, taken 
was found at Nantucket, 1.1. In 1904 on Cape Cod the per cent, 
was as high as 8.3. As has been said before, the entire scallop catch 
the season of 1905 at Chatham and Dennis consists of seed scallops. 
Ninety-eight per cent, of this catch are seed, as practically no other 
scallops can be obtained. Up to Jan. 7, 1906, the total shipment 
from South and West Chatham amounted to 1,165 gallons. Twenty 
men are engaged in the capture of seed scallops, but some of these 
do not make it a steady business. A man can obtain from 2 to 5 
bushels every day he scallops. At Dennis the capture of seed scal- 
lops is more recent, as the scalloping only " struck in " after January 
1. Six men make it a business, and an average catch for each is 
from 3 to 4 bushels. Such wholesale destruction of seed scallops 
does far more damage than ice or any other natural causes in pro- 
ducing the alarmingly progressive depletion of our scallop industry. 

From these figures it can be seen that a large amount of seed is 
being taken, and I again advise that action be taken legally to put 
an end to such practices. 

It is possible for the fishermen to separate nearly all the seed 
from the other scallops in culling, as they can recognize at a glance 
the seed scallops. There is a newness about the shell, a color which 
sharply differentiates it from the old scallop. The seed scallop is 
usually smaller and thinner, the shell is free from serpula, crepidula, 
etc., and it does not have the worn appearance of the old scallop. 
It has no well-marked growth line, but this is not an infallible test. 
It is impracticable to use the growth line in defining the term " seed " 
scallop. There is a halt in the growth of a scallop just before the 
spawning season, and when the new growth begins a line called the 
growth line is formed. In some scallops this is very prominent; in 
others faint. The trouble in using this to differentiate a seed scallop 
is that there are other causes which stop the growth and form simi- 
lar lines. As in many cases these lines are on the small scallops, it is 
therefore impossible to make any classification on this basis. 

Growth Experiments. 
Monomoy Experiment. — July 10, 1905, a wire pen was constructed 
in the Powder Hole at Monomoy Point. The water in the pen at low 
tide was W2 feet deep. The pen was situated to receive full benefit 
of the tide, and thereby a good food supply. In the larger divisions 
of the pen 150 scallops were liberated. These were obtained from 
Dennis on Cape Cod after much difficulty in finding any for this pur- 
pose. Two weeks were spent in dredging along the south shore of 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Cape Cod, the result proving conclusively that there were scarcely 
any scallops along that coast. In the second division of the pen 
were placed scallops of considerably smaller size, which were obtained 
at Nantucket. 

Three methods of measuring were used: (1) measuring with cali- 
pers the height, width, and thickness; (2) volume by water displace- 
ment, which gave the true increase in growth; (3) average number 
per quart. 

Unfortunately, measurements could not be made often during the 
summer, and only three sets of measurements were taken. However, 
these show the comparatively rapid growth of these shellfish. 

Division 1, Cape Scallops: In a period of eighty-seven days (July 
10 to October 5) a gain of 20.58 per cent, was recorded; in sixty- 
three days (October 5 to December 7) a gain of 11.33+ per cent, 
was obtained. 

Division 2, Nantucket scallops: In a period of forty-six days 
(August 20 to October 5) a gain of 23.316 per cent, was made; in 
sixty-three days (October 5 to December 7) a gain of 19.87 per 
cent. 

These results show two important facts: (1) the smaller scallops 
(Nantucket) grew faster than the larger scallops; (2) the growth 
during the months of August and September was faster than that 
of October and November, showing the influence of cold weather. 

Measurements were made at intervals during the summer, show- 
ing the growth of the scallops at Nantucket. The measurements 
were made with calipers. 

Observations were made for a short time on the growth of the 
scallops of the set of 1905. Their growth is very rapid, and they often 
exceeded in size the small-sized old scallops. 

Very little is known concerning the early life of the scallop. It 
is first noticed when extremely small, attached to eel grass by a byssus 
thread, which it can cast off at will and immediately spin another. This 
is known as the attachment period, and lasts for an indefinite time, 
large scallops being sometimes attached. This usually ceases when the 
scallops are the size of a silver dollar, and they remain free. This 
period seems to afford them a rapid growth without any check until 
detached. 

Measurements in volume of penned scallops show an increase of 
31.67 per cent, in twenty-one days, the scallops when first examined 
measuring one and one-half inches in width. 

There are great variations in the size of the young scallop. This 
is due either to difference in food supply, or time of spawning, or 
both. This calls our attention to the spawning season. The methods 
used in following the spawning of the scallops were by (1) examina- 
tion of eggs with microscope; (2) recording the color of the egg 
sac, which is a bright orange when the scallop is ready to spawn. 
Owing to a late start, a complete examination of the first part of the 
season could not be made. 

Two facts were observed concerning the spawning season. One 
was the variation in conditions that influence the spawning. Within 
two days two sets of scallops under different conditions were ob- 




Scallops taken in one dredging- at Nantucket, Nov. 7, 1905, 
showing variation in size. 




Scallops showing two or three lines which indicate 
temporarily arrested growth 




Scallops showing variation in size of growth line, indicating- the 
impossibility of thus defining- 'seed" scallops. 




The three smaller specimens (left) are adult scallops, from Edgartown. 

The two larger (right) are "seed" scallops, i.e., less than 

one year old, from Hyannis. 






Average size, on Dec. 1, 1905, of "seed" scallops taken at Chatham 

for market, i.e., scallops hatched from eggs laid during 

the preceding summer. 









Living scallops, taken from crop of eider duck 
by J. H. Hardy, Jr.. Chatham, 1906. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

served. One set had nearly all spawned, while very few of the other 
had started. The chief difference was probably that of temperature, 
which is also shown when it was observed that the shallow-water scal- 
lop at Nantucket spawned earlier in the season than those in deeper 
water. The rule, the warmer the water the earlier the spawning season, 
seemed to hold true. The second fact noticed was the difference in 
the time of spawning of the Massachusetts scallops compared with 
the Rhode Island scallops, which spawned earlier. This is again 
probably due to temperature. The spawning season in Rhode Island 
lasts through June, while in Massachusetts it was observed to last 
through part of June, July and even till August 20, when it was 
found that 30 per cent, had not finished spawning. 

Another part of the work was the investigation of the extent 
of the 1905 scallop fisheries. This season was marked by a great 
scarcity in scallops. The only places where any large amount of 
scallops is caught are Nantucket and Edgartown. A few scallops 
are caught at New Bedford, Cotuit, Hyannis and Chatham. This 
scarcity has been the cause of the recent high prices, scallops whole- 
saling as high as $3 to $5 a gallon. The severity of the winter of 
1904—05 has, in my opinion, been the chief cause of the scarcity along 
Cape Cod. 

An estimate of the yield of the scallop fisheries of Massachusetts 
gives 30,000 gallons as the yield for the three months of October, 
November and December. Two hundred and fifty men made a busi- 
ness of scalloping this year, although the exceptional run of cod- 
fish in Vineyard Sound has drawn away many scallop ers. At a mini- 
mum estimate, 250 men at eighty days, IV2 gallons per day (probably 
a low estimate), equals 30,000 gallons during the season. 

An excellent opportunity for work on the scallops next summer 
will be afforded by the presence of a large number of these shellfish 
in the Powder Hole at Monomoy Point. Investigations on the fol- 
lowing points will be conducted: (1) The early life history will be 
studied, with the view of determining the conditions influencing the 
set, and any practical methods of increasing it. In carrying this 
out, artificial fertilization will be attempted. (2) Study of the at- 
tachment period, and its influence on the life of the scallop. (3) 
Further investigation of the spawning season. (4) Migration of 
scallops, and causes. (5) Enemies. (6) Transplanting to waters 
north of Boston. (7) Further growth experiments in relation to scal- 
lop culture. 

Quahaugs. 

Although widely known as an article of food, the quahaug is the 
least known of any shellfish from a scientific standpoint. Nothing 
is known on such important points as: (1) early life history; (2) 
spawning season, length of spawning season, age and size of qua- 
haug when it first spawns; (3) rate of growth and conditions in- 
fluencing this. The importance of such knowledge of the life and 
habits of this shellfish can hardly be estimated. Only from this 
knowledge can satisfactory laws and regulations controlling the qua- 
haug industry be made, and methods of perpetuating our quahaug 
supply be devised. 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec 

The quahaug, or hard-shelled clam (Venus mercenaria), is found 
usually below the low-water line, though occasionally it wanders be- 
tween the tide lines. The different conditions under which the quahaug 
lives required modifications of the methods used in clam experiments, 
and in many cases they were entirely different. The experiments were 
conducted on a smaller scale than the clam experiments, and necessarily 
were of a more preliminary nature, as this was an entirely new field. 

In obtaining the rate of growth, the work was handicapped by 
our inability to find quahaugs of sufficiently small size to get the 
whole rate of growth. Fortunately, a place was discovered, August 20, 
at Nantucket, where quahaugs of extremely small size could be ob- 
tained. Work was at once begun, and beds located at Nantucket, 
Monument Beach, and Monomoy Point. In the first two the beds 
were located in oyster grants, for protection. The main part of the 
experiments has been carried on at Monomoy Point. 

It was found that beds could most easily be made by sinking 
clapboards in the mud or sand, level with the surface. The quahaug 
in its wandering cannot get over this, and is thus penned in. It 
was found impossible to satisfactorily sink larger boards, owing to 
their buoyancy in the water. 

Quahaugs of all sizes, from one-fifth of an inch to two inches, were 
planted. These were all carefully measured and placed in compart- 
ments according to size. The methods used in determining the rate of 
growth were measuring with calipers and determination of volume by 
displacement in water. The true increase in growth can be determined 
in this way without the slightest error, as the shell shuts closely. The 
growth of a quahaug from one inch to two inches is not merely a gain 
of 100 per cent, but of 550 per cent., when the volume is considered. 
A table showing the displacement of the quahaugs of various sizes has 
been made. Another method to show the increase in growth was by 
notching the edge of the quahaug shell with a file, enabling one to dis- 
tinguish the old from the new growth. 

The rate of growth is being observed under various conditions, 
such as: (1) on a bottom where eel grass is plentiful; (2) on a free 
bottom, both mud and sand; (3) in rapid and slow currents; (4) 
between the tide lines; (5) in a wire rack, in rapid current; (6) at 
various depths of water (box experiments). A comparison of the 
results obtained from these experiments should show the best natural 
conditions for rapid growth. The maximum production per acre is be- 
ing determined by a method similar to that used with the clam. 

The following experiments will be undertaken next summer: (1) 
Artificial fertilization, and a detailed study of the early life history of 
the quahaug before it sets. (2) A method of spat collecting which 
will be of practical benefit to the quahaug industry. (3) Observations 
on the spawning season, considering the following points: (a) length 
of season; (b) age of quahaug when it first spawns; (c) which fur- 
nishes the best spawn, an old or a young quahaug. (4) Continuation 
of growth experiments. (5) Continuation of commercial experiments 
in regard to the maximum production per acre under various condi- 
tions. (6) Food and its relation to growth of quahaug. (7) A knowl- 
edge of its life, habits, enemies, etc., which should prove of value to 
the quahaug industry of Massachusetts. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 



Oysters. 
In the first part of the report I gave reasons why I paid special 
attention to the other shellfish in starting my work. A biological sur- 
vey of the oyster beds of our coast has been begun this summer. Ex- 
periments in oyster culture will soon be put under way, and conducted 
along the same lines as the other shellfish experiments. Naturally 
these will be of a more specialized and advanced nature, as the life 
and habits of the oyster have been more carefully studied than those 
of the other shellfish. 

Conclusion. 

During my summer's work, two things, which I should like to bring 
before the commissioners, have come to my attention. 

The first is in regard to the length of the scallop season. The present 
season allows scallops to be taken from October 1 until April 1. I 
should like to present the question of changing the opening of the sea- 
son from October 1 to November 1. My reasons for this are twofold. 
First, the scallop grows considerably during the month of October, and 
it would be an advantage to have a larger and better scallop. My second 
reason is perhaps stronger, as it concerns the fishermen directly. The 
fact that men who scallop are forced to give up their other fishing and 
begin scalloping at once, so that they may get their share of perhaps a 
more lucrative industry, is a disadvantage to our fisheries, as these men 
could have made a living the month of October at other fishing. I have 
spoken with many fishermen, and they favor a later season, for that 
reason. Without doubt this change would be in favor with a large 
number of fishermen, owing to the present scarcity of scallops and the 
exceptional codfishing in Vineyard Sound. There are two obstacles. 
One is, the men who do no other fishing than scalloping; the other is 
one that does not appear probable, namely, a large amount of scallops, 
which would not give time to capture all if the winter were severe. 

Secondly, I should like to call attention to the disadvantages caused 
by town control of our shellfisheries. One town may make a law to 
oppose another town, and will often injure its own interests thereby. 
In this connection the condition at Dennis, during the winter of 1904-05, 
was an instance. As scallops were remarkably abundant, the town made 
by-laws intended to exclude from its scallop fisheries the residents of 
other towns. At the close of the scalloping season the scallops were 
still abundant. This year they believed they would get the rest. Not 
a single scallop of that set was to be found; they had died. If other 
seallopers had been allowed to go there, thousands of dollars could have 
been saved, and many seallopers given employment. This is only one 
case out of many which show the disadvantage of town laws. 

I merely mention these two facts, which have impressed me this sum- 
mer, and hope that a thorough investigation of each can be made. 

Respectfully submitted, 

David L. Belding, 

Biologist. 



44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Inland Fisheries. 

The past year has been a rather unsatisfactory one, particu- 
larly in the western half of the State. A prominent cause was 
the abnormally deficient autumnal rains. This led to unusu- 
ally low water in the brooks. The extremely cold winter in 
many instances froze brooks solid, and thus killed many small 
fish/ 

In the western part of the State, as a result of the close 
fishing of the brooks by those who aim for " record catches," 
the fish have been kept " caught up " to the 5-inch limit. There 
is, therefore, as was to be expected, a smaller number of 7 to 
9 inch trout. With a few seasons of a 6-inch law, properly 
respected, more fish 6 inches and over will be found. Continual 
improvement is to be expected in the fisheries of our public 
streams and lakes, through the increasing development of a finer 
public sentiment regarding the fish and game as public prop- 
erty, which should be protected against unlawful depredation 
and wisely maintained for the benefit of the entire public. 

Although 1,861,443 fry and fingerlings of all species have 
been distributed to public waters during the past year, that 
number is far insufficient for properly stocking the streams. 
The entire product of the Adams, Haclley and Sutton hatch- 
eries should be distributed in the western portion of the State. 
To meet the demands from all sections, the lots of fry and 
fingerlings are necessarily so small that satisfactory results can 
rarely be attained. The introduction of such small quantities 
of fish as those to which we are now constrained is too often 
futile and unnecessarily expensive. The expense of rearing 
and transporting a sufficient quantity of fry or fingerlings to 
produce results would require relatively little additional ex- 
pense. Our hatching and particularly rearing facilities are 
notoriously insufficient to meet properly the demand made upon 
them. A hatchery with rearing facilities sufficient for an 
annual output of at least 250,000 fingerlings should be estab- 
lished. 

The practice of artificially maintaining the supply of fish 
in public waters is operative in well nigh all of the United 
States and Canadian Provinces, as well as in Great Britain 
and the continent. It has proved to be a thoroughly practical 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 45 

proceeding, both on economic and recreative grounds. Reports 
are frequently received of improved conditions in Massachu- 
setts as the result of stocking; yet, from the number of anglers 
who during the fishing season seek the brooks and lakes, for 
recreation and for food, it is remarkable that the annual catch 
does not more appreciably decline. 

Change of Regulation of Fishing in Stocked Ponds. — This 
department has instituted certain changes in the regulations 
placed upon fishing in stocked ponds, which it is hoped may 
prove satisfactory. Fishing in State ponds hereafter stocked 
will be open on every week day from June 1 to November 1, 
instead of Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays. Sunday re- 
mains a clay when fishing is prohibited by the Sunday laws of 
the Commonwealth. Since it was decided by the late Attorney- 
General Knowlton that it was not within the province of this 
department to enforce the Sunday fishing law, the responsi- 
bility for the satisfactory enforcement of this law falls upon 
the local police and constables, unless the pond has been stocked 
and closed by this department. In this case arrests will be 
made by our deputies for fishing in closed waters. 

Pollution. — The law against pollution of State waters by 
sawdust has been enforced vigorously, wherever in the opinion 
of the commissioners the fisheries were sufficiently valuable to 
warrant. In these cases we have used our best endeavors to 
protect the fishery rights of the people of the State, without 
placing undue hardship upon sawmill owners. Whenever we 
found that any considerable inconvenience or financial burden 
was likely to be caused, we have conferred with the sawmill 
owners. If a disposition to comply with the law was evident, 
we have given a definite period during which the necessary 
changes might be made. Prosecutions have been made only in 
case of wilful and persistent violation. During the year legal 
orders against allowing sawdust to enter streams have been 
served upon 17 mill owners. Fourteen different cases where 
owners had continued to violate the orders served in 1903 and 
1904 have been called to court. All have been convicted. One 
was convicted twice, making a total of 15 convictions. 

The people should see to it that the pollution of streams 
by sewage, acids and gas works and factory wastes should not 
be allowed to increase. The problem of the proper disposal of 



46 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

waste products should be considered previous to the location 
of manufacturing plants. The streams of our State should be 
protected by law, both upon sanitary and economic grounds, 
from pollution by sewage, factory, mill or distillery wastes, 
etc., refuse from gas works, crude petroleum or oily hydro- 
carbons, etc. Such laws are in force in some of our States and 
in Europe. Much of the material which now enters the water 
could be utilized to advantage at slightly greater expense if 
dumped upon waste or cultivated land, after the English and 
German practices. Such a law would be a benefit to the fish- 
eries, to agriculture and to the people, both for sanitary and for 
aesthetic reasons. 

Game Fish. — From the State hatcheries 1,799,000 fry and 
62,375 fingerlings have been distributed to the ponds and streams 
of the State. Twenty millions of landlocked smelt eggs have 
been placed in ponds which have been or were about to be 
stocked with brown and rainbow trout and landlocked salmon. 

The Bureau of Fisheries has furnished to this department 
100,000 brook trout eggs, 20,000 landlocked salmon eggs and 
5,000,000 pike perch eggs. 

Through the Bureau of Fisheries we have introduced the 
large-mouth black bass into Billington Sea, King's Pond and 
West Pond in Plymouth. 

Carp. — We do not recommend the distribution of carp, and 
only furnish them for special purposes, such as clearing out ex- 
cessive vegetation in isolated ponds, and then only when the 
pond is so situated that the fish are not likely to extend into 
other waters. There seems to be no question but that the carp 
may multiply to such an extent as to limit the supply of more 
desirable fish. Probably it destroys many eggs of the better 
class of fishes. Though the carp has special uses, in general we 
are inclined to limit our endorsement, and advise against the 
introduction of this fish directly or indirectly into public waters. 
" For those who want that kind of a fish, the carp is just the 
kind of fish they want ; " but it is not wanted in the best waters 
of this State. 

Shad. — The State did not get its quota of shad eggs from 
the Bureau of Fisheries, owing to the comparative failure of 
the hatch in the Susquehanna River. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

The shad question is worthy of special consideration. It is 
a fact that, if shad had not been artificially propagated by the 
United States Bureau of Fisheries, the shad fisheries on our 
entire Atlantic coasts would have long since been commercially 
extinct. Notwithstanding the success of the shad work, the 
facilities furnished by the national government are not suffi- 
cient to furnish to the several States a quota sufficient to satis- 
factorily stock and maintain the supply in their respective shad 
streams. Under these conditions it seems eminently proper 
that every State having possibilities for shad fisheries should 
take the necessary steps to hatch and distribute shad fry to 
stock its own public rivers, to the economic advantage of the 
public. Such a procedure would not be expensive, and, in our 
opinion, could be made commercially profitable, whether car- 
ried on by the State or by a business corporation controlling 
the fisheries of any shad stream under a special license from 
the State. For such a license a corporation could afford to pay 
a very tidy sum to the State treasury. 

An article in the Boston " Transcript " says : — 

Hartford, Conn., April 27. Fishermen along the Connecticut River 
and Sound shore are looking for a first-class shad season this year and 
for very good times in the future; for, if the hopes of the State Fish 
and Game Commissioners are realized, shad will fairly swarm in the 
river in the next few years. 

The hatchery at Windsor will be started up again on May 1 under 
the charge of George Fletcher, a government expert, who will have two 
assistants. Last year about 500,000 fry were raised at Windsor and 
eventually turned loose. Enough more were obtained from the govern- 
ment to make the number put into the Connecticut about 4,500,000, 
while about 3,000,000 were released in the Housatonic River. Nobody 
knows where they are now, but in two years more they are expected to 
show up, — that is, a good proportion of them, — full-sized fish. 

This year the commissioners hope that from 8,000,000 to 10,000,000 
fry will be hatched out at Windsor. They will be put in the Joshua- 
town ponds and turned loose in the fall, with every expectation that 
they will be back again in three years. Besides these, it is hoped to 
obtain from the government two carloads of fry, which means about 
3,000,000 each, one lot of which will be put in the Connecticut and the 
other in the Housatonic. 

The Boston " Post " of April 20 says : — 

Portland, Me., April 19. The shad fish situation in Portland has 
become a serious one, as but few fish are obtainable, and what do reach 



48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the market are expensive. Cold and rough weather is believed to be 
responsible for this condition. Buck shad to-day were selling at 45 
cents and roes at 80 cents. The usual prices are 15 cents for the 
former and 30 for the latter. The shad season is about half over. 

From the " Lewiston Sentinel:" — 

Shad are being caught in the Juniata River at Vandyke and other 
localities. Two generations ago shad were plentiful in the Juniata, 
but the Pennsylvania canal dams excluded these fish from the stream 
for more than half a century. Now that the dams have been breached, 
the shad have returned. 

State Fish Hatcheries. 
Report from the Sutton Hatchery. 

Wilkinsonville, Mass., Dec. 10, 1905. 
To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The trout raised and distributed from this station 
this year were hatched from eggs collected here in 1904, amounting to 
549,000,-509,000 brook trout, 37,000 brown trout and 3,000 salmon. 
In March 20,000 more landlocked salmon were received from the United 
States Fisheries Bureau Station at Green Lake, Me., and in April 
35,000 rainbow trout eggs were received from Hadley. At the same 
time 25,000 trout fry were received from Hadley, and later, in July, 
15,000 rainbow trout fry. 

The fish hatched late because of the low temperature of the hatch- 
ery water, caused by the severe weather of winter and the scanty sup- 
ply of water, which was cooled more than usual in the long flow from 
the springs to the hatchery. 

The condition of the fish was satisfactory. The fry distributed were 
in excellent condition; and those reserved for rearing developed unus- 
ually well when they began f eedhig, and grew to be a very satisfactory 
lot of fingerlings. The fish at all times were free from disease, and the 
only unusual losses resulted from the temporary arrangements for rear- 
ing, where the means did not permit of more secure construction. 

There were 309,000 trout fry put out in the spring distribution, and 
169,000 were reserved for rearing, resulting in 45,000 fingerlings. The 
rainbow trout, brown trout and salmon raised for stocking ponds num- 
bered nearly 25,000, the number of each kind being nearly equal. All 
of these hatched much later than the brook trout, consequently they 
made less growth, though they were all of good srze and quality. 

Some very pointed lessons from the varying yield from different 
ponds were learned; but all observations continue to indicate the neces- 
sity of improving the ponds so that the fish will be thoroughly pro- 
tected. Protection by watching for the destroyers of the fish is uncer- 
tain, expensive, and at times fails completely. One planked pen that 
seems secure from any enemy of the fish (except kingfishers, and 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

these are easily killed) yielded nearly 12,000 fish, — an increase of 
4,000 over the usual number; while several ponds that should have the 
same capacity yielded numbers varying from one-third to one-sixth of 
this. On one stream two connected ponds yielded 4,000 fish, though 
previously 17,000 had been taken from the same ponds in one year, 
and their capacity, judged by the yield of the planked pen mentioned, 
is even greater. We very greatly need a larger number of planked 
pens. 

The loss of fish due to birds and other natural enemies was not 
checked, and it seems certain that in some ponds it was heavier than 
ever before, especially from the attacks of herons, the night heron 
in particular, although many ponds were covered and a close watch 
kept. The usual means taken to protect the fish seemed very inef- 
fective, and it must be believed that the birds have acquired caution, 
as they avoided the traps which were set about the ponds in great num- 
bers, and did not fly in until it was so dark that shooting was not 
practicable. The greatest damage is done during the period when the 
voracious young are being fed in the nest. The ponds where the most 
trouble is experienced are flowed or excavated basins, with shallow 
margins, remote from the buildings, and mostly of a size that has made 
covering impracticable with the means available. But it is evident 
that the ponds must be covered or otherwise protected if they are to 
be kept stocked to their full capacity. If covered, the structure should 
he permanent, so as not to require its erection each year after the fish 
are put in. In some cases, where sufficient depth of water could be 
secured, planking the sides would afford good protection. Many of 
the ponds, however, are so formed that the water could not be made 
deep enough. In many cases, too, the fish can be carried through the 
early part of summer better in shallow water, so for these ponds re- 
course must be had to covering. While the temporary coverings of 
fish netting now in use are good, permanent coverings of wire netting 
should be provided, so that the fish, after being placed in the pond, 
need not lack protection because of pressure of work at that season, 
when extra work cannot be undertaken. 

In May an attempt to steal fish from the pond was stopped through 
the friendly co-operation of the Worcester police department, and the 
three men who made the attempt were arrested and convicted. Evidence 
was discovered that the thieves had been successful on previous visits. 
At the end of the season the brood fish were found to be about 300 
short, although it is not supposed that all of these were stolen, for 
there is usually a considerable shrinkage from cannibalism, the larger 
Itrood fish often being seen devouring the two-year-olds put in to re- 
new the stock. For several years the number missing has been about 
the same as this year, a part of the loss being laid to cannibalism and 
the rest supposed to be due to poachers. Adequate protection would 
probably cost much more than the value of the fish lost. The most 
serious loss comes from reducing the stock clearly below the capacity 
of the pond, and keeping the output much below what it should be; 
yet this is probably owing to a larger extent to the insufficient number 
•of fingerlings reserved to keep up the stock. In 1903 none were re- 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

served; consequently the brood stock contained no two-year-olds, — 
the best age for breeding purposes here. In 1904 the number retained 
was not sufficient to make up the deficiency, and the number reserved 
the present year does not promise to bring the breeding stock up to 
what it should be. 

Although the improvements most desired could not be carried out, 
much was done to improve the station and its equipment. As far as 
possible the work was of a permanent character, temporary work being 
done only when lack of means precluded better. A temporary ar- 
rangement of hatching troughs was placed on the brook above the 
pond to hatch out the late eggs, because the fry hatched so late did 
very poorly in the water supplied to the hatchery, which deteriorates 
by becoming variable in temperature late in the season when warm 
weather sets in. This arrangement proved very satisfactory, and will be 
continued as built, if a larger permanent arrangement cannot be made. 
A shade was built over the upper tubs, and this probably in part 
resulted in larger fish and increased yield there. It certainly retarded 
the growth of algas in the tubs. 

The roadway passing the pond, the embankment of which serves as a 
dam, was widened, and the plank facing and wasteway rebuilt with 
heavy chestnut plank. The waterway was dropped two feet, the level 
of the water being regulated by means of flash-boards, as at times it is 
very advantageous to vary the level of the pond. A strong hand-rail 
was placed upon the pond side. The brook was diverted into a new 
channel at the lower side of the lot, where some small springs flowed 
into the brook, and a pond was built in the former channel of the brook. 
The soft mud and quicksand made the task very difficult, and increased 
the labor, as it was necessary to excavate much deeper than was desir- 
able, and after planking to fill in with sand and gravel to get the right 
depth. The side of the pond next to the new channel of the brook was 
heavily planked and backed with gravel to prevent wash-outs. 

The lower ponds are supplied with water which oozes in through the 
sand bottom, formerly the bottom of a shallow pond or swamp, and 
to increase this supply long ditches are run from the sides of the ponds 
to intercept the water that passes into the brook; these ditches were 
extended, wells dug, and finally tile was laid and the ditches refilled. 
The wells are shallow, generally not over 6 feet, but they increase the 
flow considerably. A pipe well was driven to the depth of 17 feet, but 
practically no flow was secured. 

A new hen house, 9 by 27 feet, was built with waste lumber from 
repairs to the hatchery and old pens torn out. The shingles and 
finish were sawed from dead timber cut on the place. The barn 
having settled on the back side, it became necessary to lay a better 
foundation; and, as an abundance of stone lay within reach, it was 
thought best to take out the posts and lay a stone wall to the sill of the 
building, especially as it would result in a roomy basement for the 
storage of apparatus and green food for feeding hares in winter. 
This room was secured by a moderate amount of excavation, and it 
will require no great amount of work to make the whole space avail- 
able. The water supply for the house having failed several winters 
through the freezing of the pipe from the hydraulic ram, the pipe 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

was dug up, and, being badly broken, a new one was laid deeper, 
though possibly not below frost, because of the difficulties in digging. 
The grounds received less attention than usual, on account of the re- 
pair work required; but some stone and stumps were removed, and sev- 
eral rough places graded and seeded. Waste lumber was utilized in 
making a bridge below the hatchery, so that the strip of land lying 
across the brook, the best soil on the place, could be cultivated. 

The road was gravelled in several places on the hill where it enters 
the grounds, because it was badly washed; and across the flat, where it 
was worn below the surface of the ground, adjacent land on both sides 
of the road was ploughed to the wheel track, making passing difficult 
in a season of mud. The road should be made a more suitable entrance, 
for the hatchery is a public place, visited by two or three thousand 
people each year, representing nearly all parts of the State, and in- 
cluding many leaders in public affairs. Through the latter part of 
the summer the land through which the road passes is used as a cow 
pasture, making it inconvenient, unpleasant, and at times dangerous 
for any one to reach the hatching grounds. 

In May 5,000,000 green pike perch eggs were received from the 
United States Fisheries Bureau Station at Swanton, Vt. They came 
through in good shape, but immediately began to change, and in a few 
days were reduced to less than 1,000,000, all circumstances indicating 
poor fertilization. The hatching and distribution were accomplished 
with small loss. The glass aquaria proved to be unsatisfactory for 
holding fry, consequently these were put aside and only the large tank 
used. 

In suggesting improvements for the future, it seems only necessary 
to renew the recommendations previously made, as they cover matters 
that are urgent. For the most part the improvements pointed out as 
desirable are not yet done; but it seems well at this time to offer a sug- 
gestion, that, if adopted, will aid in determining what work could be 
done advantageously. 

The station should be examined with reference to improvements 
needed or likely to be needed, or extension likely to be undertaken, 
and anything done carried out in accordance with a comprehensive 
plan, looking to the most effective arrangement that the location will 
permit. The character of the work has changed, and many of the facil- 
ities for doing it are very unsuitable, while the extensive work of 
repairing done each year too often seems to perpetuate these unfavor- 
able conditions. For many years the time spent in making these re- 
pairs has cut heavily into the time that should have been given to 
carrying out extensions and improvements, and they have often re- 
quired the attention needed for routine matters; and, as fully as much 
will have to be done in the near future, whatever is done should be in 
the direction of a better-equipped and more convenient station, such as 
could be easily planned here. If the work of making repairs merely 
to restore things to their former condition continues, much of the 
effort must inevitably be misdirected. 

Respectfully submitted, Arthur Merrill, 

Superintendent. 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Report from the Hadley Hatchery. 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 1, 1905. 
To the Honorable Board of Fish and Game Commissioners, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — I beg leave to submit the following brief report of 
the work done at the Hadley hatchery during the season of 1904-05. 

The stock of fish on hand at the beginning of the spawning season 
in 1904 was as follows: brook trout, adults 304, in the 75-foot pool, 
2-year-olds 1,100, in 75-foot pool; rainbow trout, adults, 274, in sec- 
tion pools 1 and 2; brown trout, adults, 127, hi pool between sections 
and the large pond; landlocked salmon, adults, 60, in section pool 3. 
In addition to the above-named fish, we had 142 yearling rainbow 
trout in section pool 4, also 40 yearling brook trout in the same section, 
besides 161 fingerling brown trout, 136 fingerling rainbow trout and 
462 fingerling brook trout hi the small pool back of the dam. 

The mature fish were iu excellent condition, and they yielded a fine 
lot of eggs during the spawning season. 

I took the first eggs on October 31, when I secured 4,000 eggs from 
6 brook trout. From that time on, by the advice of Commissioner 
Delano, I looked over the fish on alternate days ; and the results proved 
this to be a wise plan, as some of the fish would not be ready at the 
time of taking one lot of egg's, and yet it would be unsafe to let them 
go for a whole week, as in the previous spawning season. 

During the time in which I spawned the brook trout I secured a total 
of 246,000 eggs, the last lot of 2,000 being taken on December 21. The 
largest lot taken on any one day was 34,000, taken on November 7. 
The total number of brook trout spawned was 421. A great many of 
this number were of the lot of yearlings in the 75-foot pool. To this 
number of brook trout eggs must be added 100,000 which we received 
from the United States Bureau of Fisheries Station, at Leadville, 
Col., on February 17. This lot was exceptionally fine, and the morn- 
ing after unpacking I found only 821 dead. The reason for this small 
loss was very simple, as the eggs were packed with the greatest care, 
and were protected against undue accidents during their transportation 
to Hadley. 

From 26 brown trout I secured 32,000 eggs, from 3 salmon 4,000 
eggs, and from 67 rainbow trout 84,000 eggs, making a total of 366,000 
eggs taken at this station. 

At the beginning of the spawning season the brook trout were, as 
stated above, in the 75-foot pool; and after the season was well under 
way we experienced considerable difficulty in getting the eggs from 
them, on account of the very cold weather causing the pool to freeze 
over about as fast as we could clear it. We. finally transferred what 
fish remained in this pool to one of the sections, where we had no diffi- 
culty in handling them, as these places seldom freeze over. 

The loss of eggs during the process of incubation and hatching was 
rather larger than usual, and was due in great part to the shortness of 
the water supply. An unfortunate accident occurred in April, and 
resulted in the loss of four trays (20,000) of rainbow eggs. This was 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

due to ptomaine poison which came down from the liver fed to the 
young fry in the troughs above, as the four trays were in the lower one 
of the string of three troughs. 

In spite of all these drawbacks, caused by the failure of the water 
supply, heavy loss of eggs and other unavoidable circumstances, we 
had a good lot of fry on hand during the season; but it looked at one 
time as if we might lose all of them, owing to the almost complete 
stoppage of the water in the hatching house. 

We commenced the annual spring distribution of fry on April 25. 
Deputy Shea of Ware was again in charge of the work of delivering the 
trout to applicants, and by his thorough knowledge of that department 
of the business aided us materially in finishing up the distribution in a 
short time. All the applicants seemed pleased with the fish which we 
sent them. I personally delivered a few lots of brown and brook trout 
fry which went to Turner's Falls and Athol, respectively. The fry 
were not generally as large as in the previous spring, but were satis- 
factory. 

Superintendent Merrill of the Wilkinsonville station came to Hadley 
on April 25 to get 30,000 eyed rainbow trout eggs and 40,000 brook 
trout fry, which he took back to keep for rearing purposes. It was 
not deemed advisable to keep any fry over at this station for rearing 
to fingerlings, as our experience in other years proved such a course to 
be worse than useless. 

During the past summer we kept most of the rainbow trout, brown 
trout and landlocked salmon in the section pools. Through some un- 
known cause a good many of these, our best fish, died in one night. 
Mr. Barlow, at that time in charge of the hatcheiy, reported everything 
all right at 7 o'clock of the evening previous to the morning on which the 
fish were found dead in the pools. 

Our chairman, Dr. George W. Field, and Superintendent of Hatch- 
eries John W. Delano visited the hatchery and gave Mr. Barlow direc- 
tions as to what should be done. Acting on these instructions he 
transferred all the fish that were still alive to the large pond. Since 
then we have had no unusual trouble. 

The town of Hadley at a special town meeting the past summer 
passed a resolution to install water works in the village, and appointed 
a committee of three of their citizens to make an investigation and 
report the most favorable site for the construction of a reservoir. 
The first site proposed was on a brook known as " Shingle Mill 
Brook," a short distance west of the hatchery on the mountain. After 
a more extended search, however, they selected the brook that runs 
through the hatchery property, known as " Hart's Brook." The res- 
ervoir was built about one-half mile from the hatchery eastward 
toward the " Little Notch." The building of this reservoir on our 
brook will ultimately take the greater part of the water from our large 
pond, and thus make it an impossibility to keep a stock of brood fish 
here, as in previous years. This will greatly lessen the value of the 
property even as a hatching station, as all the eggs used in the future 
will have to be brought from a distance. 

On May 29, pursuant to orders received from the office, I reported 
there for special work, and have been located there since that time. 



54 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

There were the same pleasant features about the hatchery work this 
summer as in the previous year. Every fine Sunday and some times 
during the week many visitors came for the sole purpose of seeing the 
fish take their regular daily meal in the afternoon. Others came who 
had an interest in the work because of its value in the studies which 
they were pursuing. Among such was a party of about fifteen students 
from Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley. They were furnished, upon 
request, with trout specimens for use in their classes in embryology. 
Additional specimens were furnished later in the season. We are able to 
impart a little of our knowledge of the practical side of the matter by 
illustrating to them the methods used in securing the spawn from the 
fish, and the processes of incubation and hatching. These visits from 
students and people interested in the work in other ways bring us in 
touch with its different phases, and bring up many points that perhaps 
we have not thought of before. 

On October 21 last I went to Hadley to oversee the work of chang- 
ing the fish from the large pond to the small sections, to prepare for 
the spawning season. 

The outlook for eggs this year is fair. We have on hand at the 
present time about 300 brook trout, 6 salmon, 47 brown trout and 100 
rainbow trout. The greater percentage of the brook trout are males, 
and practically if not quite all of the brown trout are males. 

In closing, I wish to thank the commissioners for their many kind- 
nesses and assistance in the work, for by their help and instruction I 
have been able to accomplish many things that were perhaps unattain- 
able otherwise. I also desire to express my thanks through this me- 
dium to Deputy Shea for his assistance and valuable help during the 
work of distributing the fry, and to Mr. George W. Barlow of Hadley, 
our teamster, who spared no efforts to make the distribution a success. 

Trusting that this report will meet your approval, I beg to remain, 
Obediently yours, W. Raymond Collins, 

Superintendent. 

The Adams and Winchester hatcheries, as usual, have been 
utilized to the limit of their possibilities. These are hatching 
stations solely, and were established during the time when ap- 
licants came in person to the hatcheries for the just-hatched 
fry. The more satisfactory method of rearing and distributing 
fingerling fish had not at that time been instituted. 

The total number of fish distributed by the commission in 
the public waters of the State during the past year is as fol- 
lows, including fingerlings, fry and eggs and adults : — 

Trout fry, 999,000 

Trout adults, 68 

Trout fingerlings, 62,375 

Pike perch fry, 800,000 

Smelt eggs, 20,000,000 

Total fish and eggs 21,861,443 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

In spite of the fact that section 65, chapter 91 of the Re- 
vised Laws, as given below, plainly states the intent of the 
law, the lack of penalty for its violation has led to cases where 
persons have made absolutely false statements for the purpose 
of securing tront fry and fingerlings for streams which are not 
open to public fishing. When such instances become known, 
no further fish have been furnished. 

In view of this fact, we are of the opinion that no trout fry 
or fingerlings should be hereafter furnished except to such 
brooks as are throughout the entire length open to the public. 
To secure this, , every applicant for fry or fingerlings should 
state in writing in the application that every owner or lessee 
of the land through which the brook passes has agreed that 
fishing on such land shall remain free to the public for the 
three years immediately following this stocking. Special at- 
tention is called to the law, which is explicit upon this point : — 

Revised Laws, Chapter 91. 

Section 65. No person, corporation or association shall be pro- 
vided by the Commonwealth with trout or trout spawn to stock waters 
owned or leased by him or them or under his or their control unless he 
or they first agree in writing with the commissioners on fisheries and 
game that such waters so stocked shall be free for the public to fish in 
during the season in which the taking of trout is permitted by law. 

There has been the usual annual mortality of fish, particu- 
larly in Lake Assowompsett, Pontoosuc Lake and others. We 
regret that we were unable to ascertain the causes and suggest 
remedies. During 1906, however, we hope to be able to give 
some attention to this important question. 

We have, too, from pressure of other routine matters, been 
unable to inspect certain dams in the State where the present 
fishways are unsatisfactory, or where fishways should be estab- 
lished. We hope in our next report to announce progress. The 
flagrant case at Wareham Street, Middleborough, however, has 
been taken up, and is in a fair way to be adjusted. 

Game. 
The Inland Fisheries and Game as a Valuable Asset of the 
State. — In addition to the reliable estimates made by our late 
chairman, Captain Collins, that reasonably good fishing and 



56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

hunting in the State mean that at least $2,000,000 annually 
is spent within the State for such items as board, ammuni- 
tion, fishing tackle, transportation, etc., the fish and game killed 
within this State are utilized to the economic advantage of the 
inhabitants, and chiefly as food. 

From careful estimates based upon observations in all parts 
of the State, we estimate that there are to-day not less than 
5,000 wild white-tailed or Virginia deer roaming about this 
State. We are of the opinion that by Nov. 1, 1908, when the 
present close season terminates, there should be at least 10,000 
and possibly 15,000 mature wild deer. This should permit the 
killing of 1,000 to 2,000 male deer annually, representing a 
cash value of $30,000 to $60,000, as the annual profit from 
the Commonwealth's herd of deer. This amount will be dis- 
tributed among the people of the State as meat which can be 
used as food by the persons killing the deer, or it may be turned 
into cash. The sole source of this amount of wealth is the 
natural reproductive increase, and is an asset just as tangible 
and marketable as the apple or tobacco crop. The employment 
of the deputies necessary to protect the deer is the only work- 
ing capital required. The amount of money paid by the State 
to farmers for damages to growing crops represents the insur- 
ance upon the deer crop. The cost of insurance is reckoned 
in the cost of all business investments. The chances of failure 
of the deer crop are slight, and the harvesting is by those who 
count it " sport " and recreation rather than work. 

In a similar way we have abundant covers, capable of sup- 
porting at least 50 to 100 ruffed grouse per square mile (if 
properly protected from illegal shooting and from the natural 
enemies of the nests and young, e.g., the cat, fox, dog, raccoon, 
skunk, red squirrel, etc.), instead of the paltry 5 or 10 ruffed 
grouse per square mile as at present. The wild turkey is gone, 
and the pinnated grouse has been exterminated except one .small 
isolated colony. The quail is maintained by the annual ex- 
penditure of $1,000 to $5,000 by the Massachusetts Fish and 
Game Protective Association and other public-spirited associa- 
tions and individuals. Properly handled, the annual crop of 
ruffed grouse in this State should in an average season be not 
less than 25,000, valued at least at $25,000, and 20,000 quail, 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

valued at least at $5,000. With the prohibition of spring shoot- 
ing and proper protection to the breeding birds, the crop of 
wild ducks in Massachusetts should be at least 6,000, valued 
at least at $4,000. 

Thus at a very conservative estimate the value of the State's 
game crop should not be less than $50,000, and might readily 
exceed $100,000. We have the territory, the wild berries, 
fruits, the waste cultivated fruits and grains, and especially 
the weed seeds and the insects in far greater numbers than at 
the time (still within the recollection of the men now living) 
when our fields and woods supported without difficulty five to 
ten times the present amount of game and beneficial birds. 

Ruffed Grouse. — The ruffed grouse or partridge is easily 
our chief game bird. The past year has been favorable for 
the young, and there has been probably no marked" decrease 
in numbers in this State. Yet the conditions surrounding this 
bird are annually becoming more severe. The cutting of the 
pine forests restricts the refuge areas, and the increasing num- 
bers of gunners, with improved guns and more carefully trained 
dogs, making havoc which each year tends to diminish the num- 
ber of breeding birds. The direct effect of human influence 
upon this most hardy bird has been a most alarming decrease 
of 50 to 75 per cent, in the past fifty years. There can be 
no worthier or more appropriate object for sportsmen or for 
lovers of nature, either as clubs or as individuals, to control 
areas suitable for protective covers and breeding grounds for 
our native game and other birds. Even a few acres of pine 
and cedar, where shooting is prohibited and where the woods 
are maintained intact, with a sunny glade and its stream of 
water, with barberries, old apple trees, bayberries and juniper 
and other fruits present through the winter, will do much 
towards maintaining not only this grouse, but also quail, wood- 
cock and other wild birds. 

We learn of very few instances where persons take advan- 
tage of chapter 92, Kevised Laws, section 12, which permits the 
snaring of partridge by the owners of lands upon this land 
during the open season. Considerable snaring is done, how- 
ever, in the State, but all the evidence indicates that it is not 
done bv or with the knowledge and consent of the owners of 



58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

m 

the land. It would therefore be regarded as no special hard- 
ship if the law should be extended so as to entirely prohibit 
the snaring of partridges in the State. This would mark an- 
other step in emphasizing the fact that both insectivorous and 
game birds are the property of the State, and not of the person 
who owns the land upon which the bird chances to be tempo- 
rarily; and that it is the privilege and the duty of every land 
owner to extend to such public property the utmost degree of 
protection, for the birds are of peculiar value not alone to the 
public as a whole, but in a very special degree to every land 
owner. 

Forest Fires. — Our game birds, notably the partridge, suffer 
severely from forest fires. Fortunately, sportsmen are acquir- 
ing a greater interest and assuming larger responsibilities in the 
matter of preventing forest fires. In the past too many have been 
started by careless smokers, and particularly by the thoughtless 
dropping of the modern match so much used by hunters, " war- 
ranted not to blow out in a gale of wind." A present prolific 
source of trouble, too, are the bands of irresponsible aliens, 
who, not content with roaming our countryside in the summer 
and autumn for song birds, invade the woods and fields for 
mountain laurel, ferns and evergreens, for arbutus and other 
flowers which are carried to the cities, as well as for berries and 
other wild fruits. To such people many disastrous forest fires 
have been directly traced. It is the duty of every citizen to 
check the courses of forest fires, which are a prominent source 
of danger to some of the most valuable assets of the State ; since 
the birds, trees and wild flowers contribute so largely to mak- 
ing our rural districts attractive for residential purposes. 

Woodcock. — The facts given by Dr. E. H. Eorbush in his 
admirable special report upon the " Decrease of Certain Birds," 
in the fifty-second annual report of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Agriculture, are a fair statement of the present con- 
dition of this bird : — 

The woodcock formerly bred abundantly in small swamps and alder 
runs throughout the State. Thirty years ago it bred in all suitable 
places about Worcester, but within ten years from that time the breed- 
ing birds were shot off. Mr. Gerry has kindly lent me a memorandum 
book kept by his father, Col. E. Gerry, in 1838. He tells me that the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

woodcock recorded in this book were shot in Stoneham. Colonel Gerry 
commenced to shoot, woodcock in July, therefore the birds shot must have 
been those breeding in the locality. On July 7 he shot 22, for which he 
received only $2.75 ; on the 8th he shot and sold 42 ; on the 9th, 9 ; on the 
16th, 20; on the 21st, 6; on the 22d, 12; on the 23d, 15; on the 27th, 
8. On the 11th he shot 27 " birds," probably woodcock by the price. 
These woodcock were sold in Boston at 12y 2 to 25 cents each. After 
the first of August the score of woodcock shot falls off rapidly. Here 
are 161 resident woodcock, young and adult birds, killed by one man 
close to Boston in July. There were no doubt many other shooters oper- 
ating about the city. No wonder that breeding woodcock disappeared 
rapidly from the region near Boston. The woodcock is decreasing 
all over its range in the east, aud needs the most stringent protec- 
tion. Of 38 Massachusetts reports, 36 state that woodcock are de- 
creasing, rare or extinct, while 1 states that they are holding their own, 
and 1 that they are increasing slightly since the law was passed pro- 
hibiting their sale. These reports refer mainly to birds breeding in 
Massachusetts. In the fall of 1904, in a few sections, there was a 
good flight of birds from the north. 

The woodcock is one of those birds which has also fallen 
victim in large numbers to the numerous telephone and tele- 
graph wires, on account of its habit of flying to the feeding 
grounds at dusk. Unlike the ruffed grouse, which, on account 
of its low-scaling flight, is killed by the modern wire fences, 
the woodcock and rails fly at about the ordinary height of tele- 
graph wires. On account of their crepuscular habits they are 
each night exposed to these dangers, where the ordinary birds 
are thus exposed chiefly or solely during the spring and autumn 
migrations. 

As in the case of the ruffed grouse, better protection to the 
breeding places of the woodcock would be of exceeding advan- 
tage. There are many farms in this State where without seri- 
ous loss a small tract known to be the shelter of woodcock could 
be left uncut and undrained. The writer knows that one such 
tract, an area of about 50 acres, which has long been known 
as one of the best woodcock covers in eastern Massachusetts, 
has been thus protected for the past four years, to the notable 
increase of the breeding birds. 

Quail. — The " bob-white " or quail suffered very severely 
in the two successive hard winters of 1903 and 1904. Un- 
fortunately for us, Massachusetts is practically the northern 
limit of quail distribution, and unless we can devise practical 



60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and general means of caring for these birds during onr most 
severe winters, we shall oftentimes be without his cheery 
whistle, and the insects will multiply the more rapidly in his 
absence. A succession of favorable seasons may bring the 
quail again to the southern and eastern sections of this State, 
but the increase is liable to be wiped out again unless serious, 
systematic and earnest efforts are made to protect what quail 
we have. This seems more feasible than to spend money for 
birds we know not of. Thousands of quail are annually killed 
to no purpose in the often ill-advised attempts to naturalize 
southern and southwestern quail in Massachusetts. The only 
chance for maintaining the quail is in a state of semi-domestica- 
tion; and all possible efforts should be bent to devising some 
practical method of rearing our " bob-white " in confinement. 
Suitable locations and individuals should be sought out for 
such work, and should receive the hearty support, both personal 
and financial, of the numerous sportsmen's associations. Every 
one hundred dollars thus employed promises far better results 
than every ^ve hundred dollars spent in the purchase and 
liberation of travel-worn unacclimatecl birds. 

The reputation which " bob-white " has acquired is well de- 
served, for there are few birds of greater value on the farm, 
and none more worthy of or requiring greater protection. 

Fortunately for all concerned, the market demands for quail 
are distinctly less than they were five years ago. The people 
generally are aroused to the fact that one quail in the bush 
is worth ten on toast; and it appears probable that public senti- 
ment will demand very properly a strict non-sale law on quail, 
whether killed in this State or elsewhere. This will be for the 
advantage of agriculture and of rural dwellers, as well as of 
the true sportman. In addition, it will strengthen the hands 
of onr sister States which have recognized the value of the quail 
as an asset of the State, and have passed laws forbidding the 
sale and shipment of these birds beyond the State limits. 

The Upland Plover. — The Legislature this year placed a 
close season for five years upon the Bartramian sandpiper or 
upland plover, during which it may not legally be killed. These 
birds are most valuable to the farmer, for the reason that they 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

feed largely in the grass lands upon cutworms, grasshoppers, 
army worms, etc. 
Forbush 1 says : — 

The Bartramian sandpiper, commonly known as the upland plover, 
a bird which formerly bred on grassy hills all over the State, and mi- 
grated southward along our coasts in great flocks, is in imminent 
danger of extirpation. Thirty-five years ago these birds bred commonly 
within the city limits of Worcester, about Fitchburg and in the country 
around and between those cities. A few still breed in Worcester and 
Berkshire counties, on Nantucket, and possibly elsewhere in the State, 
so that there is still a nucleus, which, if protected, may save the species. 
Their former abundance is shown by some of the statements of the old 
gunners. " When I was a boy, nine years old, my father killed 90 
upland plover in one day. He killed 16 without picking one up." 
(Gerry.) This was about seventy-five years ago, in the days of 
muzzle-loading guns. " Breeding birds, or those living on Nantucket, 
have fallen off 66 per cent, in the last fifteen years." (Mackay.) 
" Upland plover extinct here from hunting, but breeds sparingly in 
northern Worcester County." (W. S. Perry, Worcester.) Five re- 
ports from localities where this bird formerly bred give it as nearing 
exthiction, and four as extinct. 

This bird, although very shy, has been persistently hunted 
for the table. Further, as a ground-nesting bird the encroach- 
ments of civilization, with the accompanying cats and dogs, 
have seriously interfered with the rearing of young. 

The Pinnated Grouse (Tympanuchus cupido). — It is not 
generally known that a small remnant still remains in Massa- 
chusetts of the large number of pinnated grouse or " prairie 
chicken," locally called the " heath hen," which formerly ranged 
the scrub oaks of much of the United States east of the Alle- 
ghanies from Massachusetts to Virginia. It was especially 
abundant on Martha's Vineyard, where it still persists, and 
Long Island, where it disappeared less than thirty years ago. 
On the mainland it was abundant through Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island and Connecticut, and middle and southern New York 
State. In 1885 this bird was first described by our distin- 
guished Massachusetts ornithologist, William Brewster, Esq., 

1 E. H. Forhush, "Special Report on the Decrease of Certain Birds, and its 
Causes, with Suggestions for Bird Protection." Fifty-second Annual Report of 
the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, Boston, 1905. 



62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of Cambridge, as being distinct from the common pinnated 
grouse (Tympanuchus americanus) (or prairie hen or chicken), 
now practically confined to the Mississippi valley. It is now 
generally known to ornithologists as Brewster's grouse. Since 
this bird is resident throughout the year, surviving our fiercest 
sleet and snow storms, of excellent flesh, and a game bird, it is 
not too much to say that were it to-day present upon the main- 
land it would be carefully cherished by our sportsmen and bird 
lovers, and would not be permitted to pass to the very verge of 
extinction. For this reason serious and well-devised attempts to 
re-establish this bird in sufficient numbers to place it beyond 
the possibility of extermination should be actively undertaken. 
First of all, measures should be immediately instituted to 
rigidly protect the present number (estimated at about 100) 
for a period of at least five years. Inasmuch as many are 
now killed by or for collectors, who are willing to pay $20 to 
$30 for a specimen, the fine for killing, or having in posses- 
sion a bird of this species killed in Massachusetts, should be 
at least $100. 

It is hoped that arrangements for breeding this interesting 
and valuable bird under the immediate direction and control 
of this commission may be completed this summer, for the 
purpose of establishing this bird where it may again become 
a source of pleasure to the bird lover and to the sportsmen. 

The National Association of Audubon Societies has called 
attention to the importance of such measures in its official 
organ, "Bird Lore," for 1905, page 329: — 

There is one important matter that should receive the earnest atten- 
tion of the Massachusetts public, and especially the members of the 
Audubon Society; in fact, it is of interest to all persons who care for 
wild life. The few remaining heath hens on Martha's Vineyard will 
disappear in a short time, if a law making a close season for at least 
ten years is not passed by the next Legislature. The fine should be 
not less than $100 for killing one of these birds or taking any eggs, 
and they should have special protection by an efficient warden. The 
small number left is all that exist anywhere on the globe, and when they 
pass away another race of birds will be extinct. This colony is for- 
tunately so situated that it can easily be protected, and the experiment 
of trying to save a species of birds on the verge of extinction will be 
of great scientific interest. The National Association urges upon the 
citizens of Massachusetts immediate action, and pledges its influence 
and help. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

Biological Survey Bulletin NTo. 24, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, 1905, says: — 

If this bird can be saved from extinction and introduced into many 
of the eastern States it will be much more likely to succeed, on ac- 
count of its woodland habits and narrow range, than the prairie hen, 
which requires a more open country, and usually does not take refuge 
in woods from its enemies. Experiments with the heath hen must be 
made soon, however, or it is likely to become extinct. 

Shooting Season. — Upon the shooting season in general the 
Springfield " [Republican " of December 3 well said : — 

The shooting season of 1905 came to an end Thursday, and, viewed 
in retrospect, sportsmen are much surprised to find what a really satis- 
factory year it was for game birds, after all. Last winter there was an 
impression among the lovers of the dog and gun that the fall was to 
be a poor one in the woods and fields. The winter had been unusually 
severe, and the quail had been mowed down by the deep snow, so that 
those surviving were practically the few hand-fed by kind-hearted 
farmers. Not even the most optimistic hoped that the quail shooting 
this fall would be up to the average of the past few seasons. And 
they were not disappointed. A few years ago, when the " bob-white " 
was heard whistling in nearly every field, it looked as if we were to have 
them with us in great plenty for years to come. It was said by all 
that the quail would be our only game bird for years; but all-wise 
nature ruled otherwise, for some reason. 

This season it was the ruffed grouse that furnished the best shoot- 
ing, and there were more of these great New England game birds 
slaughtered than have fallen in recent years. They were heard drum- 
ming along the brooks in the early spring by the people who were 
casting their flies for trout, and during the summer many were seen in 
the roads, dusting themselves and taking a sun bath. When the season 
opened, October 1, many hunters went after them at once, in spite of 
the hot weather and the hardship that the sport put on the dogs. Of 
course the leaves were not off the trees then, and not many birds were 
killed; but the early gunner did good service to the grouse, for he 
made them gun-shy and wild, so that when the leaves fell the birds 
were fairly wise. And a ruffed grouse does not need a great deal of 
schooling in order to take care of itself. The best of the grouse shoot- 
ing came last month, for the weather was delightful, the ground was 
fairly dry, and it was good to be alive and in the covers. It has been 
many years since so many ruffed grouse were killed in this section, and 
some big bags were brought home. In fact, the shooting was so good 
that it went to the heads of a number of local sportsmen, and they 
killed, seemingly, for the love of the killing. There certainly is nothing 
sportsmanlike in boasting of a string of fifteen ruffed grouse hi one 
day, as some people have done. These men are to be pitied, and should 
stop talking about having restrictive game laws passed until they learn 



64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the true meaning of the name of sportsman. A few years ago it was 
noticed that the ruffed grouse were plentiful to the east and west of 
this city, but were scarce about here. This season the conditions were 
changed. To the north and south there were few birds, but about 
here, many. This was probably due to the fact that we had a dry 
spring, and the chicks had a chance to grow up. Rainy weather in the 
early spring is bad for the tiny ruffed grouse, and there was rain to 
the north and south to prove this. While many birds have been eaten, 
there are still a goodly number left in the woods, and, if the winter 
is not too severe, there should be many survivors of the snows and frost 
to breed next spring and restock the depleted covers. 

Not so many woodcock nested in this vicinity as have in past spring's, 
and the early woodcock shooting was not good. The warm fall held 
the flight in check, and it was feared that it was to be a poor season, 
as no birds from the north came in before the middle of October. 
There is an old belief among sportsmen that if the flight does not 
begin before October 20. it will pass over us. This year was an excep- 
tion to the rule. The best woodcock shooting came during the last 
week in October, and those who were in the woods at that time say that 
they found a large number of the long-billed birds. But a strange 
thing was noticed about the flight this year. The birds did not fre- 
quent their usual covers, and the quiet of the birch-clad hills was un- 
broken by the shrill whistle. It was so dry that the birds followed the 
valleys, and it was there that the good bags were killed. On the whole, 
the woodcock shooting was as good as it has been in other seasons, and 
the hunter has no ground to find fault. 

A writer says, in the Springfield " Republican " of Decem- 
ber 3 : — 

With the ruffed grouse getting more plentiful, and the woodcock 
holding its own, there is only the little quail to think about. It will be 
necessary to liberate a number of these birds next spring in order to 
restock the fields, and it would be a good thing if a closed season of 
five years' duration on them could be enforced by the Legislature. 
This cannot be hoped for, however, as the marketmen make too much 
money on the quail, and if the " no-sale " law were to cover the " bob- 
white," the marketmen would suffer. But the farmer should see to it 
that he does. The quail is one of the farmer's best friends, and these 
men are really the ones who are the most affected by the game laws, as 
it is their fields and woods that are the home of the sport. More and 
more farmers are posting their lands every year; and if they would 
band together and advance good game laws, they would save the birds 
from the so-called sportsmen, who talk reform, but seemingly do not 
carry it with them when they go afield. Our laws are wise as they now 
stand, except for the clause allowing the four weeks of quail shooting. 
This must be changed, and, as the hunter will not do it, the farmer 
must. 




RUFFED GROUSE. 

This specimen, captured September 26, was 

photographed November 2, 1904. 




RUFFED GROUSE REARED FROM THE EGG. 
Photograph from life, October 3, 1904, by C. F. Hodge. 




RUFFED GROUSE FOUR MONTHS OLD. 
Photograph from life by C. F. Hodge, October 3, 1904. 




RUFFED GROUSE ONE DAY OLD. 




RUFFED GROUSE — THREE DAYS OLD. 













"•'•/ 

















L*-^J* 










-'■ i 




p 1 


' 






^■mmm mmmtmimmmim^ | 






||| 


w 







RUFFED GROUSE— SEVEN DAYS OLD 
Photographs from life by C. F. Hodge. 








r # * Jg^ 



.- • '':' 




r^ r .% 



1 





1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

The important experiments by Prof. C. F. Hodge of rearing 
ruffed grouse in confinement have been watched with great 
interest by many persons. His report follows : — 

Worcester, Mass., Dec. 1, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

My Deae Sir : — Permit me to hand you herewith a report of my 
experiments with the ruffed grouse during the past season. 

The grouse were very easily brought through the winter. For hous- 
ing they were given the choice of a large flying cage filled with trees 
and brush, and sunny compartments on the south side of a small build- 
ing, also filled with branches of different trees. In severe weather they 
were observed to spend the days mainly in the building, wallowing in 
the dry earth with which the floor was covered, or perched about in 
the branches. The nights were always passed outside, either perched 
in the trees or within their extensive " snow burrows." 

Water was provided daily, but there was no evidence that they 
touched it while snow was on the ground. On the other hand, they 
were seen frequently eating snow. 

For food they were constantly given free choice of as large a va- 
riety as possible. Budding brush of* apple, black cherry, poplar, maple, 
willow, spruce, oak, chestnut and some others was liberally supplied, 
and they were observed to bud mainly on poplar and apple. They 
were also frequently observed to eat the dry brown leaves — oak, apple 
and chestnut — with which they were supplied. Rose hips and thorn 
apples were eagerly eaten, and the berries of black alder were taken 
sparingly. Their main foods, however, consisted of seeds and grains, 
— corn, kaffir corn, sunflower seeds, wheat, rye, buckwheat, millet, oats 
and barley. Oats and barley were eaten sparingly; peas and beans were 
refused. Sunflower seeds, kaffir corn, corn, buckwheat and wheat were 
preferred in the order given. The birds also ate all the acorns and 
chestnuts that could be procured, and also quantities of cranberries, 
apples and cabbage, with which they were always supplied. 

In the spring their yard was spaded, freshly sodded in part and 
the rest thickly planted with ferns from the woods, mosses, winter- 
green and sweet fern. So eager were the grouse for the fresh fern 
leaves, — although they had cabbage, lettuce, plantain and many 
other growing plants, — that among the scores of large clumps planted 
in the enclosure not a frond was allowed to unroll. I should suppose 
that the tender fern buds must form a staple article of food for the 
grouse in the early spring. 

Only one of the birds reared from the egg was a cock. He was 
large and vigorous, and from the time that he first began to strut in 
September I expected daily to hear him drum. However, the fall and 
winter passed, and about the middle of February the strutting began 
afresh, but no sign of drumming. The other cock, captured the fall 
before, but tame and entirely at home in the enclosure, began persecut- 
ing his rival. I therefore put him in a cage by himself some distance 



QQ FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

from the rest. I hoped in this way to ascertain the motive of the gTonse 
in drumming. If the lone cock drummed, it might indicate either a mate 
call or a male challenge. If the other cock answered, it would suggest the 
male challenge. However, nothing happened, and as the middle of April 
approached I was about ready to conclude that probably both cocks were 
yeaiiing-s, and that they would not drum in captivity or without instruc- 
tion from the birds in the wild. Just at this juncture a letter from Mr. 
J. B. Battelle was received, in which he stated that his raffed gTouse 
(captured birds) never drummed in captivity, because, as he thought, 
the hens were left with the cocks. Accordingly, as a last resort, I shut 
up all the hens. The cock was greatly excited, and ran eagerly about 
searching for his mates; then, almost before I had time to take in the 
situation, he sprang to the top of a bit of stone wall, and, stretching 
himself up to full height, began to dram. As the wings moved faster he 
slipped off, and finished his first perf ormance on the ground. This was 
April 14, and three days later the first egg of the season was laid. For 
about three weeks he continued to drum whenever the hens were shut up, 
but never when they were with him. During a drumming bout he would 
perform about once in three minutes, the act itself lasting from twelve 
to fifteen seconds. Numerous photographs were taken, but after the 
first two or three days the cock became so pugnacious that he would 
stop drumming to fight, if any one (except a certain little girl) came 
near the enclosure. This subject is more fully treated in the November 
number of the " Country Calendar," 1905. 

Breeding. — By spring the flock consisted of three hens and two 
cocks. One of the hens had been reared from the egg; the others had 
been captured the fall before. Only the hen reared from the egg laid. 
As just stated, the first egg was found April 17. This was dropped 
on the floor. The hen then made her nest in the most secluded corners 
of the house, — an ordinary hen's nest, in fact, — and laid the remain- 
ing nine eggs of her clutch in this. The last egg was laid May 3, and 
May 4 she was found brooding. Five of the eggs hatched vigorous, 
normal chicks on the morning of May 27, making the incubation period 
twenty-four days. Nearly mature chicks were found in the other egg's. 

I was unfortunately obliged to be away when the brood came off, and 
for some days before. A letter received from Mr. Battelle on the eve 
of my departure stated that if, as the weather got wann, the hen spends 
a good deal of time off the eggs, do not be alarmed. She knows better 
than we whether she is overheating her eggs or not. I regretted my 
neglect to show this letter to the one who was left in charge at first, but 
have since contented myself with the thought that the lesson was worth 
the price. The hen was thought to have deserted her nest, five of the 
eggs were slipped under a brooding bantam, the hen returned to her 
task and just five of the eggs hatched. Which five is not altogether 
certain, but probably the five that were not cooked under the bantam, 
although I have had no trouble with bantam hens in hatching the 
eggs. There is probably some difference in the body temperature of 
the two birds, though I have not tested this matter. 

The cocks of the raffed grouse are evidently polygamous. I observed 
the " wild " cock mate with the two " wild " hens. The hens, however, 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 25. 67 

permitted mating but once, and after mating, if left together, the cock 
will peck the hen to death. Mr. Battelle writes me that he had a hen 
killed in this way, " her skull being pecked as bare as a billiard ball." I 
therefore watched the pair very closely after seeing them mate, to ascer- 
tain whether Mr. Battelle's was an exceptional case. The pair got along 
peaceably for three days, but early in the morning of the fourth day I 
found the cage filled with plucked feathers, and the hen's skull pecked 
bare as a " billiard ball." Had I been a few minutes later, she would 
probably have been killed. I put about forty fine silk stitches in the 
mangled scalp, under antiseptic precautions, and the hen was appar- 
ently as well as ever. The above would indicate that mating occurs but 
once in a season, that the cocks drive the hens away after mating, and 
that probably the drumming is for the purpose of attracting unmated 
hens. 

Rearing. — My permit for the year allowed me to take seven eggs. 
Mr. M. Leticq had under permit captured a brooding ruffed grouse and 
made the experiment of removing the bird and nest to his yard, to see 
if she might not continue sitting, and bring off: her brood. Not wishing 
to risk all the sixteen eggs at first, Mr. Leticq brought me ten, and had 
them put under a bantam. The grouse hen deserted and soon died, 
so these eggs were made to serve my purpose. I simply wished to 
have some eggs hatching about the time my own would come on 2 , so that, 
in case those laid in confinement were not fertile the first year, I could 
give the grouse hen some chicks to bring up. Since the eggs laid in 
captivity proved fertile, the chicks from these eggs, all of which hatched, 
were allowed to remain with the bantam hen. 

Rearing the young birds for the first three weeks was, aside from 
extra precautions in preparing the foods, practically as easy as rearing 
so many bantam chicks. They grew rapidly, and, the weather at first 
being favorable, developed into apparently hardy, vigorous specimens, 
perfectly clean and free from vermin or disease. They were given the 
run of the large cage, and sought the shelter of the house at night. At 
the end of a week they could fly short distances, and when two weeks 
old began to roost by themselves, instead of brooding with the hens. 
In fact, they roosted in the branches with which the house was filled, 
alongside their respective mothers. 

The grouse mother was quiet, and at first brooded her chicks much 
more than the hen. She never scratched, was extremely solicitous of her 
brood, — so actively so that it was necessary, after a first accidental 
encounter with the bantam hen, to protect the hen from her. She was 
not seen to offer her chicks an insect, maggot or other niorsel of food, 
as hens do; but this was not necessary, since the chicks were perfectly 
able to feed themselves. She was also never seen to partake of any of 
the food provided for the young. She was in every respect a model 
mother. The contrast between the bustling, blustering, scratching hen, 
— a bottomless pit for maggots or custard, — and the gentle partridge, 
emphasizes the point that as quiet hens as can be obtained should be 
selected for rearing the grouse chicks; but after doing this, and after 
trying all sorts of schemes for inducing the hen to brood her chicks as 
much as possible, I often felt that I would like to amputate her scratching 



68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

legs close up to her head. Still, in spite of the hen's fussiness, all the 
chicks throve for the first three weeks. 

About June 20 we had a severe, cold rain. The chicks were carefully 
housed, and did not get wet. Still, they showed signs of being chilled, 
and went back to brooding again. They were now too large to find 
shelter under the hen, though the partridge could cover her five. To 
cut a long story short, all but one of the chicks (one belonging to the 
grouse hen) took sick and died during the storm or within a few days 
after. 

Fortunately, Prof. W. E. D. Scott happened to visit me at this time, 
and he freely gave me the benefit of his long and successful experience 
in rearing and especially in feeding young wild birds. He also referred 
me to Dr. George Creswell, the leading English authority on bird 
hygiene. All the symptoms, as well as bacteriological tests made in my 
laboratory by Miss Anna A. Schryver and Mr. Charles W. Miller, left 
little doubt that acute septic fever was the cause of death in all cases. 
According to Dr. Creswell, the feeding of egg is a most fruitful cause 
of septic fever in all sorts of wild and cage birds. It seems that this 
food is too rich, or is not well absorbed, and the part which remains 
unassimilated in the intestine forms the best possible food for the germs 
of septic fever to grow in. If the weather is fine, and the bird has 
plenty of exercise in the fresh air, this may not result seriously; but 
let the bird encounter some unfavorable condition, — get chilled or wet, 
or be confined for a day or two, — and it is dead almost before we 
notice that anything is the matter with it. I think the principle here 
involved may prove of great value in rearing young pheasants and 
turkeys and a number of other birds. In case I am able to attempt the 
rearing of partridge chicks again next spring, I feel reasonably certain 
that, barring accidents, I can bring to maturity every chick hatched. I 
shall substitute " ants' eggs," and a great variety of insects obtained 
by sweeping the grass with insect nets, for custard and all forms of 
egg food, use as much coarse foods — greens and fruits — as possible, 
and carefully avoid overfeeding. While I regret most keenly the loss 
of our beautiful flock of young birds, I feel that the lesson learned is 
worth the cost many times over. I think, in fact, that it will definitely 
insure the success of our experiment in the artificial propagation of the 
ruffed grouse. 

It only remains for me to add than on October 1 my entire flock of 
tame grouse was poisoned. The poison used was white arsenic, which 
was pasted over fragments of acorn kernels and thrown into the grouse 
enclosure. All the birds came through the summer well, and were in 
perfect health and feather. A quantity of the poisoned acorns was 
gathered in the enclosure, and chemical tests leave no doubt as to the 
poison used. Fragments of the fatal acorns were found in all the dead 
birds. The greatest obstacle which I encountered in my work was the 
plague of uncontrolled cats which infested the neighborhood. In at- 
tempting to keep my premises clear of these pests I must have incurred 
the spite of some unprincipled person, with the result above stated. 

I have, however, accomplished the chief objects of our experiment. 
I have succeeded in rearing the ruffed grouse to maturity from the egg T 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 2d. 69 

have been enabled to study in detail the foods, habits, instincts and 
character of the species as it has never been studied before, and I have 
demonstrated that the grouse, will mate and rear young in conditions of 
domestication. I had hoped to go one step farther, and show that this 
could be done on a considerable scale, and rear a number of the birds 
which the commission could use for purposes of further propagation. I 
had also some correspondence with reference to sending some of the birds 
to England, for purposes of introduction and experiment there; and 
also with reference to placing pairs of the tame grouse on country 
estates from which they had been exterminated, where they would be 
carefully protected and encouraged to increase. All these plans will 
now have to await the rearing of another flock, which I hope to do next 
spring. 

I wish to acknowledge the receipt from the Massachusetts Fish and 
Game Protective Association of a grant of $200, given without my solici- 
tation or knowledge, for the furtherance of this work. 1 

Respectfully, C. F. Hodge. 

In addition to the propagation of fish, the Sutton hatchery 
has facilities for propagating game birds and mammals. A re- 
port upon this branch of the work follows : — 

State Fish Hatchery, TVilki>-so>wil:le, Mass., Dec. 30, 1905. 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Ga:me, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Gextle^iex : — For the present season the brood stock of pheasants 
was somewhat smaller than usual, and was reduced considerably during 
the breeding season by the loss of several hens by escape and death; 
this, with the fact that the birds laid less than usual, resulted in a great 
reduction of the number of egg's; the number laid amounted to 833. 

The egg's were .laid very early, which is a very serious disadvantage, 
as the benefit of the warmest summer weather for rearing chicks is lost. 
The egg's hatched fairly well, better than usual, but the chicks, benefited 
by favorable weather, did well until late into October. Some were lost 
because of overcrowding. The birds were held in an enclosure await- 
ing distribution, which was delayed, meanwhile becoming weakened. 
Eighteen died, or were killed by rats which attacked them while weak. 
"When removed to a fresh pen, no further trouble was met with. In 
August and September 88 were shipped and liberated, and during the 
rearing season 15 young and old escaped and were not recaptured. 
Four males were liberated later in the season, when it became necessary 
to empty pens for use in holding other stock. At the close of the year 
26 old and 22 young were on hand, — enough to fill the present breeding 
pens. 

November 1, 2 pairs of black grouse arrived and were placed in pens 
which were emptied of pheasants to receive them. One pair was placed 

1 A more detailed report upon the rearing of the raffed grouse in domestication 
appeared, with numerous photographs from life, in " Country Life in America," 
for April, 1906. 



70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

in a small pen, and, although they were protected as far as possible 
from outside influences, by brush placed in and around the pen, they 
remained untamable, and both died before the middle of December. 
The other pair was placed in the large central pen, surrounded by other 
pens containing pheasants ; but of this pair the female arrived crippled, 
and did not recover; the male was soon tamed in a degree, remaining in 
the open parts of the pen, instead of hiding persistently like the others, 
and appears to be in a measure contented. The birds fed freely, strip- 
ping pine and hemlock brush, eating all kinds of fruit, nuts and berries, 
especially grapes, acorns and cranberries. They arrived at very short 
notice, and the best that could be done was to empty some pheasant pens 
and fix them over with brush; but probably the former use of the pens 
did not affect the result, though possibly the difference in size did. The 
small pen in which the pair died contained 144 square feet; the larger 
pen, 864 square feet. 

The Belgian hares bred during the winter, and by spring a consid- 
erable stock was available for distribution; but they were held so long 
that many were lost from overcrowding, for not enough pens were in 
readiness for such a number of large ones. Many of the remaining 
ones were used in renewing the brood stock, which was reduced by 
losses and by the rejection of many unfit and diseased ones. Twelve of 
these were liberated about the hatchery grounds. In July, 20 hares, 
some nearly full grown, were liberated; but at this time for a period of 
nearly three months breeding was practically at a standstill, the few 
that did breed neglecting or killing their young. In the autumn months 
breeding was quite rapid, though with much loss from neglect by the 
parents, amounting to about one-half. At the approach of winter 50 
young were ready for distribution, but it being late for that, they were 
held, to be liberated the following spring. 

April 1, 4 male and 8 female Northern varying hares were received 
from Shelburn, N. H. They arrived in good condition, and were placed 
in movable Belgian hare coops, where they were kept until winter, when 
they were placed in pheasant pens. They did not breed, — probably 
would not, in such unsuitable pens, even if they had become more tame; 
but some progress was made in taming them, and it is probable that 
in better quarters they may breed. One escaped soon after arrival, 
because of some one tampering with its coop at the time of a forest fire 
around the hatchery, when a great crowd was present. Two in a lot 
that seemed untamable died before being here long; 2 died from injuries 
received in the pens, and 1 from intestinal trouble after being here six 
months. 

The hares placed in secluded pens did not become nearly so tame as 
those placed where they could see people passing, but could not be too 
closely approached. No addition was made to the pens, and a few 
movable emergency coops were made for hares. 

Much work was done on the buildings, chiefly on account of the 
needs of the game birds and animals; and ample room was provided 
for the hens, besides storage room for green feed, so that a supply 
can be kept for winter use; consequently, as far as material can be 
provided, all time available for making improvements can be devoted 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

to making new pens, as these are now needed more urgently than any- 
thing else. All pens made for rearing birds and animals have been for 
pheasants and Belgian hares, and these, being partly domesticated, will 
breed under conditions approximating those provided for domestic 
stock; but in breeding wild game little can be hoped from similar 
arrangements. In planning the pens for use in that work it will be 
necessary to make them large, so that the vegetation will not be killed 
or the ground become foul; more secluded, with thickets of low brush, 
so that the game will have shelter, but arranged so that it will become 
tame in a measure by the attention given it. Many admirable locations 
can be found on the grounds for the needed pens, particularly on the 
west side, above the ponds. There many pens can be located with a 
supply of running water, but having the greater part of the enclosure 
dry upland, sloping to the south. 

Respectfully submitted, Arthur Merrill, 

Superintendent. 

From the Winchester breeding station there have been dis- 
tributed during the year 378 ring-necked pheasants and 156 
hares. The present stock on hand consists of 172 ring-necked 
pheasants and 56 hares. 

Of the 12 " black game " purchased in Sweden by the com- 
mission for breeding experiments, only 1 rallied from the long 
confinement incident to the voyage. The 8 capercailzie which 
were presented to Commissioner Brackett by Swedish friends 
similarly succumbed soon after arrival. Commissioner Brack- 
ett writes : — 

Had we a preserve where they could have been given more natural 
environment, the results would in all probability have been more satis- 
factory. 

Fish and Game Laws and their Enforcement. 

Summary of Law-enforcement Work in 1905. 

Total fines .imposed, $4,103 59 

Fines from arrests by paid deputies, 3,174 63 

Fines from arrests by unpaid deputies, . . . . , 928 96 

Total number of counts taken to court, 353 

Total number of persons arrested, 319 

Convictions, 326 

Cases discharged, 25 

Defaulted, 2 

Cases filed, 50 



72 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Classification of Arrests during 1905. 



OFFENCE. 



Number of Arrests. 



Violation of shellfish laws. 
Seining in great pond, . 
Illegal possession of game 
Setting nets, . 
Short lobsters, 
Mutilation of lobsters, 
Robbing traps, 
Hunting out of season 
Sunday hunting, . 
Hunting without license, 
Setting trap, . 
Setting snares, 
Killing song birds, 
Shooting bittern, . 
Shooting sea fowl, 
Killing deer, . 
Setting fish trap, . 
Sawdust pollution, 
Spearing in Connecticut River, 
Fishing with trawls, 
Illegal fishing, 
Short trout, . 
Selling trout, 
Fishing closed waters, 
Shooting pheasant, 
Shooting from power boat 



52 
4 

13 

9 

22 

2 
2 
5 

87 

25 
1 
1 

20 
2 
2 
4 
1 

15 
6 
3 
7 

11 
1 

24 
1 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



73 



Classification of Arrests during 1905 — Concluded. 



OFFENCE. 


Number of Arrests. 


Taking game out of State, 

Dog chasing deer, ....... 

Possession of bird feathers for millinery purposes, 
Short bass, . 




1 

10 

1 

2 


Possession of seed lobsters, 

Short pickerel, 

Sale of game birds, 

Smelts in close season, 

Using ferret, . . 

Killing game with ferret, 


1 
3 
5 
1 

6 

1 



While the foregoing chapters indicate that it is not the sole 
function of this commission to enforce the fish and game laws, 
reference to the above table indicates in part the substantial 
progress which our deputies are making in protecting public 
property. Notwithstanding the practice of the deputies to 
show leniency to such persons as may unintentionally violate 
the law, — and many first offenders have been merely warned, 
— the total number of persons arrested is 54, or 15 per cent, 
larger, and the number of cases discharged is 11 less, than in 
the previous year. The percentage of offenders of foreign 
birth (judging by name) is reduced nearly one-half. This 
appears to be referable directly to the license law for alien 
foreign-born hunters. 

This indicates, not that there has been a greater number of 
offenders this year, but that the laws have been more satisfac- 
torily enforced. The smaller number of cases discharged in- 
dicates an increased efficiency in the personnel of the paid 
deputy force, and improved judgment in making arrests and 
prosecutions. The results are creditable when it is noted that 
only in rare cases is the Commonwealth represented by a law- 



74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

yer. In nearly every case the deputy is compelled to act as 
complainant and as the prosecutor, managing the case and 
making the plea for the Commonwealth. 

The paid deputies, in addition to detective and on occasions 
athletic abilities, are required to have an extensive first-hand 
knowledge of the woods and streams, and a rather close ac- 
quaintance with the. habits of ail those creatures, both fish, 
flesh, fowl and hunter, law-abiding or lawless, which frequent 
these often remote regions. In addition to the above qualifica- 
tions, he must be a keen and careful observer, capable of draw- 
ing correct inferences from his observations; he must be cour- 
teous, cool and quick-witted, swift and accurate, judicial and 
judicious; exposed to temptation of all sorts, he must remain 
impregnable. His bodily and mental vigor must carry him 
through night watches in the woods or by the waters. His is 
a daily task ; the Sabbath is usually his " busy day," on ac- 
count of the Sunday gunners. In all seasons the woods and 
ponds must be visited, and the well-being of their denizens 
considered. The most advantageous places for introducing 
trout fry must be recognized and remembered. Places where 
fry and fingerling fish have been introduced must be frequently 
visited to note the results. He must know the best methods of 
transporting live fish and animals. Above all, he must be 
truthful, of transparent honesty, and singleness of purpose to 
advance the best interests of the public. It is seen that the 
enforcement of the fish and game laws requires a specialized 
type of man. We believe that each year marks progress in 
securing such men. 

In practical working the active force consists of sixteen paid 
men, who work usually in pairs, under directions from this 
office. Each man makes a daily report of his movements and 
observations. As the paid force has developed in effectiveness 
and numbers, the unpaid force has been gradually reduced. 
By this means the grave criticism to which the fish and game 
laws are subject, namely, the fact that one-half the fine goes 
to the complainant, thereby sometimes arousing improper mo- 
tives for prosecution, can be minimized through the restric- 
tion of the appointment of unpaid deputies to men of proved 
probity of character and mature judgment. By the system of 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

paid deputies all the fines imposed are turned into the treas- 
ury of the Commonwealth; there is no incentive to prosecute 
for the sake of the fine. This leads to a more satisfactory 
public spirit and respect for law. It develops greater respon- 
sibility on the part of the deputy, and more complete control 
over the actions of the deputies by the commissioners. It de- 
velops an esprit de corps which wonderfully increases the law- 
enforcing efficiency of the department. 

The following report of Deputy Shea indicates the attitude 
of the paid deputies towards the work entrusted to them : — 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — I have enforced the law in this and other sections of 
the State where I have been sent, to the best of my ability, my aim being 
to enforce the law without spite or prejudice, deal sharply with wilful 
lawbreakers but leniently with ignorant and unintentional violators, and 
squarely with all. I find such a course has engendered a better feeling 
among the sportsmen in the forty or fifty different cities and towns 
which I have visited the past year on official business. In my estima- 
tion a great deal of good has resulted from the enforcement of present 
laws, the public generally favoring them and desiring a sane enforce- 
ment of them. 

Deer have been more numerous this year than ever. There is not a 
locality which I have visited where deer have not been seen, and the 
farmers in this vicinity report seeing as many as six at one time in their 
fields. No doubt they are rapidly increasing. 

The past year has been a record-breaker for woodcock, and I can 
truthfully say that woodcock have been found in greater numbers this 
season than for ten years past. 

Quail have been scarce, due to the extremely cold weather of the past 
two years. I have seen but five flocks, and three of them were fed and 
cared for by me through the winter preceding. 

Partridge shooting in this section of the State this season was consid- 
ered the best for five years. Some fine bags were taken out of the 
covers, and I beg leave to call the attention of the Board to a few of 
the several remarkable captures which were made in this section during 
the open season. William Strain of Ware and Thomas F. Horrigan of 
Brighton bagged 14 partridges and woodcock in seven hours ; Mr. Strain 
himself killed 44 in seven days' hunting. John A. Davis of Ware 
killed over 70 partridges in two weeks. C. H. Sawyer of Northampton, 
who is president of the Northampton Rod and Gun Club, reports that 
two hunters in that city killed 34 birds, partridge and woodcock, in one 
day. William Cummings of Ware killed 17 birds, partridge and wood- 
cock, in one day's shooting. Such hunting tends to show the increase 
of birds since last season. With a little protection, the large number of 
birds left over from the season just closed, if there is a good hatching 
season, warrant the belief that birds will be found in abundance at the 



76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

opening of the season of 1906. Small game, including rabbits and gray 
squirrels, have increased wonderfully in this section in the past five 
years. Song and insectivorous birds are increasing yearly, but pheas- 
ants are very scarce in this section. 

Trout fishing during the past year has been particularly satisfactory, 
especially in the central and western sections of the State. Large fish 
and plenty of them have been taken, which shows that stocking the 
streams with fry and fingerlings year after year by the commission has 
not been a waste of time or money. In this connection I beg to call the 
attention of the Board to a few of several remarkable catches of trout 
in the town of Ware, Hampshire County. T. F. Horrigan of Brighton, 
in one day's fishing, took 31 trout from Ware waters, the largest weigh- 
ing 2 pounds. E. W. Lawton of Ware took 5 trout, weighing 6 pounds. 
The writer caught 12 trout, weighing 7 pounds dressed, in the Barnes 
Brook one afternoon. These catches show the grand results obtained 
by continued re-stocking of the streams. 

From several years' experience in field work, and after careful con- 
sideration and study of the question, I respectfully submit that there 
is need of a law which will give the paid deputies a right to detain any 
suspected person found in the woods hunting or on a trout stream fish- 
ing, who refuses to show what he has killed, and bring him to the 
nearest police station and there search him, without the deputy laying 
himself liable. 

There is also need of a law to limit the hunter's bag to a reasonable 
number of partridges in one day; and the law should provide that the 
possession of more than the allowed number at one time would be 
prima facie evidence to convict. For the privilege of hunting in this 
State non-residents should be made to pay a license fee of $10. 
Respectfully, Dennis F. Shea, 

Deputy. 

• 

Purposes of the Game Laws. — It is beyond all reason to 
expect that in general game laws, however well enforced, can 
restore in a generation the abuses which have been practised 
upon game and useful birds since the settlement of the country. 
In spite of the close-season law and other restrictions, which 
were first enacted in the colonies in 1709, upon hunting tur- 
keys, heath hens (later named pinnated grouse), ruffed grouse, 
quail and woodcock, the last wild turkey has long since been 
killed; the heath hen or pinnated grouse, which formerly in- 
habited the scrub oak tracks of southern New England and 
sections of western New York State and southerly to Virginia, 
have become restricted to a small area in Massachusetts of less 
than 25 square miles; the woodcock is dangerously near the 
verge of extinction; the quail and ruffed grouse have decreased 
alarmingly in numbers, and their range is becoming restricted 
in all the States. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

The game laws of this country are based upon the principle 
that the wild fish, birds and mammals are property of the State. 
This is now a well-recognized principle, and is the basis of any 
law which State and national legislative bodies may make in 
exercise of their police power of protection to the property of 
the State and nation. The principle has been sustained by the 
highest courts, including the Supreme Court of the United 
States. 

In many cases severe penalties have been imposed for the 
purpose of definitely calling attention to the importance of 
properly protecting birds. In New Jersey during 1904 eigh- 
teen sentences of imprisonment were imposed. The shortest 
was ten days for killing a snow bird, and the longest was ninety 
days for killing two robins. While these laws and the enforce- 
ment of them are of direct benefit to farmers and other citi- 
zens of rural and suburban districts, the urban dweller also 
shares the benefits. The cost to farmers of controlling weeds 
and injurious insects in Massachusetts is annually a very 
large sum in direct expenditures for labor and for materials 
necessary to protect the crops. In spite of this expenditure, 
the annual damage to the growth of crops by insects must be 
estimated at not less than $4,000,000. All this must be figured 
in the cost of production, and therefore actually determines 
the average selling price of practically all agricultural produce. 
Apples cost in the market 50 cents per barrel more if the 
grower is compelled to pay 50 cents per tree to kill tent cater- 
pillars, apple maggots and codling moths, because a neighbor, 
a stranger or a cat kills the cuckoos, the vireos, the night 
hawks, whip-poor-wills, bluebirds, wrens, etc. The quail or 
" bob-white," which has been carefully studied by the .late S. 
D. Judd, when assistant of the United States Biological Sur- 
vey, was estimated to consume annually in Virginia and North 
Carolina 1,341 tons of weed seeds and 340 tons of insects. 
The quail feeds directly in our cultivated fields, and the in- 
sect food is largely made up of the Colorado potato beetle, 
cutworms, army worms and similar farm pests ; and it is there- 
fore one of our most valuable birds, and one worthy of serious 
attempts at domestication. 



78 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



Obstacles to Enforcement of Game Laws. 

Seek Deer Hunters. — Squad of Fish and Game Wardens in Woods 
about Buzzards Bay and Sandwich. 
Buzzards Bay, Nov. 21, 1905. A squad of fish and game wardens are 
searching the woods about here and at Sandwich for violators of the 
game laws. The wardens are watching for persons who they believe 
are illegally shooting deer. Deer are very plentiful, and many are 
believed to be from the game preserve on Naushon Island in Vineyard 
Sound. It is unlawful to kill deer here at any time. All the members 
of the squad except Warden Mecarta of Harwich are strangers here. 
Game wardens who have visited this region in the past in quest of vio- 
lators of the game laws have never been successful. (" Boston Globe.") 

Statements like the foregoing are not the least of the dif- 
ficulties which our deputies are compelled to work against. 
Through such an item the violators or their " accomplices after 
the deed " are almost certain to be warned, and the work of 
the deputies must be repeated. 

Another sort of person with whom the deputies have to deal 
is the type which " wishes to be solid with both parties/' — 
who in one breath furnishes evidence that a State law is being 
violated, the people's lawful property unlawfully destroyed, 
and immediately hastens to this professional violator and tells 
him that the deputies are on his track. As we have said before, 
a finer public conscience should be trained to meet this prob- 
lem of the violations and enforcement of the fish and game 
laws. We can safely promise the citizens that the authority 
entrusted to this commission shall not be used to persecute the 
unwitting or ignorant violator of the laws. The boy with a 
short lobster or a short trout, or the sportsman or recreationist 
with a trout or two " just a leetle short of the legal size," is 
not the type of violation with which our deputies concern them- 
selves. They seek the professional violators, the sellers of par- 
tridge and woodcock, and the type of " sportsman " (?) who 
goes for a record, killing every fish or bird, whatever its size 
or species, because it counts one in the story which he rehearses 
to himself before he vaingloriously retails it to his admiring 
(?) listeners. 

In enforcing the law our deputies do not seek to secure " a 
record " of an aggregate sum of convictions or of fines imposed. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 79 

In many cases of a first offence a warning is given in unmis- 
takable terms; on the second offence the law is permitted to 
take its course. We aim to deal with each individual or con- 
dition in such a manner as to teach the people to understand 
the purpose and the value of the law, rather than by harsh 
measures arouse opposition or do injustice to an unintentional 
offender, in a case where milder treatment might have secured 
equal respect for the law. 

The following report from Deputy Burney details some of 
the obstacles with which our deputies are able to cope success- 
fully:- 

Saturday at 2 p.m., Jan. 14, 1905, I received a complaint from 
Georgetown that a deer had been killed in that town. I started from 
Lynn on the 3.16 train, arriving at Georgetown about 4.30. I met the 
chief of police (who was the complainant) at the depot, and after 
hearing his story I saw we had a pretty good case to work on, and 
immediately got out a search warrant. Realizing that we could not 
search a dwelling house under our warrant, we drove to Newbury and 
saw the meat inspector and told him our story. He said he would try 
to get a warrant to search for uninspected meat. We then drove to 
Haverhill and saw the clerk of court, who, after listening to our story, 
refused us a warrant. We then drove to South Groveland, where the sus- 
pected parties lived, arriving there about 11.15 p.m. Going to the house 
of Mr. B. (who was the suspected party), we found in the bushes the sled 
upon which the deer had been dragged from the woods. There were 
blood and hair on the sled, and the hair I knew was from a deer. Going 
back to the house we knocked at the door, and Mr. B., Sr., came to the 
door. We told him who we were, and that we wanted the deer that had 
been killed near by and dragged to his house on the sled which we 
found in the bushes. He denied any knowledge of it, adding that 
if we thought it was in his house we might come in and search, 
which offer we availed ourselves of at once. We found nothing on the 
lower floor, and, as the two women of the house had gone upstairs (as 
we supposed, to retire), we did not search the upper part of the house. 
We then went outside and looked over the woodshed. We knocked off 
a bulkhead door to the cellar of the shed, when I crawled under on my 
hands and knees. That part of the shed was filled with stove wood, 
and I found no sign of deer meat. I also looked all around the build- 
ing, and found no signs there. Next we took the back track of the sled 
into the woods, thinking they might have hung the deer up somewhere 
in the thick woods, where it would not be seen. We went back more 
than a mile on that track and found only one sled track, showing that 
the sled had been carried on some one's back while going from the 
house. We found also several places where the deer had fallen off 
the sled, and the snow all trodden down and bloody. Coming back to 
the house, we went all around the clearing near the house, but found 



80 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

nothing. When we got to the house the man who was with me went 
into the house to get warm. I took the lantern then for another look 
around. Going by one of the windows in the rear of the house I 
found some blood marks on the snow. Looking further, I found a 
small piece of deer meat and blood marks leading to the woodshed door, 
which had been nailed up again. I knew those marks were not there 
when we first looked around there. Going into the house after the axe 
to rip off the door, Mr. B. asked me, " What do you want it for? " I told 
him I had enough evidence to lock him up, and if he did not show me 
where that meat was, I would do so at once. Then I told him I was going 
to open that door again. He came out with me, and when he saw me 
start to break the door off he said the meat was in there, and had been 
there all the time, — which was a lie, as two of us looked that place all 
over. When I got the door off I found the meat, and it was wrapped 
up in a sheet, — convincing proof that the meat was upstairs in one of 
the bedrooms, and, while two of us were out in the woods looking for 
it, it was thrown out of the window by Mrs. B. and put into the wood- 
shed (where we had searched before) by Mr. B., as the chief of police, 
who had been left in the house, said he went out while we were in the 
woods. 

B. said he intended to burn it, as he knew it was wrong to kill a deer 
in Massachusetts; but he said he did not kill it. I told him it made no 
difference, as I was going to lock him up. Just as I finished my state- 
ment, young Mr. B. spoke up and said he killed the deer. As he and his 
father said he would be at court at Haverhill the following Monday, I 
did not arrest him. He appeared at the time stated, was convicted, and 
fined one hundred dollars. Failing to pay, he was committed to the 
House of Correction for two months. 

As to the elder B.'s statement of his intention to burn the meat, I 
found where he had purchased two empty butter firkins and a peck of 
coarse-fine salt. Of course he intended to burn that with the deer! 

On this trip we were out from 4.30 p.m. Saturday to 4.30 a.m. Sun- 
day, and it was the coldest night of the season. The thermometer regis- 
tered 14 degrees below zero Sunday morning, when we got back to 
Georgetown. 

Beer. — Wellesley, Nov. 28, 1905. On the estate of Charles B. Dana, 
off Grove Street, in the outskirts of this town, a full grown deer was seen 
grazing about the . frost-nipped fields this afternoon. The deer had a 
magnificent set of antlers. The animal appeared well fed, and had 
evidently found browsing in this vicinity profitable. The deer wan- 
dered contentedly about the field for half an hour, when he became 
frightened and made off into the Ridge Hill woods. Earlier in the 
afternoon a small doe was seen on the Cartwright estate, off from the 
Dana fields. The doe wandered about the fields and underbrush for 
some time, nibbling at the twigs and nosing about the underbrush. 
When boys gave chase to the doe it made into the Ridge Hill woods 
near the same place where the larger animal went soon afterwards. It 
is believed here that the two animals wandered down into the wooded 
sections of this town from Maine or New Hampshire woods, as two 
such animals are not known to be missing from any parks anywhere in 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

this vicinity. Residents of Cartwright Street report that the larger 
animal, or one closely resembling it, was seen browsing about the fields 
in the Dana place one afternoon about a fortnight ago. 

The above paragraph fairly represents the general idea that 
deer are uncommon animals in Massachusetts, and when they 
appear are to be regarded as stray animals. Ten years ago 
deer were indeed rare, but under the present law, which for- 
bids the hunting, chasing, wounding or injuring of a deer, or 
possession of a deer killed in Massachusetts, they have multi- 
plied with amazing rapidity. They are reported from all sec- 
tions of the State, though naturally they are most numerous 
in the western half of the State. An estimate based upon 
reports sent into the office by our deputies places the total 
number of wild deer in the State at upwards of 5,000. 

The public should be duly warned that it is contrary to law 
to chase a deer; and it has proved to be a costly experience for 
three young men in Lynn, who chased a deer which had wan- 
dered into the city and become confused. 

Considerable numbers of deer are killed by locomotives, 
trolley cars, etc., by being chased by dogs, and by hunters. 

The most notable seizure of game ever made in this State 
was the carload of game which was shipped from Maine as 
" household furniture." On its arrival in Boston it was seized 
by this commission. The owners did not care to claim it, and 
the entire lot, consisting of 12 deer, weighing 1,525 pounds, 
4 hind saddles of deer, weighing 240 pounds, 2 hindquarters 
of moose, and 6 bags containing 165 ruffed grouse, was dis- 
posed of in accordance with the decree of the court. 

Killing of Birds for Millinery Purposes. — Early in the 
year it came to the notice of the commissioners that large 
numbers of birds which are very properly protected by law 
in this Commonwealth and in other States were being sold 
for millinery purposes. In Taunton, Fall Eiver and New 
Bedford even an incomplete investigation disclosed upwards of 
2,000 wild birds or parts thereof which had been prepared and 
placed on sale for millinery purposes. The following notice 
was then sent to the prominent wholesale and retail milliners 
of Massachusetts : — 



S2 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Department of Fisheries and Game, Boston, Mass. 

I beg to call your attention to our State laws covering the possession 
or wearing, for the purpose of dress or ornament, the body or feathers 
of insectivorous and wild birds, whether taken in this Commonwealth 
or elsewhere. This law covers the skins and feathers or parts thereof 
especially of insectivorous birds, herons (aigrettes), gulls, terns, shore 
birds, etc., " whenever and wherever taken." We respectfully suggest 
that you can best observe the spirit and letter of the law by removing 
from sale all such feathers, and returning them to the wholesalers; and, 
further, by refusing to buy or sell such feathers, aigrettes, etc. Certain 
dealers are claiming that the bird laws are not to be enforced, or that 
their particular goods, notably aigrettes, are manufactured, and there- 
fore not prohibited by this law. In case such statements are made, the 
writer will be glad to give an opinion as to whether any particular 
feathers come within the scope of the law, and whether such are liable 
to seizure and the possessor liable to arrest. 

The State authorities entrusted with the protection of bird life wish 
to secure results with the least possible hardship to the public and the 
" trade," and therefore ask your co-operation. 

In any event, however, we beg to formally notify you that we shall 
use every legitimate means to enforce the laws of the Commonwealth, 
and all persons having such birds and feathers in possession, whether as 
dealers or wearers, are liable to arrest. 

Respectfully yours, G. W. Field, 

Chairman. 

A special deputy lias during the year visited the millinery 
stores throughout the State, and secured definite promises from 
the owners and managers to abstain from the display and sale 
of such feathers. In general the most cordial good-will and 
respect for the law, as well as a strong appreciation of the 
motives and necessity, together with a good knowledge of the 
scope of the law for the protection of birds, were reported. 
Thus far it has been necessary for our deputies to confiscate 
but two lots of such illegal feathers. Many lots have been 
returned to the wholesalers ; a larger number have been burned 
or otherwise destroyed by the owners. A very considerable 
quantity have been " put away " by millinery houses to await 
the time when " the excitement blow T s over." Inasmuch as 
sufficient time has been given to permit those who were un- 
wittingly violating the feather law to dispose of such illegal 
possessions, our deputies have been instructed to watch care- 
fully for all violations, and if necessary proceed with the con- 
fiscations and prosecutions. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 83 

Additional facts concerning the magnitude of the crimes 
committed by feather hnnters can be gathered from the follow- 
ing extracts from " Bird Lore/' January-February, 1905 : — 

Midway Island at the time of my visit in 1902 was covered with 
great heaps of albatross carcasses, which a crew of poachers had left to 
rot on the ground after the quill feathers had been pulled out of each 
bird. This mischief was done notwithstanding the fact that the pre- 
vious year a similar party had been warned off by the United States 
steamer " Iroquois," which visited the island by chance. 

Honolulu, June 23. Captain Hamlet of the " Thetis " states that the 
destruction wrought to bird life by the party of Japanese poachers on 
Lisiansky Island was something appalling. He estimates that they 
killed at least 300,000 birds, to judge from the number of cases of 
plumage and the amount of meat they secured. All of their spoil had 
to be abandoned, but it is properly preserved, and will keep for a long 
time. There are 335 of these cases, the plumage in them being of the 
highest quality. 

Early during the present year large numbers of swallow skins were 
offered in the millinery shops in New York. On examination they were 
found to be Hirundo rustiea, a common European bird. Some were pur- 
chased and sent to the British society, in order to keep them in- 
formed of the situation in the United States. The secretary replied: 
" Your enclosure is of melancholy interest, — the poor little bodies of 
these young swallows, killed when just out of babyhood, and making, 
probably, their first flight to a new and unknown home, — swallows 
that ought to have come and twittered about our English homes, but 
instead are ghastly little corpses for the * decoration 1 of American 
women's hats. 

" I think I may say that in England the swallows are everywhere pro- 
tected and valued. I doubt whether one is ever intentionally killed. 
On the contrary, the decrease in their numbers has of recent years been 
a subject of serious concern. It is on the Mediterranean, in France 
and Italy, that the slaughter of these birds takes place during the 
migration season; and this I fear we shall have no power to stop until 
some international law of bird protection is agreed upon." 

Sunday Hunting. — In rare instances a judge may hold that 
no intent to violate this law is shown when a man is on the 
hunting grounds with a loaded gun; but except in isolated 
instances,, such presence on the hunting grounds with a loaded 
gun, even if it is not discharged at birds or game, is sufficient 
for conviction. Sunday hunting is still prevalent in those sec- 
tions which are as yet insufficiently patrolled, owing to the 
small number of paid deputies. 

Smelt Seining. — During the smelt season, particularly dur- 
ing the spawning period, particular attention and much time 



84 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

is devoted to the protection of smelts. We receive many com- 
plaints of seining, but they are usually found to be ill-founded. 
This sort of detective work is very trying and dangerous to the 
health of a person, for the seining is done at night, and one 
must lie among the bushes or trees on the bank of a brook, or 
among the rocks on the shore, for several nights, waiting for 
these violators to come with their seine or net. Without the 
seine or net we are unable to get a conviction, though we pro- 
duce the smelts in court without a hook mark on them. There 
are several hundred fishermen who go about at night seining 
or torching herring and whiting; these men get some smelts; 
they seldom return them to the water, for they use a dip net, 
and must work quickly while the fish school under the light 
which projects from the bow of the boat. When they finish 
dipping, the smelts are dead, and it would be useless to return 
them to the water. Some provision should be made to regulate 
this industry, as it is very profitable, and increasing yearly. 
This has been an unusually good smelt season. 

Work of the "Scoter/' — The launch "Scoter," under the 
able and honest management of deputies Killion and Serrilla, 
has continued to do efficient work in preventing the killing 
of short lobsters. In addition, they have done much to pro- 
tect the fishermen from thieves who illegally haul lobster pots, 
and to check Sunday shooting. 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I herewith submit my report for the year ending Nov, 
20, 1905 : — 

During the winter and early spring much of my time is spent at 
the dealers in and about Boston, inspecting- Nova Scotia lobsters, to see 
that no short lobsters are saved with the large, as the fishermen some- 
times put in short ones, thinking they will escape the attention of the 
deputies. There are several dealers here who write weekly to their 
fishermen not to " mix the shorts," and these dealers render all possible 
assistance to stop the short lobster traffic. There were fewer shorts this 
year than last. I inspected about 6,500 crates of lobsters, and found 
about 8,000 shorts, which were put into Boston harbor. There are also 
shipped through this port to New York, Rhode Island and other States 
many crates of short lobsters, which, were the deputies not on hand, 
would remain here in Boston and be sold as meat. Also during this 
season I kept careful watch of the markets in and about Boston, to see 
that the law was not violated. 

We put the launch " Scoter " in commission in April, and during the 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

native lobster season we patrol the harbor and coast in the vicinity of 
Boston, protecting the lobsters. 

That our previous seasons were a success is shown by the reports of 
the honest fishermen in and about Boston. It is impossible to give the 
exact figures on how many shorts are returned by the fishermen, be- 
cause of the " Scoter " being on the fishing grounds while they hauled 
their traps, but we can give an estimate. On April 26, while on the 
fishing grounds, we counted 1,500 shorts returned by fishermen, one 
man throwing overboard a bag of shorts. During the month we estimate 
57,000 shorts were returned by the fishermen. During May the catch 
of large lobsters was very good, and some of the fishermen report the 
best spring for ten years. 

We searched many boats, and liberated several hundred shorts in 
sunken traps, which latter we confiscated ; in one haul we got 850 shorts. 
The estimate of May is 60,000 shorts returned. June was a very good 
month; estimate 90,000. In July we searched many boats in and about 
the harbor; we hauled a great many sunken pots, and got over 3,000 
shorts. 

On July 5 we counted the shorts which 2 fishermen returned while 
they hauled, and the average was 4 to a pot. In that vicinity there 
were 15 fishermen, and each had about 100 pots there, which would 
show that they returned, on that day, 6,000 shorts in that part of the 
harbor. There are about 150 fishermen in and about Boston harbor, 
and it is safe to estimate that on that day in all the harbor we caused, 
by our presence among the fishermen, more than 20,000 shorts to be 
returned. 

During July we estimated 175,000 shorts returned. August was a 
fairly good month for the fishermen. We got 1,500 shorts in blind 
traps, and estimate 140,000 shorts returned. 

September was a very good month for lobsters, but many pots were 
lost by the storms. During the month we estimate 140,000 shorts re- 
turned. 

The fishing during October and up to November 20 was very good, 
and the shorts were as plentiful as during the summer; we estimate 
147,000 returned. After this month many of the fishermen take in 
their traps. 

During November there was a great plenty of shorts outside Boston 
Light, but very few of the fishermen care to go there, as it is very 
rough, and small boats are not safe. We can say that by our presence 
on the fishing grounds and about the harbor 'and vicinity 900,000 short 
lobsters were returned by the fishermen, which otherwise would have 
been destroyed and sold for meat. Surely some of these lobsters were 
caught over and over again; but if the deputies were not there, or 
were not expected by the pirate fishermen, the lobsters on Massachu- 
setts coast would soon be wiped out. For this reason all honest fisher- 
men are in favor of having more boats to patrol the coast from New 
Hampshire to Rhode Island. 

On one part of the coast the fishermen have adopted a very good 
method of stopping the saving of short lobsters. If a fisherman is 
seen saving any shorts, some of the other fishermen cut the buoys from 



86 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

his traps, and he soon learns that it is cheaper to stop saving shorts 
than it is to buy traps. This is a very good custom, but there are sev- 
eral ways which if applied would save this best of all crustaceans. 

Four boats patrolling the coast would, I believe, be the best way 
possible, — one to patrol from New Hampshire line to Lynn, one from 
Lynn to Scituate, one from Scituate down the South Shore, and the 
other at Buzzards Bay. 

This not only would save the lobsters, but would protect all fish and 
stop all Sunday hunting along the coast. The passage of a meat law 
and license law would be an excellent way of putting a stop to this 
unlawful practice. 

Under the present law, the fisherman who is caught goes to court, 
and after the case is disposed of goes out to save more shorts to pay 
for the fine imposed, whereas, if he knew he was liable to be sent to jail 
for a period of one month or more, he would not care to take the 
chance of getting caught by saving any more lobsters. 

Therefore, I would suggest that a penalty of imprisonment be added 
to the law now in force, from one month to a year for having in 
possession short lobsters. A fisherman who is caught with more than 
a hundred shorts is dealt with more leniently than the man with a 
dozen or less, though he is the greater violator. A man with 10 lob- 
sters is fined $2, $3 or $5 apiece ; the man with 75 or more is fined $1 or 
less apiece. Now, if the court had the right to send a man to jail, the 
man with the 75 lobsters might be fined $5 apiece, and if he wouldn't 
pay, the court under the proposed amendment to the law could sentence 
the offender to jail. 

It is during the summer season, when the shore hotels and restaurants 
are open, that the short lobster is used on this coast. These lobsters 
are supplied by men who have fast naphtha boats, and who purchase 
the shorts from the fishermen at 4 cents apiece. They usually work at 
night and we are unable with one boat to chase up and down the coast 
after these men. While we are at the South Shore these men are on 
the North Shore ; and if we neglect the harbor at Boston for any length 
of time, the fishermen there save the shorts and dispose of them to 
pleasure parties on yachts and boats. 

We have been able to make these dealers in short lobsters throw over- 
board the lobsters which they had, but have never been able to catch 
them, as they can see the " Scoter " coming, and before we get to them 
the lobsters are gone; we search the boat, and find no short lobsters. 

I have been sent to different parts of the State in discharge of my 
duty, and hear very good reports of game and fish. We also are active 
while about the harbor endeavoring to put a stop to Sunday hunting 
and shooting from power boats. This year the wild fowl and shore 
birds were very plentiful, and I learn from very good authority that it 
was the best season for many years. I never saw so many of the duck 
species as this year, and this fact only adds to the temptation of Sunday 
hunting and hunting from power boats. 

Very respectfully yours, Daniel J. Killion, 

Deputy, in charge of launch " Scoter." 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 87 

New Legislation. 

We especially recommend the following changes in the fish 
and game laws : — 

The amendment of section 84 of chapter 91 of the Revised 
Laws, by the addition tff the following words : for the purposes 
of this section a seed scallop shall be defined as a scallop which 
has never laid eggs, or a scallop which tuas hatched from an 
egg laid during the summer previous to time of taking, so as 
to read as follows : — 

AVhoever takes seed scallops from the flats or waters of the Common- 
wealth shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty nor more 
than fifty dollars for each offence ; but such penalty shall not be incurred 
by any person taking such scallops who returns them alive to the flats 
or waters from which they were taken. For the purposes of this sec- 
tion a seed scallop shall be denned as a scallop which has never laid 
eggs, or a scallop which was hatched from an egg laid during the sum- 
mer previous to time of taking. 

Measurements of upwards of 35,000 seed and adult scallops 
in Chatham, Edgartown and Nantucket indicated that a size 
limit of 2 inches in diameter measured on a straight line drawn 
from the outside edge of the scallop perpendicular to the mid- 
dle point of the outside line of the hinge would be the most 
satisfactory definition of a seed scallop. 

More satisfactory provision should be made for legitimately 
securing shiners for use as bait. The following is therefore 
recommended : — 

It shall be lawful to take shiners for bait in any of the waters of 
the Commonwealth by means of a circular or hoop net of a diameter 
of not exceeding six feet or by means of a rectangular net other than a 
seine containing not over thirty-six square feet of net surface. 

The provisions of section twenty-six of chapter ninety-one of the 
Revised Laws, as amended by acts of nineteen hundred and four, chap- 
ter three hundred and eight, and of section one hundred thirty-two of 
said chapter ninety-one, shall not apply to a person taking fish other 
than shiners by means of the apparatus described in section one, pro- 
vided that the said fish other than shiners are immediately returned 
alive to the water. 

This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

On account of the barbarous destruction of certain fish dur- 
ing the breeding period, we urge the passage of an act to 



88 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

prevent the destruction of pike perch during the spawning 
season : — 

Section 1. No person shall kill within this commonwealth, between 
the first day of February and the first day of June in any year, any 
fish known as pike-perch; and no company, firm or person shall trans- 
port into or within this commonwealth any of the said fish caught be- 
tween the said dates, wherever the same were caught. 

Section 2. The commissioners on fisheries and game and their dep- 
uties are hereby authorized to seize and confiscate fish killed or trans- 
ported in violation of the preceding section, and it shall be the duty of 
every officer designated in section four of chapter ninety-one of the 
Revised Laws to seize fish so killed or transported, and to report the 
seizure to the said commissioners, who shall authorize the sale of such 
fish; and the proceeds of any such sale, after paying the expenses of 
the sale, shall be paid into the treasury of the commonwealth. 

Section 3. Any company, firm or person violating the provisions of 
this act shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars, and of ten dollars 
additional for each fish killed or transported in violation of the pro- 
visions of this act. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

For the purpose of safeguarding the public health, and for 
restricting the extensive evasion of the present lobster laws, 
we recommend the enactment of a law prohibiting the sale of 
lobster meat after removal from the shell, as follows : — 

All lobsters or parts of lobsters sold for use in this state or for ex- 
port therefrom, must be sold and delivered in the shell, under a penalty 
of twenty dollars for each offence; and whoever ships, buys, sells, gives 
away or exposes for sale lobster meat after the same shall have been 
taken from the shell shall be liable to a penalty of one dollar for each 
pound of meat so bought, sold, exposed for sale, given away or shipped. 
Any person or corporation in the business of a common carrier of 
merchandise who shall knowingly carry or transport from place to 
place lobster meat after the same shall have been taken from the shell 
shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars upon each conviction thereof. 
All lobster meat so illegally bought, shipped, sold, given away, exposed 
for sale or transported shall be liable for seizure, and may be con- 
fiscated. Nothing contained herein shall be held to prohibit the sale 
of lobsters that are legally canned. 

The above is practically a verbatim copy of the law in force 
in Maine. It has proved to be very satisfactory to all con- 
cerned. It works no inconvenience to the consumers of lobster 
salads, but compels the managers of hotels and summer resorts 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 89 

to buy the lobsters in the shell, whereby some assurance may 
be obtained that the lobster had not died previous to boiling, 
and that the meat had not been unduly exposed to infection. 

In view of the evidence that the present laws governing the 
lobster industry have proved inadequate to fulfill the purpose 
desired, we recommend a careful consideration and trial for 
a sufficient term of years of some practicable method of pro- 
tecting the adult lobsters, in order that the number of breeding 
lobsters in the ocean may be increased. 

An act suitable to check the enormous destruction of wild 
birds, both game and insect-eating, by cats, is urgently needed. 

For the purpose of preventing the total extinction of one of 
the most interesting native birds, we urgently recommend a 
close season for at least five years upon pinnated grouse, with 
a fine of at least one hundred dollars, as follows : — 

Whoever hunts, takes, kills or has at any time in his possession, or 
buys or sells or otherwise disposes of a pinnated grouse, or heath hen, 
so-called, scientifically known as Tympanuchus cupido, or any part 
thereof, previous to November one, nineteen hundred and eleven, shall 
be punished by a fine of one hundred dollars for each bird or part 
thereof. 

Section four, chapter ninety- two of the Revised Laws, is hereby 
amended by the omission of the words " a pinnated grouse at any time 
or" in the first line. 

This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Also the prohibition of the sale of prairie chickens and of 
quail (Colinus virginianus) , or any part thereof, whenever or 
wherever taken, except for purposes of propagation, as pro- 
vided in section 3, chapter 92 of the Eevised Laws. 

The snaring of ruffed grouse should be totally prohibited. 

The wood or summer duck should be placed upon the list of 
birds which may not be killed at any time. 

The commissioners urgently recommend consideration of the 
benefits accruing to all from having open seasons for game 
uniform throughout the State, both as to localities and as to 
the different species of game birds and animals. 

In regard to the shooting of pheasants the following is recom- 
mended, giving an open season on male pheasants during the 
open season for quail : — 



90 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

It shall be unlawful to take, kill, sell or have in possession except for 
purposes of propagation, a male Mongolian, ring-neck or English pheas- 
ant between the first day of December and the first day of November 
following, or to take, kill, sell or have in possession except for the pur- 
pose of propagation, a female bird of the said varieties at any time, 
under a penalty of not more than twenty dollars for each bird or part 
thereof. Possession of a dead pheasant during the time when the taking 
or killing is prohibited shall be prima facie evidence that the person 
having possession has violated some of the provisions of this chapter. 

We earnestly urge the abolition of spring shooting, in the 
belief that such action will result in the nesting within the 
State of an increased number of migratory birds. The experi- 
ence of other States indicates a large increase in the number 
of migratory shore and marsh birds, ducks, etc., which remain 
to breed in States where spring shooting is no longer practised. 

A shortening of the season on hares, rabbits and squirrels, 
for the well-known reason that many quail and ruffed and pin- 
nated grouse are illegally shot by " rabbit hunters." 

We recommend that section 5 of chapter 92 of the Revised 
Laws, as amended by the Acts of the year 1905, chapter 414, 
be further amended by the omission of the following words at 
the end of the section: but the provisions of this section shall 
not apply to the great American herring gull, nor to the great 
black-backed gull between the first day of November and the 
first day of May following. 

The enactment of a law for the further protection of wild 
birds and mammals, by giving additional powers to the commis- 
sioners and their deputies : — 

A commissioner on fisheries and game, or any duly authorized deputy 
thereof, may demand of any person who is, in the opinion of such com- 
missioner or deputy, engaged in the taking, killing, hunting, trapping 
or snaring of fish, birds or mammals contrary to law, that such person 
shall forthwith display for the inspection of such commissioner or 
deputy any and all fish, birds or animals then in his possession; and 
the refusal to comply with such demand shall be prima facie evidence 
that the person so refusing is engaged in the taking, killing, hunting, 
trapping or snaring of fish, birds or animals in violation of law. The 
said commissioners and their deputies may call upon any person or 
persons in the name of the commonwealth to assist them in the execu- 
tion of their duty in the enforcement of the fish and game laws; and 
whoever, being so required, neglects or refuses such assistance shall be 
punished by imprisonment for not more than one month or by a fine 
of not more than fifty dollars. 

This act shall take effect upon its passage. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 

In this connection it may not be out of place to note that 
the following States grant their deputies or wardens right to 
search with and without a warrant: Maine, Connecticut, Ver- 
mont, Washington, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Colorado and 
Michigan; while other States, e.g., New York and New Jersey, 
give specific permission to search game bags, coats and fish 
baskets. 

The enactment of a law relating to ferrets : — 

Owners or possessors of ferrets shall notify in writing the commis- 
sioners on fisheries and game of the fact that one or more ferrets are 
in possession. The owners or possessors of such ferret shall, under a 
penalty of ten dollars, also notify in writing the commissioners on the 
day that a ferret or ferrets leave the possession of the former owner 
or possessor, and shall at the same time give the name of the owner or 
possessor into whose possession the ferret passes. Ferrets which are 
not thus accounted for are liable to confiscation, and the possessor liable 
to a fine of not exceeding ten dollars for each ferret in his possession. 

Courtesies. 

It is our privilege and pleasure to acknowledge the courtesies 
extended to the commission by Mr. Arthur L. Millett, local 
agent of the United States Bureau of Fisheries at Gloucester, 
and by P. P. Dimick, secretary of the Boston Pish Bureau. 
Also by P. C. Watson, Esq., who so cordially extended to the 
chairman and to Commissioner Delano the privilege of the 
City Club of St. Johns, N. P., on the occasion of their visit 
to that city in October, 1905. 

The officials of the Massachusetts Pish and Game Protective 
Association, particularly Messrs. C. W. Dimick and H. H. 
Kimball, have very kindly furnished us with opportunities 
to secure live quail for experiments in propagation. 

In the complete absence of laboratory facilities, our biologist, 
Mr. Belding, was permitted during the winter months to make 
use of the equipment in the biological laboratories of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, through the courtesy of 
Dr. W. T. Sedgwick, professor of biology. Professor Sedg- 
wick, in a characteristic note, says : " The Institute is always 
happy to do anything it can for the State, as some slight return 
for the many things which the State has done and is doing for 
the Institute." 



92 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Permits to hold in confinement egg-bearing lobsters for col- 
lection by agents of this commission, according to chapter 408, 
Acts of 1904, were issued to 220 fishermen. 

Permits for taking birds and eggs, under various restrictions 
and for scientific purposes only, under section 7, chapter 92 
of the Eevised Laws, as amended by chapter 287, Acts of 1903, 
were issued to the following persons : — 



John H. Hardy, Jr., Boston. 
Frank S. Aiken, Fall River. 
Frederick E. Waterman, Fall River. 
Chester A. Reed, Worcester. 
Ulysse Buehler, Stockbridge. 
Robert O. Morris, Springfield. 
Fred H. Kennard, Brookline. 
John W. Bailey, Boston. 
George H. Avery, Easthampton. 
Alfred E. Preble, Wilmington. 



A. C. Bent, Taunton. 

Owen Durfee, Fall River. 

Rufus Choate Currier, Newburyport. 

E. H. Forbush, Boston. 

Napoleon Letiecq, Worcester. 

Dr. A. H. Tuttle, Cambridge. 

S. A. Capron, Medford. 

Homer L. Bigelow, Boston. 

Haynes H. Chilson, Northampton. 



During the past year permits were issued to the persons 
named below to hold in confinement quail for purposes of propa- 
gation, in accordance with section 3, chapter 92 of the Revised 
Laws, as amended by Acts of 1905, chapter 406: — 



Gen. Adelbert Ames, Tewksbury. 
Edmond L. Sinnott, Bridgewater. 



Eugene D. Whiting, Bridgewater. 
G. M. D. Gardinier, Wellfleet. 



Permits for taking sand eels for bait, according to chapter 
164, Acts of 1902, were issued to the following persons: — 



Robert J. Sweeney, Salisbury. 
John F. Sweeney, Salisbury. 
Paul Jones Lowell, Newburyport. 
Joseph Thurlow, Newburyport. 
William H. Simmons, Newburyport. 
Richard E. Pierce, Newburyport. 
Samuel P. Dow, Newburyport. 
E. L. Perkins, Newburyport. 
Charles F. Lattime, Newburyport. 



Albion P. Hilton, Newburyport. 
C. A. Leet, Ipswich. 
S. W. Caswell, Ipswich. 
H. T. Mackinney, Ipswich. 
Edward E. Wells, Ipswich. 
James E. Carter, Ipswich. 
William Crooks, Newburyport. 
Charles A. Lunt, Rowley. 
James Crooks, Newburyport. 



Permits were issued during the year to the persons named 
below to take and hold in confinement egg-bearing lobsters for 
fish-cultural purposes : — 



E. F. Locke, United States Fisheries Station, Woods Hole. 
C. G. Corliss, United States Fisheries Station, Gloucester. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 93 

Permit to operate one pound net in the waters of Buzzards 
Bay was issued to : — 

E. F. Locke, United States Fisheries Station, Woods Hole. 

Permits to take lamprey eels for scientific purposes were 
issued to the following : — 

William N. Holmes, Lawrence. 

George M. Gray, Woods Hole (Marine Biological Laboratory) . 

A. J. Carlson, Chicago (University of Chicago) . 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEORGE W. FIELD. 
EDWAED A. BEACKETT. 
JOHN W. DELANO. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS ON 
FISHERIES AND GAME 



UPON THE 



Damage caused to the Fisheries of 
Massachusetts by Dogfish 

During- the Tear 1905. 



REPORT 



UPON THE 



DAMAGE DONE BY DOGFISH TO THE FISHERIES OF 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

Sir: — In accordance with chapter 12, Resolves of 1905, the 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully submit the 
following report upon the damage done by dogfish to the fishing 
interests of Massachusetts. 

The aim of the present investigation has been to arrive at 
accurate and judicial statements of actual, definite damage 
caused directly by dogfish. We have endeavored to take a 
wider range of view than that of the men whose property is 
almost daily destroyed, and whose hard-earned income is cur- 
tailed, by the ravages of the dogfish. Only passing references 
are here made to the serious indirect damage, such, for example, 
as the effect of dogfish in driving schools of bait fishes from 
our shores, and thus through the scarcity of fresh bait causing 
loss of time to the fishing vessels and crews. In a similar way 
there is some evidence that dogfish drive out of our bays and 
from our shores into deep water schools of herring, mackerel 
and other valuable fish, and thus may seriously affect our fish- 
ing interests. Of the verity of such conditions, however, there 
exists a very strong probability, yet it is not susceptible of 
actual and absolutely satisfactory proof. 

Scope of the Report. 
Your commissioners have, by personal observations and 
through the observations of specially appointed, accurate and 
trustworthy agents, secured a large quantity of reliable, first- 



98 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

hand definite information and statistics upon the damage done 
by dogfish to fishing apparatus, such as nets, seines, trawls, 
hand lines, etc., to bait, and to fish caught on trawls or in nets ; 
of " broken trips," due to the excessive number of dogfish on 
the fishing grounds; and, finally, have made examinations of 
the stomachs of dogfish, to determine the kind and quantity of 
food, hoping thereby to secure information upon the quantity 
of valuable food fishes destroyed by these sea wolves. 

We have referred to some facts upon the economic value of 
the dogfish as a source of food, oil, fertilizer, " sand paper " 
and leather, for the purpose of stimulating the use of dogfish 
for commercial purposes, and thus in the largest possible meas- 
ure checking the very serious economic mistake of killing many 
other species of fish and permitting the dogfish to escape. The 
fishermen are accustomed to release in the quickest way possible 
the dogfish which have been caught by hook or net. Only 
a comparatively small percentage is killed. It is a common 
source of amusement to fishermen to slash the body of the fe- 
male dogfish, for the purpose of letting the unborn young es- 
cape into the water, " to see them swim." The tendency is to 
diminish the other species of fish by relentless killing of old and 
young, and to make no efforts to diminish the number of dog- 
fish ; consequently, the number of dogfish in proportion to the 
number of marketable fish is constantly increasing. Unless some 
definite and effective means are taken to kill every dogfish which 
is hooked or netted, the evil is bound to increase. 

The question is a broad one, and passes beyond the limits of 
State or nation. The dogfish plague is now upon the fisheries 
of both sides of the North Atlantic, very seriously involving, 
in addition to the fisheries of Massachusetts and of the other 
New England and Middle Atlantic States, those of the Mari- 
time Provinces of Canada, of Newfoundland, of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and of the other countries Vhich fish in the North 
Atlantic Ocean, and the North Sea and its bays. 

It is properly a subject for national consideration, for the 
reason that it is the general public — including the consumers, 
as well as the fishermen, dealers and distributers — which ulti- 
mately receives the benefit of the food fisheries; and it is this 
entire general public which suffers from any conditions which 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 99 

tend to diminish the proper and normal yield of the fisheries, 
and to enhance the price of fish in the markets of the interior 
cities and towns, where marine fish, either fresh or salted, cured 
or otherwise prepared, are bought. 

It has come to be a matter of common knowledge that the 
activities of civilized man have in many cases seriously dis- 
turbed the biological equilibrium. For example, by killing the 
hawks and owls, we have permitted the undue increase of the 
English sparrow; by killing our insectivorous birds, we have 
increased the burdens of taxation resulting from insect ravages, 
e.g., the gypsy and brown-tail moth in Massachusetts, the grass- 
hopper in the west, and the cotton boll weevil in the southern 
States. In a similar way we appear to have disturbed the 
equilibrium of the marine fishes. The people of the United 
States have drawn millions of wealth from the sea. There 
should be willingness to devote a small proportion of this to 
provide for a satisfactory maintenance of this source of wealth. 
The total catch of marine food fish in the New England States 
and Maritime Provinces was valued, in the hands of the fisher- 
men, at upwards of $20,000,000. 

Habits and Life History. 

The dogfish is too well known to necessitate a detailed de- 
scription here. This name is a colloquial one, given to many" 
species in different countries which may have no relationship 
to one another. 

This report concerns only, and the term dogfish is here ap- 
plied to, the two species of the shark family known as the 
" smooth, dog " and the " spiny dog." The smooth dogfish 
(Galeus canis, Bonap., or Mustelus canis), which is common 
along the shores south of Cape Cod, is particularly destructive to 
small lobsters and other Crustacea, and to some extent to shell- 
fish. But the damage and annoyance from this species is very 
slight when compared with that from the spiny dog (Squalus 
acantMaS; or Acanthias vulgaris), often called " picked dogfish " 
and " spiked dogfish," or " bone dog," on account of the char- 
acteristic sharp, stout spine or spike in front of each dorsal 
fin. The general aspect is that of a typical shark. The skin 
on the back and sides is an almost uniform slate color, ranging 



100 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

to a brownish ash, with indefinite whitish spots, which gradually 
disappear as the fish grows older; the color of the under sur- 
face is a dirty white. A full-grown spiny dog weighs from 
5 to 8 pounds, and is sometimes 5 feet long. The females are 
generally larger than the males of the same age. From their 
voracious and predaceous nature, and their habit of hunting in 
schools or packs, they are directly comparable to packs of 
wolves. They are notorious wanderers, and follow the schools 
of herring, shad, mackerel and other fish which come northward 
in the spring. They follow such schools into Canadian waters, 
but are checked by the proximity of ice; for the dogfish are 
naturally warm-water fish, and are most at home in or near 
the waters of the Gulf Stream, on the west and east sides of the 
Atlantic. Since they are such wide roamers, they rarely re- 
main long in any one locality, though during the past ten years 
they have rarely been absent from some part of our coast, and 
the general testimony is that their stay upon these coasts has 
become prolonged to practically the entire summer. Professor 
Prince in this connection says : — 

Like all the shark tribe, as already pointed out, the dogfishes are 
essentially wandering in their habits. They roam about in the most 
puzzling way. Here one day, gone the next; ever restless, and hasten- 
ing from one area to another, stimulated by the wolf's love of " hunt- 
ing," and driven no doubt by a voracious appetite to seek new supplies 
of food. They have been known to infest an extensive portion of 
coast for a few hours only, and then move on. In the Bay of Fundy 
the schools have usually made their appearance in the last season or 
two on or about July 18, and the coast was never free from them for 
six or eight weeks. In some places their sojourn was abnormally long, 
and off the Cape Breton shores they were never really absent for the 
long period of five months during the present year [1903]. 

A grain of comfort can be gathered from the fact that no one can 
foretell the date of the departure of these detested enemies to our' fish- 
eries. They come suddenly, and they depart suddenly. The causes can 
be surmised, but to most people they are a mystery. Their erratic ap- 
pearance and disappearance has been noticed in various countries. It 
was well brought out in some of the evidence given before H. M. 
Trawling Commission, 1884, especially in that of Mr. J. Murray of 
Stonehaven, Scotland, who said, in the course of his remarks : " Of 
all fluctuations in the abundance or scarcity of any kind of sea fish on 
this coast, that of the common sea dog, or, as it is sometimes called, the 
English shark, is the most remarkable. About twenty or twenty-five 
years ago these fish resorted in enormous numbers to the east coast of 
Scotland. And yet, although the numbers of these fish had not been 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 101 

reduced by either line, net or trawl fishing, still, they have almost com- 
pletely disappeared from this coast, and no good reason has ever been 
assigned for their disappearance. If these dogfish had been of the same 
commercial importance as cod, ling, haddock, etc., their disappearance 
would have been a serious calamity to the fishing industry, whereas 
their continued absence is of the utmost advantage to the fisheries. 
That the sea abounds with life and living creatures is generally well 
understood; but the conditions of subsistence in the sea are frequently 
overlooked, viz., that all the larger fish exist by preying upon fish 
spawn and on their smaller neighbors, without much regard to species 
or variety. Fish are generally of cannibal habits, and by this seem- 
ingly wasteful arrangement of a natural law the prolific fecundity of 
sea fish is kept in due check, and the balance of ocean life is thereby 
maintained and perpetuated." 

In my report [1898] on the " Fluctuations in the Abundance of 
Fish," I referred to the increased numbers of dogfish which between 
1883 and 1893 frequented the Grand Manan and Passamaquoddy 
waters. I pointed out [p. 13] : " An increase in the number of sharks 
and dogfishes in a particular area may have the most baneful results, 
entailing not merely the wholesale slaughter of valuable fish, but their 
dispersion and flight to other areas, and frequently extensive injury to 
the nets and other fishing gear. Over thirty years ago, while mackerel 
were schooling in vast numbers in Massachusetts Bay, great schools of 
bluefish, 16 to 20 pounds weight, suddenly made an incursion, and 
devoured in quantity the smaller fish. The bluefish had been scarce for 
many years, and their unexpected advent had a most disastrous effect 
upon the mackerel fishery. Possibly a scarcity of food elsewhere had 
caused these larger fish to forage in this way." 

The splendid fishing grounds off Grand Manan, N. B., deteriorated 
some years ago on account of the inroads made by sharks, dogfish, etc.; 
and in an official report [1893] the matter is stated as follows: "The 
decrease in the cod catch has been gradual for the last ten years, which 
can only be attributed to the marvellous increase in the schools of dog- 
fish and sharks in the Bay of Fundy. The herring fishery is one-third 
less than last year, not from a scarcity of herring, but from the manner 
in which they have been karrassed by the dogfish, pollock and silver 
hake." 

There are records that in 1729, and again in 1756, more than a 
quarter of a century later, the Welsh shores of Carnarvon and Angle- 
sea were infested by great schools of the huge basking shark. For 
several seasons, about the two periods mentioned, they abounded in the 
warm mid-summer months, and about the month of October they dis- 
appeared. Pennant, the naturalist, writing in 1769, says that they had 
at that time entirely quitted the coast, — at any rate, scarcely more than 
a single one appeared along the coast referred to. Can it be that these 
schools had wandered from their accustomed grounds off the northwest 
coast of Ireland? In 1766 vast numbers of dogfish appeared along the 
east coast of England, but they remained outside the usual fishing 
limits of small boats, and interfered little with the in-shore operations. 
In December, when the haddock fishery was at its height, the fishermen 
secured large takes of haddock, small cobles taking two tons a day; 



102 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

but outside the 3-mile limit nothing could be caught but dog-fish, with 
which the outer waters were alive. (Special reports by Prof. E. E. 
Prince, F.R.S., Canada, " The Dogfish Plague in Canada," 1903.) 

Food. 
In the preparation of this report we have examined the stom- 
ach contents of more than 674. dogfish which have been freshly 
caught. In most cases the stomach, was filled with finely com- 
minuted fish, apparently of valuable market species or of bait, 
and with nothing else; in two cases, however, the stomach con- 
tents appeared to consist solely of ctenophores (a small trans- 
parent, jelly-like animal, ovoidal in shape, best known for its 
beautiful display of phosphorescence). Dogfish caught on hand 
lines are most suitable for ascertaining the nature of the food. 
Those caught upon trawls usually have had a long waiting 
period, when practically nothing is possible except to digest the 
food already secured; such specimens are consequently of no 
value for this purpose. 

Breeding Habits. 

The dogfish has a manner of breeding which essentially re- 
sembles that of birds and mammals. The smooth dogfish lays 
eggs which when freshly laid and removed from the shell have a 
size and general appearance similar to the yolk of a hen's egg. 
The color, however, is faintly yellow or pale cream. The horny 
shell enclosing these eggs is soft, yellowish and semi-transparent 
when newly laid; in shape, something like a rectangular purse. 
From the four corners long, tendril-like projections extend, by 
means of which the eggs are anchored among the sea weeds at 
the bottom. As in the case of birds, the development of the 
young begins before the eggshell is formed, so that when the 
egg is laid the young fish is considerably developed. When 
the young fish is fully developed, and ready to hatch, the yolk 
has practically all disappeared, having been consumed by the 
growing embryo, which now pushes through the open end of the 
shell and escapes into the water. The empty, black, horny 
shells are driven ashore by storms, and blow about our beaches, 
where they are popularly known as " sailors' purses " or " mer- 
maids' purses." 

In the case of the spiny dogfish, however, such eggshells are 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 103 

not formed, and the eggs are retained within the body of the 
mother until the development of the embryo is completed. At 
the time of hatching the young are from 5 to 6 inches long, 
and enter the water equipped with all the energy and ferocious 
instincts of the race. From 4 to 8 young are produced at a 
birth. The breeding process, as judged from the appearance 
of dissection, is a well-nigh continuous one. A female having 
young " pups " nearly ready for parturition usually has up- 
wards of 4 eggs ready to take the place left by their predeces- 
sors as soon as these have been launched into the world. The 
spiny dogfish is said to bring forth from 10 to 20 young each 
year, but we are of the opinion that this number is underes- 
timated. Whatever the number produced in a season, a very 
large percentage of them reach maturity, for soon after birth 
they swim very strongly, and are said to have been seen fiercely 
pursuing fish longer than themselves. Such an animal 6 inches 
long has comparatively few enemies, if we except his fellow 
sharks, and instances when " dog eats dog." 

Extermination Impracticable. 
The word " exterminate " has been misused in ordinary dis- 
cussions of the dogfish problem. Extermination is impracti- 
cable, even if not impossible. The only aim can be to limit 
the rate of increase by catching the greatest possible number of 
individuals, especially of the adults. Conditions must be de- 
veloped which should make it for the immediate pecuniary 
advantage of the fishermen to market every dogfish, both large 
and small, which can be caught; thus the fishermen may be in- 
duced to work for the advantage of their successors. The 
present and future public which will benefit most should pay 
the expense, just as to-day the public pays the expense of dam- 
age caused by dogfish to fishing gear. 

Nature and Extent of Damage by Dogfish, as indicated 
by Special Keports. 
The following typical statements from masters of Massachu- 
setts fishing vessels indicate in part the nature and the extent 
of the damage caused by the spiny dogfish during the season of 
1905: — 



104 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

September 5. — Schooner " Emilia Enos " of Provincetown, Capt. 
William Enos, arrived at Boston September 5 from South Channel, 
with a broken trip of 5,000 pounds of fresh haddock and 5,000 pounds 
of fresh codfish, the whole stock amounting to about $250. The broken 
trip was the result of the ravages of the dogfish. The trawls lost 
amounted to 30 tubs, valued at $150. If the dogfish were not numer- 
ous, an average catch would have been about 50,000 pounds of fish, 
and stock $1,000. On this trip, lasting about a week, the loss to this 
vessel, as will be seen, was $750, and is due directly to the dogfish. 
Captain Enos estimates that not less than 20,000 dogfish were on his 
hooks; they were so numerous as to carry off his trawls. 

Schooner " William Morse," which arrived at Boston the same day, 
reports the loss of 8 or 10 tubs of trawls by dogfish. 

September 6. — Schooner " Mary C. Santos n of Provincetown, which 
arrived at Boston to-day, lost 9 tubs of trawls, or about 4,500 hooks, 
by the ravages of the dogfish. She fished in South Channel, where the 
dogfish have been very troublesome the past two weeks. Six other 
arrivals at Boston to-day from the ground report the dogfish very 
troublesome. 

The pollock arrivals to-day from Jeffreys Bank and from the north 
shore report dogfish quite numerous and bothersome. 

There are about 25 vessels that come to this market from Nan- 
tucket Shoals with fresh codfish, which they catch on hand lines. These 
vessels are not troubled by the dogfish, for the reason that they all 
use cockles for bait, and they do not bite at that kind of bait. 

September 7. — Schooner " Alena L. Young," Capt. Chas. Nelson, 
of Rockport, Mass., arrived at Boston August 26 from Jeffreys Bank 
pollock fishing, hand-line fishing. This vessel was out on the voyage 
ten days, and the crew of 10 men shared only 34 cents each, owing to 
the fact that dogfish were numerous on the fishing ground. Broken 
trips like this discourage the men, and often they leave the vessel. 

Schooner " Evelyn L. Smith " of Boston, which arrived at Boston 
to-day from South Channel, reports the loss of about 500 hooks by 
dogfish. She brought in 7,500 pounds of fish, and would have had 
40,000 pounds if the dogfish were not on the grounds. She fished in 
about 40 fathoms of water. Other arrivals at Boston to-day from 
South Channel came from the deeper part of South Channel, and 
report few or no dogfish. 

The captain of the schooner " Harvester " of Provincetown states 
that in the spring of this year he was troubled by dogfish on the west- 
ern part of Georges. On one voyage he lost 2,880 hooks. 

September 8. — Capt. Herbert Nickerson of the schooner " Buema," 
which arrived at Boston to-day from South Channel, states that he 
was bothered more with dogfish this trip than any time this summer. 
He brought in 40,000 pounds of fresh haddock, 4,000 pounds of fresh 
codfish and 6,000 pounds of fresh hake. Reports losing 20 tubs of 
trawls, or about 10,600 hooks, besides the lines. He fished in 40 fath- 
oms of water. 

Schooner " Sea Fox " of Provincetown, Capt. B. S. Ramos, which 
arrived at Boston to-day from a fishing trip, reports the loss of 17 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 105 

tubs of trawls, or about 5,800 hooks, by the ravages of the dog-fish. 
He fished in South Channel, in about 40 fathoms water. 

September 9. — Captain Keough of the schooner " Carrie F. Rob- 
erts," which arrived at Boston to-day from fishing on Middle Bank, 
states that on some sets half his catch was destroyed by dogfish, mostly 
by biting the fish. He estimates his loss on this trip as 2,000 pounds 
of fish. He reports dogfish numerous on Middle Bank. He fished on 
the outer edge of the Bank, in deep water, where there was the least 
dogfish. Very few vessels are now fishing in Boston Bay for ground- 
fish, on account of the abundance of dog-fish. 

Sloop " Laura Enos " of Gloucester, Capt. E. J. Rose, which arrived 
at Boston to-day from Jeffreys Bank, had 5,000 pounds of fresh pol- 
lock from hand-line pollock fishing. She would have had twice this 
amount of fish had the dogfish not been so plenty. She lost about 
430 hooks. 

Schooner " Marshall L. Adams " of Provincetown, Capt. Antonio 
Silva, which arrived at Boston to-day, reports the loss of about 1,500 
hooks by dogfish while fishing in South Channel on the trip from 
which he had just arrived. 

September 11. — Schooner " Fish Hawk," Capt. James Paine of 
Provincetown, which arrived at this port to-day from fishing in South 
Channel, reports great annoyance by dogfish on the trip from which he 
just arrived. He fished about 75 miles southeast of Highland Light, in 
33 fathoms of water. The dogfish struck, and he lost 15 tubs of trawls, 
valued at about $5 per tub. They carried off 7,500 hooks, besides the 
trawl lines. 

Schooner " Frances J. O'Hara," Captain Hickey of Boston, from 
South Channel, reports the loss of 9 tubs of trawls. 

There have been arrivals at Boston the past few days from Jeffreys 
Bank, Georges Bank, Cashes Bank, Clarks Bank, Middle Bank, Nan- 
tucket Shoals, South Channel and shore grounds; none of them report 
any great loss on account of the dogfish. The arrivals from Jeffreys 
Bank, Middle Bank and the shore grounds, especially the eastern shore 
grounds, report more or less annoyance by the dogfish, and nearly all 
report small losses of hooks and gear. 

A captain (Italian) of a gasoline boat, fishing out of Boston, in- 
forms me that he lost on one voyage about a month ago, while fishing 
in Boston Bay, about 2,000 hooks. This boat only carries 5 men and a 
total of 2,500 hooks, and fishes for codfish, haddock, hake, flounders, 
etc. 

September 18. — Schooner " Marshall L. Adams " of Provincetown, 
Capt. A. C. Silva, arrived at Boston with a small catch of fish, due to 
the depredations of the dogfish. He had 6,000 pounds of fresh haddock, 
20,000 pounds of fresh codfish and 1,000 pounds of fresh pollock. His 
loss in lines, hooks, etc., will amount to $150 on this trip. He lost 30 
tubs of trawls, or 12,000 hooks. He fished in South Channel, 40 miles 
southeast of Highland Light, Cape Cod, and states that he never saw 
dogfish so plenty. 

Schooner " Harvester " of Provincetown, Capt. Daniel Venturo, which 
arrived at Boston to-day, reports the loss of 15 tubs of trawls, valued at 



106 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

$75, while on fishing trip to South Channel. Sharks were also quite 
numerous. 

The hand-line arrivals from Jeffreys and along the shore continue 
to report great annoyance by the dogfish, and the loss of several boxes 
of hooks each trip. 

The Boston schooner " Onato," Captain Larkin, which arrived at 
Boston September 14. reports losing 20 tubs of trawls, valued at $100, 
on a fishing trip lasting one week in South Channel. 

September 22. — Schooner " Nettie Franklin " of Provincetown, 
Captain Caton, arrived at Boston to-day from South Channel, with 
24,000 pounds of groundfish. Captain Caton reports that the dogfish 
were very numerous, and on the last set of the trawls estimates that 
they caught as many as 20,000. He lost about 4 tubs of trawls, valued 
at $5 a tub. 

The schooner " Mary C. Santos " arrived at Boston September 21 
from South Channel with 9,000 pounds of fresh haddock, 31,000 
pounds of fresh codfish and 2,000 pounds of fresh pollock. The cap- 
tain states that he was very much bothered by dogfish, and would have 
had twice the amount of fish if it had not been for them. He lost 5 
tubs of trawls. 

The vessels arriving at Boston the past few days from other fish- 
ing grounds than South Channel report little or no annoyance by 
dog-fish. 

Capt. Stilson Hipson, of schooner "Mystery" of Plymouth, Mass., 
which arrived at Boston from a fishing trip on Sept. 27, 1905, reports 
that dogfish were very numerous in South Channel. He set 24 trawls 
70 miles southeast of Highland Light, Cape Cod, and only caught 
3,000 pounds of marketable fish, getting a dogfish on every other hook. 
He should have caught 15,000 pounds of marketable fish on average 
fishing in that locality. He had to leave that locality on account of 
the dogfish. 

Schooner "Marshall L. Adams" of Provincetown, Mass., Capt. A. 
C. Silva, which arrived at Boston September 28, reports dogfish still 
numerous on the in-shore fishing grounds off Cape Cod, but not very 
plenty off shore. 

Schooner " Fish Hawk " of Boston arrived at Boston from a fish- 
ing trip on November 1. The captain reports setting 45 trawls in 
South Channel, in 45 to 50 fathoms of water. The dogfish were numer- 
ous, and he only got 100 pounds of food fish; whereas, if there had 
been no dogfish, on an average set he would have caught 7,000 pounds 
of food fish. 

October 12. — The shore arrivals report dogfish very numerous 
along the shore and in Boston Bay, where it is almost impossible to set 
their fishing gear. The hand-line pollock fishermen, of which there 
are a large number, are experiencing a great deal of trouble with dog- 
fish. 

Arrivals from Georges Bank and South Channel also report find- 
ing dogfish more or less troublesome, but they are not so plentiful on 
these grounds as on the shore. 

Captain Keough of the schooner " Carrie F. Roberts," which arrived 
at Boston from fishing in Boston Bay October 10, states that he caught 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 107 

300 dogfish on 500 hooks set for groundfish the previous day. On a 
string of gear of about 4,500 hooks he got 1,800 dogfish. 

Capt. Ed Doane of the schooner " Mertis H. Perry/' which arrived 
at Boston October 9 from trawling in Boston Bay, reports much trouble 
from the dogfish, but no great loss of gear. He is of the opinion that 
if all the vessels in the fishing business should fit, and catch dogfish, 
they would not be able to reduce them in number, as they are so pro- 
lific and numerous. 

Schooner " Louise Cabral," which arrived at Boston October 9, re- 
ports catching a dogfish with a rubber band around its head, just be- 
hind the pectoral fins, which had cut into the fish, and had evidently 
been on it some time. It was caught on a trawl, while fishing for 
groundfish off Chatham, October 8. It was a smooth dogfish, about 
a foot long. 

Schooner " Emilia Enos " of Provincetown, Captain Enos, which 
arrived at Boston October 3, reports much annoyance by sharks while 
fishing in South Channel. 

Capt. Alfred Green of the schooner " Flirt " of Gloucester, Mass., 
which arrived at Boston Oct. 19, 1905, from a fishing trip in South 
Channel, states that he lost $50 worth of gear by sharks. He fished 70 
miles southeast by south of Highland Light, in about 70 fathoms of 
water. 

The schooner " Illinois " of Gloucester, Mass., Capt. John Lowrie, 
which arrived at Boston Oct. 17, 1905, reports losing $100 worth of 
trawls by getting into a large school of dogfish. He fished in South 
Channel, in about 70 fathoms. He caught at least 10,000 dogfish on 
this voyage alone. He lost 20 tubs of trawls, which will have to be 
replaced by new gear. 

October 16. — The captain of the schooner " Mary Edith " made 
five sets on the shore recently. In three sets he caught 16,000 pounds 
of marketable fish, but in the other two the dogfish struck, and he 
caught only 1,000 pounds of marketable fish. 

Captain Benson of the schooner " Frances Y. Sylvia," which arrived 
at Boston Oct. 20, 1905, reports losing 10 tubs of trawls by dogfish. 
He was out one week on the voyage, and fished in South Channel. 

November 17. — Schooner " Marshall L. Adams " of Provincetown, 
Capt. A. C. Silva, which arrived at Boston Nov. 4, 1905, reports dog- 
fish very numerous from Highland Light, Cape Cod, south along the 
shore. Small-sized dogfish are numerous close hi shore; off shore they 
are large in size, but not so numerous. He lost 6 tubs of trawls on this 
voyage, worth about $36, due mostly to the dogfish. 

Capt. Julius Anderson of the Boston schooner " Robert & Arthur," 
which arrived at Boston Nov. 10, 1905, from a fishing trip, states that 
he found dogfish numerous in the northern as well as the southern part 
of Georges Bank. On the southern part of the Bank he set his trawls, 
and only got about 10 edible fish to a dory, as the dogfish were so 
numerous. He lost 10 tubs of trawls, valued at about $60. 

Prom the point of view of the shore fishermen, the follow- 
ing report is typical : — 



108 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Boston, July 31, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Sir : — After making an observation in regard to the effect of dog- 
fish and other predatory fish upon food fish, I have the honor to submit 
to you the following report. 

Two fishermen started from Gloucester on Friday morning, at 2 a.m., 
and arrived at Kettle Island trap, where they purchased 4 bushels of 
bait, for which they paid $1.70. After baiting their trawls, which con- 
sisted of 3 tubs of 9 lines each, 50 hooks to a line, and 2^2 tubs of 10 
lines to a tub, also having 50 hooks on each line, they proceeded to a 
place called Eagle's Ledge, which lies 5 miles southeast from Baker's 
Island and about 13 miles from Gloucester. These trawls, containing 
2,600 hooks, and covering a distance of 3 miles, were set at 1 p.m., 
which required one hour, after which they started for Gloucester, 
arriving at 4 p.m.; time consumed, fourteen hours. 

On Saturday morning a start was made at 2 a.m. from Gloucester 
to haul the trawls. They were found at 6 a.m., as it was very moderate, 
and fog was quite thick. The work was finished at 11 a.m., and after 
the boat arrived at Gloucester and discharged her fish it was 2 p.m.; 
time consumed, twelve hours. 

The result was as follows : — 



100 hooks, holding .... 

131 hooks, holding .... 

13 hooks, holding .... 

7 hooks, holding .... 

65 hooks, holding .... 

238 hooks, holding .... 

74 hooks, holding .... 

9 hooks, holding (lost hauling in) 

3 hooks, holding (lost hauling in) 

1,900 hooks, holding .... 



100 haits. 
131 food fish. 
13 food fish, destroj'ed. 
7 monk fish. 
65 skates. 
238 small dogfish. 
74 large dogfish. 
9 large dogfish. 
3 food fish, 
nothing. 



2,540 hooks (2,600 — 2,540 = 60, — 60 hooks lost) . 



Income: — 
131 food fish, 780 pounds, at 80 cents per hundred (average price 

per fish, 4J§£ cents) 

74 large dogfish yielded 21 huckets of livers, at 25 cents per 
Ducket, 



Outgo: — 
13 food fish destroyed, at 4 1 /!' 1 ) cents each, . 
60 hooks lost, valued at ... . 
60 gangings lost, valued at 
85 hooks broken in removing dogfish, etc., 
85 gangings parted in removing dogfish, etc 
2,350 haits consumed by dogfish, . 




$6 24 



63 



$ 62 


14 


14 


18 


18 


1 56 



$6 87 



2 82 



Net profits for 2 men, twenty-six hours' work, 



$4 05 



Small dogfish measured 15 to 19 inches, and weighed from IV2 to 2V 2 
pounds each. Large dogfish measured 35 to 40 inches, and weighed 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 109 

from 15 to 20 pounds each. These were all female fish, and were de- 
positing young fish; the stomachs contained an occasional piece of bait 
and food fish. The small dogfish were hardly large enough to get the 
hook into their mouths. 

Two days previous this same fishing gear was set in about the same 
location, and 2,000 pounds of food fish and 140 to 150 large dogfish 
and no small dogfish were caught. It is the opinion of the fishermen 
that the small dogfish eat the bait without getting caught to any ex- 
tent. 

Time consumed in the work, twenty-six hours; persons employed, 
2. This is considered an average by the fishermen. 

Yours respectfully, Edwin C. McIntire. 

On June 24 Mr. Paul M. Carpenter went to Provincetown 
to study the dogfish, with particular reference to the damage 
done directly and indirectly to marketable fish and to fishing 
gear. Mr. Carpenter went on several trips on fishing vessels 
which reported damage by dogfish. His personal observations, 
as embodied in his interim reports, follow : — 

Provincetown, July 26, 1905 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sik : — Schooner " Marshall L. Adams " of Provincetown, 
Antone Silva, master; trawler, 130 tons register; crew of 20 men; 75 
miles southwest of Highland Light. Catch: cod, haddock and occa- 
sional halibut; several finback whales seen. 

The dogfish, much to the surprise of the crew, were less plentiful 
than usual at this point and at this season of the year. The trawls 
brought up at each haul a large number of deep-sea scallops. 

A sudden squall struck the vessel one day, with heavy wind and rain, 
sweeping overboard about 5,000 weight of fish, which had just been 
landed from the trawls. This catch included a number of dogfish, 
possibly 50. The squall struck the vessel so suddenly and so soon after 
the haul that there had been no time to examine the catch, and the 
entire haul was lost. 

Of course a certain number of the dogfish hooked were lost in haul- 
ing in the different dories during the week of fishing. I had an op- 
portunity, however, of examining about 250 dogfish. The larger pro- 
portion of these were not fully grown, and I noted that of the fish 
caught fully 4 out of 5 were females. Upon opening and dissecting 
the mature specimens, I found in every case, 4 fully developed em- 
bryos. In each case the egg-string contained a large number of eggs, 
in groups of 4, in various stages of development. 

Upon examining the stomachs of the fish caught, I was surprised to 
find, with scarcely an exception, no material whatever except appar- 
ently what had been taken from the bait of the trawls. Upon examin- 
ing the edible fish caught on the trawls, it was noticeable that very 
few presented the appearance of having been attacked by dogfish. 



110 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

From these last two facts stated, together with the fact already stated, 
that the majority of the dogfish caught were not fully grown, it seems 
fair to conclude that the pugnacious nature in dogfish does not develop 
until they reach maturity. I found no trace of lobsters or of shell- 
fish in the stomachs. 

At Boston, on arrival of the schooner for a market, I transferred 
to the schooner "Annie Perry," Captain Perry, just about to sail for 
Provincetown, and returned to port on that vessel. On questioning 
the crew of the " Perry " I learned that their catch of dogfish on the 
trip just ended (and which had been to the same fishing ground as 
that visited by me) had been unusually small and comparatively in- 
significant. 

It is the common opinion of the fishermen of Provincetown, as I 
have learned by extended inquiry, that the dogfish are far more trouble- 
some in the month of August and the succeeding months than in any 
other time of the year. This would seem to indicate that the fish 
mature in August, both in size and in voracity. 

I intend to take, if possible, about three more trips, and shall in- 
clude the seiners and boat fishermen; and shall also investigate the 
condition of the dogfish problem in the harbor and vicinity. 

Very respectfully, Paul Moulton Carpenter. 



Provincetown, Aug. 9, 1905. 
Dr. George "W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — While awaiting the return to the harbor of the mack- 
erel seiners, on one of which I design to make a trip, I have emploj^ed 
my time in examining the harbor fisheries with reference to the dog- 
fish problem. The report is unanimous that dogfish are far less numer- 
ous than usual thus far this season. Employees of the Consolidated 
Weirs Company, which concern operates several large weirs or traps 
within and just without the harbor, report that no dogfish are at the 
present time caught in these traps. A similar report comes from the 
owners of three weirs at the west end of the harbor. A boat came 
in to-night from a day's fishing at " the ledge," a favorite fishing 
ground for Provincetown fishermen, about 10 miles off: Race Point 
and about midway between that point and Plymouth. They report 
good fishing for pollock, and only 3 dogfish caught during the day; 
these were " pups," about 1 foot in length. 

The scarcity of dogfish in this vicinity is taken by the local fishermen 
in connection with a scarcity of mackerel which also prevails. It is 
the general prediction that the dogfish will return with the return of 
the mackerel schools in the bay. The mackerel is generally believed 
to be the favorite food of the dogfish; but it does not despise the cod, 
haddock or pollock when the mackerel is not at hand and easily ob- 
tained. It is common for trawlers to find on their trawls fragments 
of large fishes, and sometimes merely the heads of fishes, which have 
been caught on the trawls, and thus, unable to defend themselves, 
are attacked and eaten by the dogfish. 

It is a persistent report among the fishermen of this port, and one 
which I hear constantly, that the dogfish have followed the mackerel 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. Ill 

to the Maine and Nova Scotia coast. In support of this theory I 
annex a newspaper clipping, which originally appeared in the " New 
York Sun/' concerning the dogfish on the coast of Maine. (See p. 166.) 

I note the remarkable scarcity this summer of squid, which are used 
largely by fishermen for bait. While they at times swarm in great 
multitudes in this harbor, this summer the squid have been remarkably 
scarce. Porgies and herring are chiefly used for bait. Until recently 
porgies have also been scarce, but within the past few days there have 
been several large catches reported. The scarcity of bait has been a 
great injury to the Provincetown fisheries. 

Two matters of possible interest to the commission, though not 
directly connected with the object of my appointment, are considered 
in special reports annexed herewith. 

Very respectfully, Paul Moulton Carpenter. 

Provincetown, Aug. 19, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — Schooner " Saladin," Capt. Florence M. McKown of 
Gloucester, seiner, left harbor of Provincetown August 13, at 4 a.m., 
accompanying a fleet of 60 sail of seiners. Watch was set when off: 
Race Point, and was continued past Highland Light and out to sea, to 
a point about 70 miles southwest from the last-named point. The 
fleet remained in the channel about two days, and then coasted along 
the shore past Wellfleet and Truro, and thence to Minot's Ledge, and 
returned towards Cape Cod. The fleet was then obliged to seek har- 
bor on account of storm, having been absent from port about five days. 
No mackerel were seen, and a number of vessels of the fleet which were 
spoken reported the same. The results of the trip, in the study of 
dogfish, were therefore disappointing. 

Almost immediately upon my return to port a large school of dog- 
fish were reported to have entered the harbor, and I am now engaged 
in inquiries as to their movements. I am also making some inquiries 
concerning some experiments, which I learn were made some years ago 
in this place, in the utilization of dogfish in the manufacture of oil and 
fertilizer. The results of these inquiries I will report later. 

Very respectfully, Paul M. Carpenter. 

Provincetown, Sept. 9, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — On the morning of September 5 I went with one of 
the dory fishermen to the Ledge, a favorite fishing ground for Province- 
town fishermen. We left Provincetown at about 4 o'clock a.m., reach- 
ing the grounds about 7.30. The wind was northeast; the tide was 
just about one-half; the depth of water at this point was about 20 
fathoms. The fishing was on the bottom, the hooks just off the bottom. 
The catch amounted to about 4 hundredweight: about 1 hundredweight 
of cod, 2 hundredweight of pollock and 1 hundredweight of whiting. 
Not a single dogfish was hooked. 

On the morning of September 7 we fished off Wood End, but still 



112 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



no dogfish. TVe fished in about 30 fathoms of water, on a slack tide. 
The wind at this time was about northeast. The catch amounted to 
5 hundredweight : 2 hundredweight of pollock, 1 hundredweight of 
cod (small), 1 hundredweight of hake and 1 hundredweight of whit- 
ing. 

The squid have struck in here, having been for some time very 
scarce. The vessels are consequently starting for the middle banks 
and the channel. I have made arrangements to go on the schooner 
" Annie Perry " the first of the week. 

The " Georgiana," hailing from this port, has just returned from 
the channel, reporting a catch of 90,000 pounds, including 25,000 
pounds of large cod. She reports not a single dog-fish taken on the 
trawls. 

I will do my utmost to obtain data that will be of value to the com- 
mission on my trip to the channel. 

Very respectfully, Paul M. Carpenter. 

Provincetown, Sept. 11, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — On Saturday, September 9, a party of 8 went to the 
Ledge for a day's fishing, and this time succeeded in finding a few 
dogfish. We started from Provincetown at 6 in the morning, and 
reached the fishing ground at 9 o'clock. We fished on the slack tide. 
The depth of water at this point was about 15 fathoms; the wind 
about north. The fishing was very good indeed for this season of the 
year. The catch amounted to about 12 hundredweight, mostly cod, 
pollock and hake, with a few haddock. 

The dogfish, as the annexed list shows, although they stayed with 
us all the time, did not bite except at intervals. I examined the stom- 
achs of the 48 caught, and found nothing except the bait taken from 
the hooks, and also long strings of tentacles which had been detached 
from medusae. 1 The annexed list will show at what intervals the dog- 
fish were caught. 

respectfully, Paul Moulton Carpenter. 



Schedule of Fishing at !.• Ig , - Kac< Point, Cape Cod, Saturday, Sept. 9, 1005. 



Dogfish, cod, haddock, whiting. 
Dogfish, cod, pollock. 
Dogfish. 

Dogfish. 

Dogfish, hake, pollock, pollock, whiting. 

Dogfish, hake, pollock, hake, cod, cod. 

Dogfish, pollock, pollock, hake, cod. 

Dogfish. 

Dogfish, pollock, cod, hake, cod. 

Dogfish, pollock, hake, cod, pollock. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake. 

Dogfish, pollock, cod, cod, hake, pollock. 

Dogfish, pollock, cod, pollock, hake. 



Dogfish, pollock, cod, pollock, hake. 

Dogfish. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, pollock. 

Dogfish, pollock, pollock, cod, hake. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, pollock, cod. 

Dogfish. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake, pollock. 

Dogfish, pollock, pollock, cod. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, pollock. 

Dogfish, pollock, cod, hake, pollock, 

pollock. 
Dogfish, cod, cod, pollock, hake. 



1 I have found dogfish stomachs full of ctenophores very much shrunken and 
shrivelled in appearance. — G. W. Field. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



113 



Schedule of Fishing, etc. —Concluded. 



Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake, cod, cod. 

Dogfish, pollock, hake, pollock, cod, cod. 

Dogfish, pollock, pollock, cod, hake. 

Dogfish. 

Dogfish, cod, cod, pollock. 

Dogfish, pollock, cod, pollock, hake, cod. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake. 

Dogfish, cod, cod, hake. 

Dogfish, hake, cod, cod. 

Dogfish, pollock, pollock, cod, hake. 

Dogfish, pollock, pollock, cod. 

Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake. 



Dogfish, hake, cod, pollock, pollock. 
Dogfish, pollock, pollock, cod. 
Dogfish, cod, pollock, pollock, hake. 
Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake, cod. 
Dogfish, haddock, cod, pollock, hake. 
Dogfish, pollock, cod, haddock, pollock. 
Dogfish, cod, pollock, pollock, hake. 
Dogfish , pollock , cod , cod, pollock , hake. 
Dogfish, cod, hake, haddock. 
Dogfish, cod, pollock, hake, cod. 
Dogfish, pollock, cod. 

Provincetown, Sept. 25, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — Schooner " Annie Perry," 117 tons register, left Prov- 
incetown for channel September 21, after a delay of more than ten 
days, caused by scarcity of bait. She is commanded by Capt. Marion 
Perry, and carries a crew of 20 men. The first set of trawls, which 
was made on the morning of the 22d, brought in nothing but dogfish 
for the first 4 dories, which set, as the captain said, in shoal water. 
The other 6 dories caught dogfish on their first 2 tubs of trawl, but on 
the remaining 3 dogfish were very few, biting at only every fifth or 
sixth hook. The wind was blowing brisk southwest, and the set was 
made in 45 fathoms of water. 

The second set, on the afternoon of the same day, showed that the 
dogfish had practically left, as they were caught on the trawls at only 
the tenth or twelfth hook. The wind still held to the southwest, and 
the water at this point was 50 fathoms. 

The second day of fishing developed the same facts as on the after- 
noon of the first day. The dogfish on this day, however, were very 
large, — larger, the captain said, than he had ever seen before. They 
averaged 3% and 4 feet in length, no small ones being caught. On the 
second day a large school of sharks, none of which were less than 10 
feet in length, and one fully 15 feet in length, swarmed about the 
vessel. They were evidently after the bait, which was thrown over- 
board. They were not easily frightened. Two were caught and hauled 
on board and killed, and the carcasses thrown over again. The wind 
on the second day was about northwest, and the depth of water 55 
fathoms. 

At the end of the second day I had been able to examine 300 dogfish. 
In each case nothing was found in the stomachs save the bait taken 
from the trawls. In the majority of cases there were evidences of 
great voracity, the stomachs being crowded to their fullest capacity. 
It was noticeable that fully three-fourths of the dogfish caught were 
females. In no case did their bodies contain developed young. 

The third day's fishing was in about 60 fathoms of water, and each 
dory brought in from 6 to 10 dogfish. I was able to examine 50 of 
these, and the result was the same as in the examinations on the pre- 
vious days. 



114 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

It might be well to explain that on the second day the dogfish came 
so fast that the men fonnd it difficult to save their gear. On this ac- 
count, only a small percentage of the fish were saved for my examina- 
tion. The result of the trip shows beyond doubt that the dogfish run 
in schools, for the most part in shoal water. Among fishermen, from 
40 to 50 fathoms is considered shoal. I have made inquiries here at 
Provincetown, and up to date this year hear no complaint of gear 
being lost by the depredations of dogfish. 

Respectfully, Paul Moulton Carpenter. 

Provincetown, Sept. 28, 1905. 
Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — I deemed it best to defer, until near the close of my 
investigation concerning dogfish, any systematic inquiries concerning the 
damage done to gear by these fish; by so doing I should be able to pro- 
cure more complete statistics. Upon my return from my recent trip 
to the channel, therefore, I began a systematic canvass of the captains 
and agents of the fishing vessels of this town, with the following re- 
sults : — 

Schooner " Fish Hawk," Capt. Joseph Paine, lost 20 tubs of trawl 
during her last two trips to the channel. 

Schooner " Louisa Silva," Captain Silva, lost 15 tubs of trawl, dur- 
ing the same two trips. 

Schooner " Louisa Cabral " lost 20 tubs during the last three trips. 

Schooner " Sea Fox " lost 17 tubs in the middle of September. 

Schooner " Julia Costa " lost 8 tubs during the last two trips. 

Schooner " Philip Mania " lost 24 tubs during the last two trips. 

The total damage experienced by these 6 vessels is, therefore, 104 
tubs of trawl, worth $8.50 each, making a total loss of $884, — an 
average of $147.33 each. There are still other vessels to be heard from, 
which are in the channel at the present time. The captains and agents 
of vessels all declare that when squid are used as bait there are plenty 
of dogfish on the trawls. On the other hand, when white bait is used, 
as porgie, herring, etc., fewer dogfish are found on the hooks. 

There has been no mention of damage done by dogfish until within 
the last two trips. 

It may be well to mention that the dogfish now caught are of differ- 
ent appearance from those seen earlier in the season. They are of a 
sandy color, and the ventral portion of white extends farther round. 
They are not as rough to the touch as formerly, but are quite smooth. 
All agree that the dogfish now running are very large, and that the 
men are obliged to work very hard to save their trawls from destruc- 
tion. 

Each vessel is allowed 60 tubs of trawl a year. When the dogfish 
are very plenty the allotted number is used, and sometimes the number 
is greatly exceeded. 

I shall continue my canvass, and report further on this subject. 
Very respectfully, Paul Moulton Carpenter. 

I am able to add two names to the list of vessels whose gear has 
been lost or damaged through the depredations of dogfish: — 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 115 

Schooner "Marshall L. Adams/' Capt. Antone Silva, reports 8 tubs 
of trawl lost on last two trips. 

Schooner " Mary C. Santos/' Captain Santos, reports 15 tubs of 
trawl lost during the same two trips. 

Both captains think that they fished too far to the southward. Other 
vessels are expected in a day or two. 

The following is a statement by Deputy Foster, on the launch 
" Egret," covering the month of July : — 

I have seen almost every trap hauled between Nahant and Rockport, 
and saw but one large lot of dogfish, and that was the trap at Dana's 
Island. There were in this haul about 75 barrels, which were taken 
off shore and thrown away. I saw one boat off: Half-way Rock. I 
watched the hauling of the trawls for one-half hour, and, as near as it 
was possible for me to tell, he caught 250 dogfish and not much of any- 
thing else, for there were a dozen small codfish and haddock, mostly 
eaten up. The shore fishermen complain that they are having lots of 
trouble with them. There are some in every trap I saw hauled, but in 
most of them not enough to be very troublesome. In the Kettle Island 
trap they had 5 barrels of " bluebacks," 42 small dogfish and not much 
of anything else. 

Our special agents interviewed 584 fishermen, from RTew- 
buryport to Newport, including masters of vessels, shore, net, 
trawls and hand line, and trap and weir fishermen. These 
agents asked questions designed to secure free, full and accurate 
replies to the questions below. This information has been 
tabulated. The questions and the results of the tabulated re- 
turns are as follows : — 

Apparatus used (specify kind of apparatus used, and number of 
each kind). Hand lines, 6,833; nets, 8,224; gills, 1,536; tubs, 8,915; 
trawls, 1,742; weirs, 45. 

How many pounds do you consider your average total annual catch 
of edible and bait fish? 194,915,050. 

What do you consider a fair estimate of your annual catch of dog- 
fish? 27,668,150. 

Is this number a guess, or is it estimated on actual counts for a 
week or a month? Fair estimate. 

During what months is the smooth dogfish present? April to Decem- 
ber; most numerous in May and June and October to December. Prac- 
tically limited to waters south of Cape Cod. 

During what months is the spiny dogfish present? April to Decem- 
ber in all waters off shore, to 50 to 75 fathoms. 

Do dogfish damage your apparatus? Yes, 586; no, 3. 

What do you consider a fair estimate of the annual damage done 
by dogfish to your seines, nets, trawls, bait, hand lines, weirs, traps? 



116 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Seines, $6,550; nets, $27,181; trawls, $58,998.50; bait, $56,158; hand 
lines, $10,830; weirs, $1,000; traps, $100; total, $160,817.50. 

Is the above figure a guess, or is it based upon actual records of 
expenses caused by dogfish, of loss of material and of time spent in 
repairs? Fair estimate, 475; guess, 89. 

Are many fish caught by your apparatus eaten or bitten by dogfish 
so as to destroy market value? Yes, 533; no, 41. 

What do you consider a fair estimate of the value of the fish 
caught in your apparatus and made worthless by dogfish? $250,405. 

Do you kill the dogfish captured? Yes, 511; no, 40. 

In your opinion, does the dogfish do appreciable damage to the 
supply of edible and bait fish? Yes, 578; no, 3. 

Has there been an average total catch of fish this season? Yes, 233; 
no, 353. 

Do you note any increase or decrease in the numbers of dogfish in 
the past year? Increase, 346; about same, 159; decrease, 86. 

In your opinion, has there been an increase or decrease in the past 
ten years? Increase, 544; decrease, 22; about the same, 2. 

Do you make any use of dogfish? Yes, 44; no, 506. 

If so, what? Livers. 

What value do you place on the dogfish so used? $444. 

What, in your opinion, would be the effect of a bounty on dog- 
fish? Good, 582; bad, 7. 

Would it decrease the number of dogfish? Yes, 523; no, 3. 

Would it increase the profits of the fishermen? If so, how? Yes, 
569; no, 12. 

Would it increase the supply of food fish, and thus benefit the pub- 
lic? Yes, 587; no, 1. 

Would a decrease in the number of dogfish lessen the expense of 
catching food fish? Yes, 584; no, 3. 

The following is a copy of the circular used to secure the in- 
formation from which the preceding returns were tabulated : — 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Commission on Fisheries and Game, State House, Boston. 

Acting according to chapter 12 of the Resolves of 1905, the Massa- 
chusetts Commission on Fisheries and Game requests from you a state- 
ment containing information which may be used in support of a bill 
pending in Congress " to provide for the extermination of the dogfish 
and other predatory fish." The evidence of the damage caused by 
these fish must be put in proper form. It is of the greatest impor- 
tance that you make your answers as accurate as possible, so that the 
information may be of some value. You are therefore requested to 
give the following questions the fullest and fairest answers possible. 

Apparatus used (specify kind of apparatus used, and number of 
each kind). 

How many pounds do you consider your average total annual catch 
of edible and bait fish? 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 117 

What do you consider a fair estimate of your annual catch of dog- 
fish? 

Is this number a guess; or is it estimated on actual counts for a 
week or a month? 

During what months is the smooth dogfish present? 

During what months is the spiny dogfish present? 

Do dogfish damage your apparatus? 

What do you consider a fair estimate of the annual damage done 
by dogfish to your nets, trawls, bait, hand lines? 

Is the above figure a guess, or is it based upon actual records of 
expenses caused by dogfish, of loss of material and of time spent in 
repairs ? 

Are many fish caught by your apparatus eaten or bitten by dogfish 
so as to destroy market value? 

What do you consider a fair estimate of the value of the fish caught 
in your apparatus and made worthless by dogfish? 

Do you kill the dogfish captured? 

If so, how? (Clubbing, stabbing, cutting off tail, etc.) 

In your opinion, does the dogfish do appreciable damage to the 
supply of edible and bait fish? 

Has there been an average total catch of fish this season? 

For how many years have you fished in Massachusetts waters? 
Where? 

Do you note any increase or decrease in the numbers of dogfish in 
the past year? 

In your opinion, has there been an increase or decrease in the past 
ten years? 

What, in your opinion, is the cause? 

Do you make any use of dogfish? If so, what? 

What value do you place on the dogfish so used? 

What, in your opinion, would be the effect of a bounty on dogfish? 

Would it decrease the number of dogfish? 

Would it increase the profits of the fishermen? If so, how? 

Would it increase the supply of food fish, and thus benefit the pub- 
lic? 

Would a decrease in the number of dogfish lessen the expense of 
catching food fish? 

Remarks : — 

Name 

Name of vessel 

Town 

County 

Date 



118 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 



Replies to the above circular have been received from the 
following persons : — 



Name of Vessel. 



Abrahamson, A. S., 


Gloucester, . 


Scud. 


Acker, Joshua, 




• 


Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Adams, Charles C, 






Newburyport, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Ahlquist, Erik, 




• 


Rockport, 


Jessie P. 


Allen, William, 






Marblehead, . 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Amiro, Adolphus, 






Beverly, 


James R. Clark. 


Anderson, G. B., 






Gloucester, . 


Rob Roy. 


Anderson, Julius, 






Boston, .... 


Robert and Arthur. 


Andrews, Elmer, 






Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Andrews, Fuller A., 




Manchester, . 


(Sail boat and a weir.) 


Atkinson, W. B., & Co., 




Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Atwood & Corrigan, 




East Brewster, 


(Three dories.) 


Atwood, John, 




Gloucester, . 


Yakima. 


Aubin, Bennett, 






Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


A vela, Joseph, 2d, 






Provincetown, 


(Sail dory.) 


Avina, Manuel, 






Gloucester, . 


Eva Avina. 


Bailey, Samuel S., 






Ipswich (Grape Island) , 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Bailey, William, 






Rockport, 


Alena L. Young. 


Bangs, John B., 






Provincetown, 


John W. Caswell. 


Barrett, Jacob P., 






Gloucester, . 


Marguerite. 


Barrett, John F., 






Gloucester, . 


Lillian. 


Bartles, Henry, 






Rockport, 


Evelyn M. 


Barton, John, . 






Rockport, 


Mercedes. 


Bassett, Daniel S., 






South Chatham, . 


(Sail boat.) 


Bassett, Frank, 






Barnstable, . 


Two Friends. 


Bayley, Charles A., 






Ipswich (Grape Island) , 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Bearse, George N., 






South Chatham, . 


(Sail boat.) 


Bearse, Washington, 




Chatham, 


(Sail boat.) 


Benham, Robert B., 




Gloucester, . 


Lizzie W. Hunt. 


Bennett, John, 




Manchester, . 


(Dory.) 


Benson, Benjamin T., 


• 


Provincetown, 


Frances V. Sylvia. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



119- 



Name. 


Town. 


Name ofVessel. 


Bergsten, Peter, 


Gloucester, 






Wodan. 


Bigalke, Agust, 


Rockport, 




• 


Etta B. 


Bignall, J. H 


Plymouth, 






Katie L. 


Black, Stephen, 


Gloucester, 




• 


Indiana. 


Blackman, David B., 


Brant Rock, 




. 


Gracie. 


Blades, Leslie, .... 


Boston, . 






John M. Keen. 


Blanchard, Fred, 


Swampscott, 






(Dory.) 


Boozeli, Tony, .... 


Boston, . 






Two Brothers. 


Boudort, Alfred, 


Gloucester, 






Georgianna. 


Boudreault, Lawrence, 


Boston, . 






Genesta. 


Boudreault, Thomas A., . 


Provincetown 


, 




Esther Gray. 


Bowden, Benjamin, . 


Lanesville, 






Venus. 


Boyden, Walter, 


Swampscott, 






(Dory.) 


Brackett, Theophilus, 


Swampscott, 






(Dory.) 


Braja, Joseph, .... 


Rockport, 






Vamos. 


Brazier, Eben A., 


Gloucester, 






Petrel. 


Brewer, Roland, 


Boston, . 




. 


M. Madeline. 


Briggs, Charles, 


Marblehead, 






(Dory.) 


Brigham, J. 0., 


Boston, . 




• 


Shepherd King. 


Brinnick, William P., 


Boston, . 






Jennie Maud. 


Brooks, John S., 


Gloucester, 






Ida. 


Brown, Alonzo L., . 


Ipswich, 






(Gasoline boat.) 


Brown, George A., . 


Provincetown, 




A. Brown. 


Burch, A. L., . 


Provincetown, 




Jennie A. Hooper. 


Burgess, Warren, 


East Brewster, 


. 


- 


Burnham, Leroy, 


Essex, . 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Burnham, Sherman, 


Essex, . 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Burns, John, .... 


Boston, . 




Mary F. Fallon. 


Bushee, Alexander D., . 


New Bedford, 




Leone. 


Butler, George, 


Swampscott, . 




(Dory.) 


Cahoon, Alonzo F., . 


South Chatham, 




T. J. Carroll. 


Cahoon, Otis 


Swampscott, . 




(Dory.) 


Cain, Frank, .... 


Gloucester, . 




Day Dream . 


Callahan, Leonard, . 


Essex, .... 


(Gasoline boat.). 



120 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 



Town. 



Xante of Vessel. 



Callahan, Michael, 
Cameron, Reuben, 
Campbell, Charles J 
Carlos, E. M., . 
Carroll, Frank, 
Carter, Edward H., 
Caswell, Charles A., 
Caton, John B., 
Chapman, Hiram, 
Chapman, John C, 
Chard, Frank, . 
Chase, John, 
Chitwynd, "William C 
Christianson, Martin, 
Churchill, Henry A., 
Cilley, C. B., . 
Cilley, James, . 
Claxton, John F., 
Clay, Manuel, . 
Cobb, John K., 
Coffin, Frank, . 
Colberg, Ed., . 
Colson, Samuel, 
Connolly, John, 
Contrino, Gaspi C. 
Cook, Jerry E., 
Cooney, James S., 
Coop, John F., 
Corca, William J., 
Corkum, William, 
Costa, Emanuel, 
Costa, John, 
Costa, John, 
Costa, J. E., 



Essex, . 

Gloucester, . 

Provincetown, 

Gloucester, . 

Gloucester, . 

Gloucester, . 

Newburyport, 

Provincetown, 

Gloucester, . 

Beverly, 

Gloucester, . 

Newburyport, 

Gloucester, . 

Gloucester, . 

Ipswich, 

Newburyport, 

Newburyport, 

Ipswich, 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Newburyport, 

Newport, R. I. 

Gloucester, . 

Rockport, 

Rockport, 

Gloucester, . 

Rockport, 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Gloucester, . 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Boston, . 



(Gasoline boat.) 

Grayling. 

Active. 

Pythian. 

M. H. Perkins. 

Sarah. 

(Dory.) 

Albert Brown. 

Ramona. 

Trump. 

Bessie A. 

(Sail boat.) 

Volant. 

Patriot. 

(Gasoline boat and 

dory.) 
(Dory.) 

(Dory.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

(Power dory.) 

Betsey Ross. 

(Dory.) 

Winnie Kane. 

Margaret. 

Leo. 

(Gasoline dory.) 

Carrie Babsou. 

Annie and Jamie. 

Florence. 

Lear C. 

Diana. 

Jessie Costa. 

(Power dory.) 

(Power dory.) 

Mildred Robinson. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



121 



Name. 


Town. 


Name ofVessel. 


Courant, Antone, 


Gloucester, . 


Smuggler. 


Crane, Herman, 


Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Crittenden, Samuel, 


Gloucester, . 


Mattie Winship. 


Crocker, Dean F., 


Gloucester, . 


Wm. H. Clements. 


Crooks, James, 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Crouse, Oberlin, . 


Gloucester, . 


Agnes Downes. 


Crowell Cold Storage Company, 


East Dennis, . 


- 


Crowell, I. K., . 


Boston, .... 


Zephyr. 


Crowell, Leonard, 


Gloucester, . 


Claudia. 


Crowell, Thomas, 


Gloucester, . 


Carrie C. 


Crowley, Emanuel, . 


Provincetown , 


Lucy E . 


Cunningham, E. J., 


Boston, .... 


Stranger. 


Currier, Charles S., . 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Curtis, Edward, 


Marblehead, . 


(Dory.) 


Curtis, Henry W 


Gloucester, . 


Mary F. Curtis. 


Cushing, William M., 


Green Harbor, 


- 


Cushman, Cassius E., 


Rockport, 


Mary J. Ward. 


Daggett, Allton, 


Provincetown, 


Pearl. 


Daley, Jason M., 


Boston, .... 


Muriel. 


Daly, H., 


Boston, . . . . 


Harmony. 


Davis, Charles, 


Beverly, 


Viking. 


Davis, Joseph F., 


Provincetown, 


Bessie. 


Davis, Manuel, 


Provincetown, 


M. Enos. 


Dent, John T., 


Marblehead, . 


Yankee. 


Devine, Archie, . . . 


Gloucester, . 


Arthur James. 


Devine, Norman, 


Gloucester, . 


James A. Garfield. 


Devine, William A., 


Boston 


Rapidan. 


Doane, Ed. E., .... 


Swampscott, . 


Mertis H. Perry. 


Doane, Lorenzo F., . 


Harwichport, 


Athlete. 


Dolan, John E., 


Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Doleman, Allen, 


Gloucester, . 


Appomattox. 


Domingoes, Manuel, 


Gloucester, . 


Belbina P. Dom ingoes. 


Doucette, Charles E., 


Gloucester, . 


Acacia. 


Douglass, Fred G., . 


Gloucester, . 


Gladys Lee. 



122 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Douglass, George W., 


Gloucester, . 


Mary Elizabeth. 


Douglass, Joseph G., 


Gloucester, . 


(Trap.) 


Douglass, Rodney, . 


Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Douglass, Simon, 


Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Douglass, Thomas, . 


Gloucester, . 


(Trap.) 


Downie, Thomas, 


Gloucester, . 


Monarch. 


Dresser, William W., 


Rockport, 


Mildred. 


Dunsky, Peter P., 


Gloucester, . 


Hattie L. Trask. 


Dwyer, James, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Annie Greenlaw. 


Eaton, Jabez M., 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Eaton, James, .... 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Eaton, Lurin F., 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Eaton, Nelson, .... 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Eaton, William, 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Edwards, Antone, 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Eldredge, James, & Son, 


Brewster, 


- 


Eldridge, Seth W., . 


Harwich port, 


Beatrice Earle. 


Ellis, Gilbert E., . 


East Brewster, 


(Dories.) 


Elwell, Sylvanus, 


Gloucester, . 


Pluto. 


Engstrom, Ernest T., 


Gloucester, . 


Thalia. 


Enos, Antone, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Catherine D. Enos. 


En os, Emanuel, 


Gloucester, . 


Marina. 


Enos, Manuel, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Marian. 


Enos, Manuel, .... 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Enos, William, 


Gloucester, . 


Rita Viator. 


Fellows, Charles, 


Salem, .... 


- 


Fewers, Edward, 


Gloucester, . 


Azorian. 


Firth, Lemuel, 


Gloucester, . 


Cherokee. 


Fisher, William J., . 


Beverly, 


Grace Darling. 


Foley, Charles, 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Folej, William, 


Gloucester, . 


J. W. Bradley. 


Forbes, Edward C, . 


Boston, .... 


Flavilla. 


Forbes, Warren, 


Gloucester, . 


Alice R. Lawson. 


Fortado, M. P., 


Gloucester, . 


Rebecca Bartlett. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



123 



Name. 



Town. 



Name of Vessel. 



Fowler, Emery M., 
Fowler, Israel E., 
Fowler, James, 
Fowler, John L., 
Fowler, Richard, 
Fowler, William L., 
Francis, James, 
Francis, Joseph, 
Francis, Joseph, 
Francis, M. J., 
Francis, William, 
Frazier, James S., 
Freeman, John E., 
Frost, Lorin, 
Frye, A oner, . 
Frye, A. P., & Co., 
Gannon, James, 
Gauss, Charles, 
Gedrey, Benjamin J 
Gifford, Robinson, 
Gillant, Gilbert, 
Gillis, David, . 
Gitz, John, 
Gogetcher, Alex., 
Gonvreau, Andrew, 
Goodwin, Benjamin, 
Goodwin, Gilbert, . 
Goodwin, James, 
Goodwin, James A., 
Goodwin, James D., 
Goodwin, Jeremiah, 
Goodwin, Joseph A., 
Gott, Chester W., . 
Goulart, Antonio P., 



Salisbury, 

Salisbury, 

Duxbury, 

Newburyport, 

Salisbury, 

Salisbury, 

Gloucester, . 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Provincetown, 

Boston, . 

Provincetown, 

Gloucester, 

Beverly, 

Salisbury, 

Boston, . 

Beverly, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Manchester 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Boston, . 

Manchester, 

Rockport, 

Boston, . 



(Dory.) 
(Dory.) 

Massasoit. 

(Dory.) 

(Dory.) 

(Dory.) 

Sachem. 

Kate Maxwell. 

Glennelg. 

(Power dory.) 

Minnie. 

Mattie D. Brundage. 

Milton. 

Pearl. 

Edna. 

(Dory.) 

Shenandoah. 

(Dory.) 

Mary A. 

Conqueror. 

F. W. Homans. 

Maxwell. 

(Dory.) 

Almeida. 

William H. Moody. 

Braganza. 

Gossip. 

Agnes. 

Edward A. Rich. 

Ella G. Goodwin. 

Thos. Brundage. 

Gardner Heath. 

Catherine. 

Walter P. Goulart. 



124 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Gould, Roscoe H 


"West Chatham, 


(Sail boat.) 


Gould, Stephen W., 




..- 


South Chatham, 




Asprel. 


Gove, Robert F., 






Ipswich, 


• 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Grady, Daniel, . 




• 


Gloucester, 






Speculator. 


Graham, Joseph E., 






Boston, . 






Evelyn Smith. 


Grant, Peter, . 






Gloucester, 




• 


Gracie. 


Gray, John, 






Gloucester, 






Minnie. 


Green, Alfred, . 






Gloucester, 






Flirt. 


Greenlow, Albert, 






Gloucester, 






Emerald. 


Greer, Matthew, 






Boston, . 






H. G. Martin. 


Griffen, Albert J., 






Lanesville, 




. 


Alice. 


Gross, George L., 






Gloucester, 






Priscilla. 


Gross, Melvin J., 






Gloucester, 






Defender. 


Groves, Edward, 






Gloucester, 






A. T. Gifford. 


Guthrie, Martin, 






Boston, . 






Alice W. Guthrie. 


Hains, Alex, . 






Gloucester, 






Meteor. 


Hall, Augustus, 






Gloucester, 






Faustina. 


Hall, Emery A., 






Ipswich, 






(Gasoline boat.) 


Hall, Frank, . 






Gloucester, 






Ralph L. Hall. 


Hamilton, John, 






Duxbury, 






Massachusetts. 


Hamor, George, 






Gloucester, 




. 


Corsair. 


Hanson, Benjamin, 






Gloucester, 






On Time. 


Hanson, Edward, 




. 


Gloucester, 






Reliance. 


Hanson, Sven, . 






Gloucester, 






Sylvester. 


Harding, James T., 






Boston, . 






Viking. 


Harding, Thomas, 






Gloucester, 




. 


Two Forty. 


Harriden, George, 






Lanesville, 






(Sail dory.) 


Harris, John T., 






Ipswich, 






(Gasoline boat.) 


Harty, Charles, 






Gloucester, . 






Mary E. Harty. 


Harvey, Isaac, . 






Essex, . 






(Gasoline boat.) 


Hatch, Joseph, 






Duxbury, 






Moo ween. 


Hathaway, James, 






Beverly, 






(Gasoline boat.) 


Haynes, John E., 




. 


Ipswich, 






(Gasoline boat.) 


Heath, Edward, 






Manchester, . 






(Sail boat.) 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



125 



Name. 



Town. 



Name ofVessel. 



Hemeon, James "W., 
Henderson, Thomas P 
Hickey, John, . 
Hickman, Benjamin 
Hickman, George E. 
Higgins, James F., 
Hilton, A. P., . 
Hipson, Stetson, 
Hisks, H. L., . 
Hobert, Joseph, 
Hodgdon, Parkman, 
Hodsdon, Benjamin, 
Hodsdon, Lovell, 
Hogizell, Albert, 
Holland, Edgar I., 
Holmes & Doten, 
Horton, Jeremiah, 
Howard, Fred, . 
Howes, Collins E., 
Hoyt, Charles, . 
Hudder, Albert, 
Hull, Fred R., . 
Hull, Justin E., 
Hunt, F. E. & A. E. 
Hunter, Alexander 
Inglestead, W. N., 
Jacobs, Solomon, 
Jamison, Ed., . 
Jedrey, Frank, 
Jerault, E. C, . 
Jewell, Ned M., 
Jewett, James A., 
Jewett, Silas, . 
Johnson, Alfred, 



Gloucester, . 

Provincetown, 

Boston, . 

Salem, . 

Gloucester, . 

Brewster, 

Newburyport, 

Plymouth, 

Boston, . 

Provincetown, 

Gloucester, . 

Gloucester, . 

Gloucester, . 

Beverly, 

Ipswich, 

Plymouth, 

Swampscott, . 

Beverly, 

Chatham, 

Newburyport, 

Gloucester, 

Ipswich, 

Ipswich, 

Salisbury, 

Chatham, 

Green Harbor 

Gloucester, 

Boston, . 

Rockport, 

Barnstable, 

Ipswich, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 



Mattacommet. 

Jessie. 

F. J. O'Hara, Jr. 

Slade Gorton. 

(Gasoline boat.) 

Mystery. 

Bertha M. Bailey. 

Vesta. 

Robert C. Harris. 

Dixie. 

(Gasoline dory.) 

(Dory.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

Albertine. 

(Dory.) 

Boyd and Leeds. 

(Sail boat.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

A. M. Nicholson. 

(Dory.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 



Veda M. McKown. 
Mattie D. Brundage. 
Eddie Minot. 
Charlie. 
(Gasoline boat.) 
Grace E. Freeman. 
Arrow. 
Lelia E. Norwood. 



126 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 



Name of Vessel. 



Johnson, Benjamin, 
Johnson, Edward, 
Johnson, John, 
Johnson, J. R., 
Johnson, Nicholas, 
Johnson, Peter J., 
Jones, D. C, . 
Joseph, Frank, 
Joseph, S. A., . 
Joseph, W., 
Joyce, Rowell, . 
Keefe, John W., 
Kehoe, Wallace, 
Kelly, Patrick H., 
Kelley, Reuben O., 
Kendrick, Albert F., 
Kendrick, William, 
Kenney, Wallace, 
Kent, Edward, 
Kilburn, John, 
Kimball, Charles H 
King, Joe, 
King, Walter, . 
Kingsley, Herbert, & Co. 
Kirk, John, 
Krups, P., 
Lane, George & John, 
Lane, Oscar, 
Larkin, James H., 
Lark in, Murray, 
Larkin, William, 
Larkin, William B., 
Latimer, Gardner C. 
Lawson, Nels, . 



Gloucester, 
Newburyport 
Provincetown 
Gloucester, 
Gloucester, 
Rockport, 
Manchester 
Provincetown 
Provincetown 
Provincetown 
Gloucester, 
Gloucester, 
Swampscott 
Beverly, 
Provincetown 
Chathamport 
Boston, . 
Beverly, 
Ipswich, 
! Ipswich, 
Beverly, 
Provincetown 
Newburyport 
Salisbury, 
Marblehead, 
Marblehead, 
Essex, . 
Beverly, 
Boston, . 
Gloucester, 
Beverly, 
Gloucester, 
Newburyport, 
Gloucester, , 



Lawrence Murdock, 
(Gasoline boat.) 

Barbara. 

James S. Steele. 

Cecil H. Low. 
, City of Everett. 

(Gasoline boat.) 

(Power dory.) 

Angelenca. 

(Power dory.) 

Beulah Maud. 

Diana. 

(Dory.) 

(Dory.) 

Georgie. 

Lillian. 

George E. Lane, Jr. 

Governor Cleaves. 

(Dory.) 
I (Gasoline boat.) 

Dorothy. 

(Power dory.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

(Dory.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

(Dory.) 

(Gasoline boat.) 

Helen B. Lane. 

Onato. 

William H. Cross. 

Jambouree. 

Sceptre. 

(Dory.) 

Ella G. King. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



127 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Leonard, Matthew, . 


Boston, .... 


T. H. Cronwell. 


Lewis, Alex., . 






New Bedford, 


Laura E. 


Lewis, Leonard, 






Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Lewis, William B., 






Provincetown, 


Reliance. 


Livingston, Alex- 






Provincetown, 


(Dory.) 


Lord, J. A., 






Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Lorentzen, Frank, 






Gloucester, . 


E. A. Hooper. 


Lovell, Herbert, 






Yarmouth, 


- 


Lowrie, John S., 






Gloucester, . 


Illinois. 


Lubee, Morris, . 






Boston, .... 


Geo. H. Lubee. 


Lufkin, Henry C, 






Gloucester, . 


Esther Madelene. 


Lunt, Clarence C, 






Newburyport, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Luth, Christian, 






Newport, R. I., 


On Time. 


Luth, W. C, . 






Newport, R. I., 


Olga. 


Lyle, John, 






Provincetown, 


Gracie. 


Lyle, Joseph A., 






Gloucester, . 


Nourmahal. 


Lyons, W. H., . 






Gloucester, . 


Wm. H. Ryder. 


Mailman, William, 






Gloucester, . 


Albert Geigher. 


Malkis, Joe, 






Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Malone, Charles C, 






Gloucester, . 


Orinoco. 


Marchant, Horace M 






Lanesville, . 


(Sail dory.) 


Marsh, Robert, 






Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Martin, Benjamin, 






Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Martin, Charles, 






Gloucester, . 


N. A. Rowe. 


Martin, John, . 






Gloucester, . 


Helena. 


Mayo, Alfred A., 






Provincetown, 


Iris. 


Mayo, Herman L., 






Provincetown, 


Little Jennie. 


McComiskey, Asa, 






Boston, .... 


Alcina. 


McComiskey, T. W., 






Boston, . . . 


Catherine D. Burke. 


McDonald, Daniel J 


, 




Duxbury, 


Squanto. 


McDonald, James, 






Gloucester, . 


Edwin B. Holmes. 


McDonald, John, 






Boston, .... 


Grace W. Hone. 


McEachen, Alex., 






Gloucester, . 


Maggie and May. 


McFarland, John, 






Gloucester, . 


Mary E. Webb. 



128 



FISH AND GAME. 



P> 



ec. 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


McGrath, Laurence, 


Gloucester, . 


Hobo. 


McGray, Benjamin F., . 


Gloucester, . 


Norma. 


McHenry, James, . 


Gloucester, . 


Theodore Roosevelt. 


Mclnnis, John, 


Gloucester, . 


Aloha. 


McKay, James, 


Gloucester, . 


- 


McKenney, Herbert T., . 


Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


McKinnon, John A., 


Gloucester, . 


Norumbega. 


McLain, George E., . 


Rockport, 


Atlantic. 


McLean, Albert, 


Marblehead, . 


(Gasoline boat.) 


McLoud, Alex., 


Gloucester, . 


Leander F. Gould. 


McLoud, Simeon, 


Gloucester, . 


Northern Eagle. 


McNeil, Roderick, . 


Gloucester* . 


Senator Salisbury. 


McPhee, Neil S., . 


Gloucester, . 


Louisa Polleys. 


Merchant, Fred, 


Salem, 


Evangeline. 


Mesquita, Joseph, . 


Gloucester, . 


Francis P. Mesquita. 


Miller, Mark, & Co., 


Salisbury, 


(Dory.) 


Milton, Manifred, . 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Mitting, Theodore, . 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Morgan, George B., . 


Lanesville, . 


Star Spangled Banner. 


Morris, Edward, 


Gloucester, . 


Miranda. 


Morrissey, William F., . 


Gloucester, . 


Helen F. Whitten. 


Morse, Bartholomew, 


Beverly, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Morse, George F., . 


Newburyport, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Mosoetic, John, 


Gloucester, . 


Nettie. 


Murray, Thomas F., 


Gloucester, . 


Mary A. Gleason. 


Nauss, Robert, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Lizzie M. Stanley. 


Neil, Valentine D., . 


East Boston, . 


Elmer E. Gray. 


Nelson, Charles, 


Gloucester, . 


Mary Emerson. 


Nelson, Hans, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Lorna Doone. 


Nelson, Henry, 


Gloucester, . 


(Trap.) 


Nelson, John, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Reliance. 


Nelson, Niles, .... 


East Brewster, 


(Seven dories.) 


Newell, W., .... 


Gloucester, . 


Vesta. 


Newhall, W. H., . 


Gloucester, . 


Canopus. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



129 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Nickerson, C. E., 


Gloucester, . 


Maud M. Story. 


Nickerson, Eldridge, 


Boston, .... 


Ellen C. Burke. 


Nickerson, Eldridge C, . 


Boston 


Quannapowitt. 


Nickerson, Enos, 


Boston, .... 


Seaconnet. 


Nickerson, Erastus, . 


Boston, .... 


Bertha M. Bailey. 


Nickerson, Herbert, . . 


Maiden, 


Buema. 


Nickerson, H. F. & E. K., 


South Chatham, . 


Corsair. 


Nickerson, Jethu W., 


Boston, .... 


Flora S. Nickerson. 


Nickerson, Josiah, . 


Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Nickerson, Phillip L., 


Harwichport, 


(Sail boat.) 


Nolan, Frank, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Actor. 


Norris, Larance, 


Boston, .... 


Mary A. Whalen. 


Norwood, John H., . 


Gloucester, . 


(Boat 20 feet.) 


Obed, William J., . 


Boston, .... 


Catherine G. Howard. 


O'Brien, John, 


Boston, .... 


Mattakesett. 


Olson, Lars, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Julietta. 


O'Neal, George R., . 


Provincetown, 


Lucy B. Winsor 


O'Neil, Charles, 


Gloucester, . 


Valentina. 


O'Neill, Dennis, 


East Boston, . 


Fanny E. Prescott. 


Pail, Joe, 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Parks, George M., . 


Gloucester, . 


Thistle. 


Parsons, Samuel, 


Rockport, 


Queen of the Sea. 


Paul, Antone, . 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Paul, Frank, .... 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Paul, George, . . . . 


Salisbury, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Paulsen, Gussie, 


Provincetown, 


Perseverance. 


Peabody, William, . 


Salem, .... 


(Dory.) 


Pennington, A. H., . 


Gloucester, . 


Motor. 


Pennur, Austin, 


Boston, .... 


A. C. Newhall. 


Peoples, George, 


Gloucester, . 


Lafayette. 


Perry, George H., . 


Boston, .... 


Teresa and Alice. 


Perry, Manuell F., 2d, . 


Gloucester, . 


Two Sisters. 


Perry, Marian, .... 


Provincetown, 


Annie Perry. 


Peterson, Edward, . 


Boston 


Elsie Rowe. 



130 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Peterson, Gustaf, 


Gloucester, . 


Corona. 


Peterson, Henry, 






Gloucester, . 




Maud B. Murray. 


Pettipas, Joseph, 






Boston, . 




Nokomis. 


Phillips, Edward C. 




• 


Swampscott, . 




(Dory.) 


Phillips, Henry, 






Green Harbor, 




- 


Phillips, William B 


» 




Swampscott, . 




Pioneer. 


Pierce, James L., 






Marblehead, . 




(Dory.) 


Pierce, John, . 






Marblehead, . 




(Dory.) 


Pierce, John D., 






Marblehead, . 




(Dory.) 


Pierce, Nathaniel, 






Swampscott, . 




(Dory.) 


Pierce, Richard, 






Newburyport, 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Pierce, William, 






Salisbury, 




(Dory.) 


Pike, Gustavius, 






Newburyport, 




(Dory.) 


Poor, Harold C, 






Ipswich, 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Porper, Robert B., 






Gloucester, . 




Cavalier. 


Post, John, 






Ipswich, 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Potter, Charles, 






Boston, . 




Sarah C. Wharf. 


Powers, Michael, 






Boston, . 




Benjamin F. Phillips. 


Price, William, 






Duxbury, 




Manomet. 


Prior, Elroy, 






Gloucester, . 




Kentucky. 


Proctor, Edward A., 






Salem, . 




Florida. 


Proctor, James, 






Plymouth, 




Minerva. 


Publicover, E., 






Boston, . 




Gertrude. 


Quinlan, Hugh, 




• 


Duxbury, 




Mooanam. 


Radcliff, Amos N., 






Swampscott, . 




Venus. 


Real, Chauncey, 






Salem, . 




(Dory.) 


Rhodes, Peter, . 






Ipswich, 




(Dory.) 


Rich, Edward S., 






Salisbury, 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Rich, Henry, . 






Newburyport, 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Riley, Alfred W., 






Lanesville, . 




(Gasoline dory.) 


Robbins, John F., 






Duxbury, 




Matamora. 


Roberts, Isaiah, 






Gloucester, . 




Electric. 


Roberts, Walter, 






Salem, . 




Venus. 


Roberts, Wilfred, 






Boston, . 




Susan and May. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



131 



Town. 



Name ofVessel. 



Robinson, Robert, 




. 


Gloucester, . 






Rogers, Ensign, 






Dennis, . 






Rogers, Frank V., 






Boston, . 






Rose, Charles F., 






Gloucester, . 






Rose, Edward, . 






Lanesville, . 






Rose, Emanuel J., . 






Gloucester, . 






Ryder, Albert G., 






West Chatham, 






Sampson, James R., 






Plymouth, 






Sanger, Antone, 2d, 






Provincetown, 






Santos, Frank, . 




. 


Provincetown, 






Santos, Joe, 






Provincetown, 






Santos, Manuel D., 






Provincetown, 






Santos, Manuel, 






Provincetown, 






Sants, John, 






Provincetown, 






Sater, John, 




. 


New Bedford, 






Sattime, Charles F., 






Newburyport, 






Scase, Joseph, . 






Gloucester, . 






Scuola, Giovanni, 






Boston, . 






Sears, Frank I., 






Provincetown, 






Sears, Joseph, Sr., 






Provincetown, 






Sears, J. W., . 






Provincetown, 






Seartz, John R., 






Provincetown, 






Seaton, Jule, . 






Provincetown, 






Seeley, Elias, . 






Beverly, 






Selig, Adam A., 






Gloucester, . 






Selig, Edward, 






Gloucester, . 






Selig, William J., 






Boston, . 






Shea, Jeremiah, 






Boston, . 






Shea, P. T., . 






Gloucester, . 






Sherman, Charles, 






Newburyport, 






Short, George G., 




• 


Newburyport, 






Short, George G., 






Newburyport, 






Silva, Antone, . 






Provincetown, 






Silva, Antone C, 






Provincetown, 







Jack O'Lantern. 

L. Ellouse. 

Hattie F. Knowlton. 

J. F. McMorrow. 

(Gasoline dory.) 

Laura Enos. 

Searey. 

Rose Standish. 

(Power dory.) 

(Power dory.) 

(Power dory.) 

(Power dory.) 

Mary C. Santos. 

(Power dory.) 

Viking. 

Neptune. 

Oliver Sears. 

Sea Foam. 

Dart. 

(Sail dory.) 

Climax. 
(Power dory.) 
Lydia. 
Titania. 
Estelle Nunan. 
Emma W. Brown. 
Regina. 
Colonial. 
(Dory.) 
Joppaite. 
(Gasoline boat.) 
Lewis Warren. 
M. L. Adams. 



132 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Silva, Henry P., 


Provincetown, 


Dido. 


Silva, John 


Provincetown, 


J. P. Johnson. 


Silva, John, 2d, . . . 


Rockport, 


Maud F. Silva. 


Silva, John F., 


Provincetown, 


Magnolia. 


Silva, Joseph, .... 


Boston, .... 


Ida M. Silva. 


Silva, Joseph S., 


Provincetown, 


Louisa R. Sylva. 


Silva, Jule Fratus, . 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Silva, Manuel, .... 


Provincetown, 


Columbia. 


Silvata, John J. f . 


Boston, .... 


Evelyn L. Smith. 


Silveira, James, 


Boston, .... 


Mary C. Silveira. 


Silvera, Joaquin J., 


Boston, .... 


Flora J. Sears. 


Slade, Joseph, .... 


Manchester, . 


(Dory.) 


Sloan, William, 


Gloucester, . 


A. D. Story. 


Small, John, .... 


Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Small, John, .... 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Small, Samuel S., . 


Ipswich (Grape Island) , 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Smith, Charles H 


Gloucester, . 


Nautilus. 


Smith, Elmer, .... 


Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Smith, George, 


Gloucester, . 


Fannie A. Smith. 


Smith, James, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Torpedo. 


Smith, Joseph, 


Gloucester, . 


Bertha and Pearl. 


Smith, Nathaniel P., 


Gloucester, . 


Margie Smith. 


Smith, William, 


Newport, R. I., 


Gypsy Maid. 


Somers, Miles, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Preceptor. 


Sousa, Antonio K., . 


Provincetown, 


P. P. Manta. 


Souther, George M., 


Newbury port, 


(Dory.) 


South wick, Nicholas, 


Beverly, 


(Dory.) 


Sperry, James W., . 


Gloucester, . 


Fly. 


Spinney, Adolphus, . 


Gloucester, . 


Orpheus. 


Spinney, F. M., 


Gloucester, ... 


Senator. 


Spinney, Lemuel E., 


Gloucester, . 


American. 


Spinney, M., .... 


Gloucester, . 


Blue Jacket. 


Spinney, Wilson, 


Gloucester, . 


Arbitrator. 


Stanley, Ed., .... 


Beverly, 


Viola. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



133 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Stanley, Joshua W., 


Boston, .... 


Elizabeth Silsbee. 


Steele, George F., . 


Gloucester, . 


Selena. 


Stevens, William, . 


Newburyport, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Stoddard, William, . 


Boston, .... 


Fame. 


Stone, Silas, .... 


Ipswich, 


(Dory.) 


Story, Albert, .... 


Rockport, 


(Trap.) 


Stover, Woodbury P., 


Beverly, 


Frank Munroe. 


Stream, Frank, 


Gloucester, . 


Waldo L. Stream. 


Stream, John G., 


Gloucester, . 


Kineo. 


Sweat, Manuel, 


Provincetown, 


- 


Swenson, August, 


Gloucester, . 


Niagara. 


Swift, Bob, .... 


Plymouth, 


- 


Swim, Benjamin, 


Boston, .... 


Hope. 


T all grew, Peter T., . 


Duxbury, 


Tecumseh. 


Tarr, Frank A 


Gloucester, . 


Myrtle. 


Tarr, George H., 


Rockport, 


Lena May. 


Tarvers, Antone, 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Thing, Ernest, .... 


Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Thomas, Jeffrey, 


Gloucester, . 


Arcadia. 


Thomas, William H., 


Gloucester, . 


Thomas L. Gorton. 


Thomas, W. R., 


Plymouth, 


A lions. 


Thompson, John, . . 


Boston, .... 


Mary Edith. 


Thompson, John W., 


Gloucester, . 


Carrie E. 


Thurlow, George, 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Thurlow, George F., 


Newbury port, 


(Dory.) 


Thurlow, James H., 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Thurlow, Joseph, 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Thurlow, Nestor, 


Newburyport, 


(Dory.) 


Thurlow, Sydney, . 


Newburyport, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Tobin, Richard, 


Boston, .... 


Margaret Dillon. 


Tolman, W. H., . . . 


Green Harbor, 


_ 


Turner, George, 


Gloucester, . 


Blanche Irving. 


Tutt, William, 


Marblehead, . 


(Dory.) 


Tyler, Isaac J., 


Provincetown, 


I. Tyler. 



134 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Vale, Patsy, .... 


Gloucester, . 


Pauline. 


Valyoke, Peter, 






Provincetown, 


(Sail dory.) 


Vera, Manuel P., 






Provincetown, 


Ira P. Hatch. 


Viator, Fortune, 






Beverly, 


Oliver Kilham. 


Viator, Manuel F., 






Gloucester, . 


Mary E. Stone. 


Wareham, William ] 


VI., 




Provincetown, 


Rattlier. 


Warren, Jed, . 




. 


Gloucester, . 


Richard Lester. 


Watts, Frederick, 




• 


Swampscott, . 


(Dory.) 


Webber, Ralph, 




• 


Gloucester, . 


Marguerite. 


Weeks, E. 0., . 






Provincetown, 


Sylvia. 


Weeks, Joseph E., 






Provincetown, 


Grace Darling. 


Welch, Martin, 






Gloucester, . 


Lucania. 


Wells, Edward E., 






Ipswich, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


West, John, 






Manchester, . 


(Dory.) 


Wetcel, Frank, 




. 


Lanesville, . 


Fussy. 


Whalen, Maurice, 






Gloucester, . 


Vera. 


Whelden, Edna A., 






Provincetown, 


(Sail dory.) 


White, Antonio, 




. 


Provincetown, 


William A. Morse. 


White, Charles, 






Gloucester, . 


Joseph W. Lufkin. 


Whitten, Owen, 






Gloucester, . 


Ralph Russel. 


Whitney, Walter, 






Gloucester, . 


Agnes V. Gleason. 


Whorf, H. S., . 






Provincetown, 


Daniel Boone. 


Wildes, Lyman, 






Gloucester, . 


Olga. 


Wiley, Freeman, 






Gloucester, . 


Messenger. 


Wilkie, Henry M., 




. 


Gloucester, . 


Columbia. 


Wilkie, James, 






Newbury port, 


(Gasoline boat.) 


Willett, Peter A., 






Gloucester, . 


Freedom. 


William, John, 




• 


Provincetown, 


(Power dory.) 


Williams, Bernard J 


k-., 




Gloucester, . 


John S. Presson. 


Williams, John C, 




. 


Gloucester, . 


Norman Fisher. 


Winkpaw, Alden, 






Gloucester, . 


Little Fannie. 


Wolfe, Fred, . 






Boston, .... 


Priscilla. 


Wolfe, William J., 






Provincetown, 


H. M. Young. 


Woodman, George F., 




Newburyport, 


(Gasoline boat.) 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



135 



Name. 


Town. 


Name of Vessel. 


Woodbury, Elbridge, 




Lanesville, . 




Charles A. Dyer, 


Woodbury, John J., 


. 


Lanesville, . 




(Power dory.) 


Woods, John P., 




Provincetown, 




Handy Andy. 


Woods, Stephen, 






Provincetown, 




(Power dory.) 


Woodward, H. F., 






Salisbury, 




(Dory.) 


Wright, William, 






Newbury port, 




(Gasoline boat.) 


Wylde, Horace, 






Gloucester, . 




Dictator. 


Yates, Charles A., 




• 


Newport, R. I., 




Olive E. 


Young, Fred, . 






Brewster, 




(Two dories.) 


Young, J. E., . 




• 


South Chatham, 




Mayflower. 



Returns were received from the following localities, and they 
include all the various types of sea fisheries carried on from 
Massachusetts territory : — 



Barnstable, . 




, 




1 


Lanesville, . 




• 


10 


Beverly, 








20 


Maiden, 






1 


Boston, 








63 


Manchester, . 






8 


Brant Rock, 








1 


Marblehead, 






11 


Brewster, 








3 


New Bedford, 






3 


Chatham, 








3 


Newburyport, 






43 


Chathamport, 








1 


Newport, R. I., 






5 


Dennis, 








1 


Provincetown, 






82 


Duxbury, 








8 


Plymouth, . 






6 


East Boston, 








2 


Rockport, 






19 


East Brewster, 








4 


Salem, . 




. 


7 


East Dennis, 








1 


Salisbury, 




. 


12 


Essex . 








6 


South Chatham, 




. 


6 


Gloucester, . 








195 


Swampscott, 




. 


21 


Green Harbor, 








4 


West Chatham, . 




• 


2 


Harwichport, 








2 


Yarmouth, . 




. 


1 


Ipswich, 








29 











136 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Under the head of " Eemarks," in the replies to the circular, 
the following are fair examples of the various opinions ex- 
pressed by the fishermen : — 

It is almost impossible to fish with trawls or nets in Ipswich or 
Massachusetts bays during the summer months, on account of dog- 
fish. (Elbridge Woodbury, Lanesville, schooner " Charles A. Dyer.") 

Have not been able to fish for food fish other than lobsters during 
the past five years during the sum m er months. Catch dogfish in lobster 
pots occasionally. (Albert J. Griffin, Lanesville, gasoline dory "Alice," 
2 men.) 

Have been fishing for dogfish off and on for about two or three 
years, and could not make a success. (George Harriden, Lanesville, 
sail dory, 1 man.) 

We could not fish with any success in June and July with trawls, 
or hand line in August, dogfish were so plenty. Tried to set out trawls 
about two weeks ago, and got dogfish on every other hook, and had to 
give up. (Frank Wetcel, Lanesville, sloop "Fussy," 1 to 3 men.) 

In August, 1904, we went fishing expressly for dogfish; we were 
gone three weeks, and secured 60 barrels of livers, realizing $180 for 
same, and shared $30 each. It was hard work, and the dogfish were 
extra large in size, — about 17 to a bucket of livers. It hardly paid 
us, as the expense was very much, and if the dogfish were of average 
size or smaller, we would have had a lot of hard work with little pay. 
In 1902 we went over to Ipswich River after herring, and dogfish were 
so plenty they destroyed our nets. Dogfish were never known to be 
found in this river before, to my knowledge. They come earlier each 
year. (Benjamin Bowden, Lanesville, schooner "Venus," 4 to 6 men.) 

We go south netting mackerel every spring in April, and sometimes 
we strike dogfish as soon as we get on the fishing grounds, we always 
find them soon after; and from then until we return to Gloucester, 
which is usually about July 1, they are a constant pest. They eat 
our fish and destroy our nets, and we lose a great amount of time on 
account of them. They are so plenty in Massachusetts Bay during the 
summer months that we cannot pursue any fishing except sword-fishing, 
which we go at until about September 15. Then we go hand-lining for 
pollock, and are annoyed constantly until November 1, and sometimes 
later. (John W. Keefe, Gloucester, sloop "Diana," 6 to 8 men.) 

Go hand-lining on Georges all the year. From May until November 
dogfish are such a pest that we are constantly going from one end of 
the fishing grounds to the other to get clear of them. They are con- 
stantly increasing, and getting more of a pest each year. (Samuel 
Crittenden, Gloucester, schooner " Mattie Winship," 13 men.) 

Go south every spring netting mackerel, and have to contend with 
dogfish constantly. Cannot fish for mackerel with nets in Massachu- 
setts Bay during summer months, as dogfish are so numerous. (Robert 
Robinson, Gloucester, sloop " Jack-O'Lantern," 3 men.) 

We fish on the " Rips," and dogfish are very plenty there ; if we 
used any bait other than cockles, we could not fish. The past year 
dogfish are eating 1 cockles more than I ever saw them before, and we 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 137 

caught more. We start pollocking about September 20, and dogfish 
eat at least one-half our bait, and drive us from the grounds at times. 
(Benjamin Goodwin, Gloucester, schooner " Braganza," 17 men.) 

Started Sept. 10, 1905, to fish for pollock on Jeffrey's. Dogfish 
were so numerous that if it had not been for another vessel in the 
vicinity we would have had to return without any fish, as the dogfish 
ate our hooks off our lines. We had a good supply of hooks. By 
getting hooks from our neighbor we managed to catch fish enough to 
pay our expenses. Although we have done fairly well to date, the 
dogfish have been an awful pest to us, and are more numerous this 
fall than I ever saw them. (Norman Devine, Gloucester, schooner 
"James A. Garfield," 14 men.) 

Sometimes when we are setting our trawls we feel the dogfish biting 
and haul right back to save the gear, and we lose that day's fishing. 
(Joseph P. Mesquita, Gloucester, "Frances P. Mesquita.") 

Dogfish are constantly increasing, and when there are any mackerel 
in Massachusetts Bay it is almost impossible to catch them and save 
them without losing a large quantity. They come earlier and stay 
later each year. (Alex McLoud, Gloucester, schooner " Leander F. 
Gould," 14 to 17 men.) 

About April 10 the past few years dogfish make their appearance 
on the grounds where we fish, and are a constant* pest to us more or 
less until January 1. They eat our bait, and sometimes before we 
can get many food fish our supply of bait is gone, and we have to 
return with a small fare. They seem to be getting more numerous 
each year. (William Sloan, Gloucester, schooner " Arthur D. Story," 
15 men.) 

We have to go farther to the eastward each year, to get clear of dog- 
fish. When we first went to the eastward there were none there, but 
the last few years they are getting as plenty there as elsewhere. (James 
D. Goodwin, Gloucester, schooner "Ella G. Goodwin," 22 men.) 

Have been fishing about Massachusetts Bay for thirty years, and 
dogfish seem to be getting more numerous each year. They come 
earlier and stay later each season. In a few years there will be no 
food fish, if they continue to constantly increase. (George L. Gross, 
Gloucester, schooner " Priscilla," 16 men.) 

Go seining each year, and have always caught more or less dogfish 
with mackerel, except this year, 1905. I believe there are more dog- 
fish than ever before, although we have had the good fortune to escape 
them. A few years ago we had about 100 barrels of mackerel in our 
seine, and before our vessel got to us the dogfish attacked the fish on 
the outside and ate the twine, so they all escaped but 5 barrels. Our 
seine was greatly damaged, so we had to give up the trip and return 
and get it repaired, at an expense of $300. (Joseph Smith, Gloucester, 
schooner "Bertha and Pearl," 18 men.) 

In the years 1899-1901 our floating trap was set at the Breakers, 
Marblehead. We would get a few dogfish, and they caused serious loss 
to us of food and bait for fish, besides damaging our trap. Their 
presence about a trap will keep all other fish away, and when any 
small fish are meshed in our leader of trap, dogfish will eat them and 
the twine also. (Thomas Douglass, Gloucester.) 



138 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In the year 1903, during the months of June, July and August, 
dogfish struck in, and our floating traps were filled with them on 20 
occasions; we were bothered hi fishing and our traps were damaged 
very much. In 1904 it was the same. This year we have only caught 
a few, as they have not come close enough to the shore. Their pres- 
ence keeps all other fish from the shore, and when they are about it 
is impossible to catch other fish. (Frank A. Tarr, Gloucester, gasoline 
boat "Myrtle," 3 men.) 

We usually fish with cockles, and dogfish do not like them very well. 
One trip we could not get cockles on our second baiting, so we took 
herring. Codfish were quite plenty when the dogfish struck, and after 
making about 200 attempts we had to come home, as our bait was all 
eaten by dogfish. (W. H. Lyons, Gloucester, schooner " Wni. H. Ryder," 
16 men.) 

Usually find dogfish about the first of May off New York, and then 
all along the Massachusetts coast during the summer months. The 
more mackerel there are, the more dogfish. (Albert Hudder, Gloucester, 
schooner "A. M. Nicholson," 18 men.) 

Dogfish have possession of the Massachusetts coast in summer 
months. After returning from the southern mackerel fishery, July 1, 
I had to haul up for two months. Started hand-lining about Septem- 
ber 1, and have not been very successful yet, as dogfish are quite numer- 
ous, and have driven us around the grounds. The last trip we made 4 
berths and returned with very few fish. (Robert B. Benham, Glouces- 
ter, schooner "Lizzie W. Hunt," 4 men.) 

Left Gloucester for southern mackerel fishery (which means to 
southward of Cape Cod) on April 22, 1905. Set our nets about May 
1, off Jersey coast; dogfish so plenty we could do no fishing for a week. 
Fished off Fire Island from 10 to 30 miles, and did very well, although 
we were bothered a great deal. On June 1 fished off Noman's Land, 
and dogfish and sharks were very destructive to our nets. Have exam- 
ined some of the contents of dogfish stomachs, and found it to be 
mackerel. In September, 1904, we set 60 nets off Thatcher's Island, 
5 miles, at 6 p.m.; good prospects for mackerel. Dogfish struck at 
7 p.m. Twenty hours getting our nets on board boats. Nets mended 
during leisure time in winter; used 36 twine, $12; patches, $12; dam- 
age, $350, if hired done. (John F. Barrett, Gloucester, schooner "Lil- 
lian," 7 to 10 men.) 

We are bothered more or less with dogfish, and at times during the 
summer we have hard work to save mackerel that we have in our seine, 
as the dogfish attack them from the outside, and liberate them at times 
in large numbers. When we start trawling in the early fall we are 
annoyed by them very much. They are not getting any scarcer each 
year. (Thomas Downie, Gloucester, schooner "Monarch," 20 men.) 

On 20 occasions we have set our trawls and the bait has been eaten 
by small dogfish, which were hardly large enough to get on our hooks. 
On one occasion not a food fish was captured, — something which has 
never been known before. (Freeman Wiley, Gloucester, sloop "Mes- 
senger," 2 to 4 men.) 

I have been fishing the past years to the eastward of Cape Sable, 
and never saw any dogfish to speak of until about two years ago, and 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 139 

they have been quite plenty at times during the last two seasons. This 
fall we were getting fair fishing and catching some squid every night 
to use for bait, when dogfish appeared, driving away the squid. We 
were forced to go to Nova Scotia for bait, and we could not get any. 
We had to return home with a small fare. (Adolphus Spinney, 
Gloucester, " Orpheus," 18 men.) 

We fish for mackerel in the spring and during the summer, and 
dogfish are an awful pest to us. Last summer, 1905, we had a school 
of mackerel in our seine, and as it was calm the vessel was a long 
while getting to us, and dogfish attacked our seine and liberated the 
mackerel, valued at $2,000, besides doing about $125 damage to our 
seine. When we start trawling in the fall we are bothered more or 
less with them. Only last trip we set our trawls (about 40,000 hooks) 
and got a dogfish on nearly every hook, or the bait was gone. (Martin 
Welch, Gloucester, " Lucania," 23 men.) 

We fish with hand lines on Georges, Browns, La Have, Western 
banks and Scatterie. Dogfish are getting more numerous each year. 
In the fall they drive the squid from the bank, and prevent us from 
getting trips as we used to a few years ago. (James McDonald, 
Gloucester, "Edwin B. Holmes," 13 men.) 

In the month of June, 1905, we were fishing with cod nets in Ip- 
swich Bay, and getting a fair catch of codfish each day. Dogfish 
struck, and we were forced to abandon the fishing. It is almost im- 
possible to fish in Massachusetts Bay during the summer months. 
(Charles H. Smith, Gloucester, "Nautilus," 3 to 4 men.) 

In the month of September, 1903, we set 45 mackerel nets at 6 p.m., 
about 8 miles east from Thatcher's Island. Dogfish struck at 7 p.m. 
We began to haul back the nets, and got our nets on board and free 
from dogfish at 10 a.m. the next day. Damage estimated at $2 per net, 
50 mackerel saved. The dogfish were very small, and weighed about 
1 pound each. In the year 1904, in the months of July and August, 
similar conditions existed. This year, 1905, have not dared to take 
a chance to fish for mackerel with nets, and have been sword-fishing. 
(Sven Hanson, Gloucester, " Sylvester," 4 to 5 men.) 

We fish on Scatterie, Quero, Western banks, Grand Banks, and 
dogfish seem to be on the increase each year. They do considerable 
damage to our fishing gear, and at times we lose a great amount of time 
on account of them. I believe the presence of dogfish on the fishing 
grounds the past few years has kept us from getting our regular sup- 
ply of squid on our fall trips. We left the banks November 23, and 
they were quite numerous then. (Warren Forbes, Gloucester, " Alice 
R. Lawson," 18 men.) 

Dogfish are getting more numerous each year, and we have to go 
farther to the northward and eastward to get clear of them. A few 
years ago we hardly knew what it was to catch dogfish on the Banks 
where we fished. When they are present we can't get any squid. 
(William F. Morrissey, Gloucester, "Helen F. Whitten," 18 men.) 

Generally find them off Jersey coast about May 1, and then they 
are a pest to us all summer, and have been the past ten years. (Sol- 
omon Jacobs, Gloucester, "Veda M. McKnoven," 20 men.) 

Almost impossible to set cod nets or mackerel nets in Massachusetts 



140 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

or Ipswich bays after first of June, and has been the past five years. 
They eat bait and hooks off hand lines as fast as you can put them 
on, in the fall, when they are about to any extent. (James A. Jewett, 
Gloucester, schooner "Grace E. Freeman," 4 to 6 men.) 

Have tried to drag for mackerel this summer on 6 occasions. No 
mackerel, and plenty of dogfish. Had to quit, on account of dogfish. 
The last time, July 20, our nets were in the water only one hour, and 
after hauling them on board of boat it required ten hours to overhaul 
nets and pick out the dogfish. Same the past five years in Massachu- 
setts and Ipswich bays. (George M. Parks, Gloucester, sloop " Thistle," 
3 men.) 

Start for southern mackerel fishery with nets about April 15 to 20 
each year, and usually find dogfish May 1 off Jersey coast, and from 
then until we return to Gloucester we have to try and dodge them all 
along the coast. They are getting more numerous each year. Return 
about July 1, and go hand-line fishing until December 1 to 25. The 
dogfish are a pest, and do not leave until about November 1. This 
year this month [September] they are driving us all over fishing 
grounds daily. (James W. Hemeon, Gloucester, schooner "Matta- 
comet," 10 men.) 

We go netting codfish until dogfish strike, which usually is in May 
or June. Then we have to get out of it, as the dogfish seem to be 
everywhere along our coast. Five or ten years ago we could dodge 
them, and sometimes they would stay on the shore a week or so, and 
then move on. Of late years they seem to have come to stay during 
the months of May, June, July, August and September. (Henry C. 
Lufkin, Gloucester, sloop "Esther Madelene," 3 men.) 

We hand line on Georges, Browns and La Have banks all the year. 
We get dogfish about April 1, and all through the summer and fall 
until January. They cause us lots of trouble, as we are driven all 
over the fishing grounds by them, losing a great amount of time, and, 
as they eat a large amount of our bait, quite often our supply runs 
short, and we have to return with small fares. (Andrew Gonvreau, 
Gloucester, schooner "Wm. H. Moody," 15 men.) 

We start for the southern mackerel fishery about April 15 to 20, 
and about May 1 we most always are attacked by dog-fish. They chase 
the fish, and it is hard work to keep clear from them. We return to 
Gloucester about July 1, and, as dogfish are numerous in Massachu- 
setts Bay during the summer months, we can't fish with our nets. 
Last spring we had the webs of 30 new nets valued at $180, completely 
eaten up. After September 15 we go hand lining for pollock, and 
dogfish are quite plenty until November 1, and sometimes later. They 
eat at least one-half of our bait, and are a constant pest. (George 
Peoples, Gloucester, schooner "Lafayette," 7 to 10 men.) 

We have not been bothered the past two years with dogfish as much 
as we have been previously. We go a trip sword-fishing during the 
dogfish season; we have caught a great many more food fish this sum- 
mer than ever before, and prices have ruled lower. We made a set 
off Highlands in June this year, and our trawls were attacked by dog- 
fish; we estimate that 20,000 pounds of food fish were destroyed. 
(Thomas F. Murray, Gloucester, schooner "Mary A. Gleason," 14 
men.) 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 141 

We always made a good season's work with our floating trap up 
to five years ago; since that time we can't make a living. Mackerel 
and bait do not seem to come in shore as usual. I believe that the 
school of dogfish which has been so constant and numerous in our bay 
the past five years has kept the food fish away. (George W. Douglass, 
Gloucester, schooner "Mary Elizabeth," 3 men.) 

Bait very scarce, so did very little fishing this summer, 1905. Same 
in 1904. In July, August and September, 1903, made several attempts 
to fish in the bay, but had to give up on account of dogfish. (John 
J. Woodbury, Gloucester, Lanesville, large power dory, 1 to 2 men.) 

We usually find dogfish about June 1, off Block Island. They fol- 
low the mackerel up along the channel into Boston Bay, and in July 
Massachusetts Bay is full of dogfish. They harass the mackerel, and 
it is almost impossible to catch a large school and get them on board 
without suffering great damage and loss of fish when dogfish are about. 
It is an ordinary affair to have dogfish attack a seine and liberate two 
or three thousand dollars' worth of fish, when dogfish are numerous. 
(Frank Hall, Gloucester, schooner "Ralph L. Hall," 19 men.) 

We find dogfish mixed with mackerel as soon as we get on the south- 
ern fishing grounds each year, and they are a menace to us all the 
season. There is not so much danger from them inside the seine as there 
is on the outside. Our seine has often been attacked by dogfish from 
the outside, and we have lost a great many fish. (Joseph A. Lyle, 
Gloucester, " Norumahal," 18 men.) 

I have been fishing off Eastern Point the past twenty years, and 
dogfish have got so numerous the past few years that it is almost im- 
possible to earn anything during the summer months. Up to a few 
years ago we could earn from $400 to $500 a season, but the past few 
years it has been much less, so that I shall have to give up fishing 
and work on shore. (John H. Norwood, Gloucester, boat 20 feet 
long, 1 man.) 

On Sept. 12, 1905, we were fishing on Western Jeffreys. We were 
getting fair fishing when dogfish struck, and after making 3 or 4 
berths of about a mile each we were forced to give up and return to 
port. (John Mosoetic, Gloucester, "Nettie," 3 to 4 men.) 

On June 10, 1904, we set 40 mackerel nets at 7 p.m. In half an 
hour the dogfish struck, and we started to haul our nets, and got them 
on board at 9 a.m. the next day. Time consumed, 14 hours; time lost 
in repairing, 4 days; damage estimated, $100. Location, 5 miles east 
of Noman's Land. (Capt. Benj. Hanson, Gloucester, " On Time," 4 
to 5 men.) 

We fish for halibut and other fish on banks to eastward of Cape 
Sable from March until September. Dogfish were hardly known to 
us up to three years ago, and since then they have been becoming 
more numerous each season, until now they are a pest, and we lose 
a lot of time, fishing gear and food fish by their presence. In Septem- 
ber we start to fish for haddock, cod and other food fish and we have 
been fishing from Jeffrey's to Liverpool, N. S. There are more dog- 
fish this fall than I ever saw. On this trip off Jeffrey's, December 1, 
we could not fish for them, and a few days later farther to the east- 
Ward we caught at least 40,000. On one day our gear contained food- 



142 FISII AM) GAME. [Dec. 

fish heads enough to estimate loss at $500, together with $25 damage 
to trawls. (Capt. F. M. Spinney, Gloucester, " Senator," 20 men.) 

We get dogfish mixed with mackerel in the spring off New York 
in May, and continue to do so all the season until October. They are 
a great menace, and are getting worse all the time. Sometimes they 
attack our seine from the outside when we have a good haul of fish, 
and chew the twine and liberate them. (George Hamor, Gloucester, 
" Corsair," 18 to 19 men.) 

Last summer we lost at least 20 tubs of trawls on account of dog- 
fish. During the summer season we catch as many dogfish as we do 
food fish. Sometimes, after making a small trip on account of dog- 
fish being so numerous, the crew get discouraged, and we have to wait 
to get a crew; if a bounty was paid, it would relieve this. (Charles C. 
Malone, Gloucester, " Orinoco," 22 men.) 

Last fall dogfish attacked the herring in our nets, and destroyed 
both the fish and nets. When we arrive off New York where we fish 
for mackerel we usually find more or less dogfish, and continue to do 
so all the season; and during the summer it has been almost impossible 
to fish with nets the past few years in Massachusetts Bay. This fall 
to date we have been fishing around Block Island, and have seen more 
dogfish the past two months than I ever saw at any time in my experi- 
ence. ( Silas Jewett, Gloucester, schooner " Arrow," 10 men. ) 

For the past few years we have had to go farther to the eastward 
each year during the summer and fall to get clear of the dogfish, as 
they have been so numerous on the regular grounds that it is im- 
possible to fish at times. This year we found them numerous on 
Flemish Cap, the first time I ever saw any there. They are the worst 
pest that the fishermen have to contend with. (Lemuel E. Spinney, 
Gloucester, schooner "American," 20 men.) 

We start for southern mackerel fishery with nets in the spring, and 
usually find dogfish off New York; and from the time we first find 
them it is hard work to keep clear from them during the season. If 
we are fortunate enough to do so, we always make a good trip. About 
September 10 we start hand lining, and they are very numerous, and 
seem to be more so each year. Two years ago we were fishing with 
50 nets, and had taken 1,400 mackerel from 15 nets, when dogfish 
struck, and all the fish in the remaining nets were destroyed, together 
with the nets. The fish sold for 18 cents each. (Gilbert Gillant, 
Gloucester, schooner " F. W. Homans," 14 to 16 men.) 

We are bothered more or less with dogfish from spring until fall. 
We are always in dread of them, as they do considerable damage to 
our seines. The part we fear the most is the attack from the outside 
after we have caught the mackerel in our seine, as we often have a 
school of great value. (Charles Harty, Gloucester, "Mary E. Harty," 
19 men.) 

Up to a few years ago dogfish were not found to any extent on 
Flemish Cap or the Grand Banks, but the past two years they have 
been a terrible pest, especially on Grand Banks. Have been jigging 
squid for bait, when dogfish would appear and drive them away. This 
is a great detriment, as we depend on squid mostly for bait, and since 
dogfish have appeared on the banks we can't get squid as we used to. 
(Capt. Alex Hains, Gloucester, "Meteor," 18 men.) 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 143 

We fish on Grand Bank, Quero, Green St. Peter's, Sable Island and 
La Have banks, and a few years ago we never were bothered with 
dogfish; now they are so numerous that we have to go farther each 
year to get clear of them. This trip on Scatterie Bank there were 
good prospects for fish, as we were jigging squid for bait and get- 
ting fair fishing. Dogfish struck, drove the squid, and after making 
several attempts to find a place where they were not, we had to return 
with only a partial fare of food fish. (Roderick McNeil, Gloucester, 
" Senator Salisbury," 16 to 18 men.) 

Always fished to eastward of Cape Sable, and never saw any dog- 
fish to amount to much until a few years ago. This year was the worst 
I ever saw. The last day we fished we set 21 tubs of trawl, represent- 
ing 14,700 hooks, and they were in the water three hours when dogfish 
attacked the bait, and before we could haul them we lost 8 tubs, valued 
at $40. Hooks and gangings on balance of trawls were destroyed to 
the amount of $25, together with $200 worth of fish eaten, and it took 
two days to repair our gear so we could fish again. (Capt. Alex 
McEachen, Gloucester, schooner " Maggie and May," 18 men. ) 

This spring we caught a school of mackerel and dogfish, and after 
we had picked out the mackerel we had about 100 barrels of dogfish 
left. It consumed a great deal of time, and we had some damage 
done to the fish and our seine. Last year we lost at least $2,000 worth 
of fish by dogfish attacking our seine on the outside after we had 
mackerel in it. In the fall when we are fishing for pollock we are 
bothered more or less the first of the season. (Ralph Webber, Glouces- 
ter, schooner "Marguerite Haskins," 18 men.) 

I have been hand lining on Georges, Browns, La Have and Western 
banks for thirty years, and dogfish are getting so plenty that at times 
it is almost impossible to fish, and we have to return with small trips. 
They seem to come earlier and stay later each year. There are times 
when we could lay and fish on a small quantity of fish, but dogfish eat 
our bait before we can get a fair trip. I think we could make at least 
$50 more per man each season if we were not bothered so much with 
dogfish. (Benjamin Johnson, Gloucester, schooner " Lawrence Mur- 
dock," 14 men.) 

It is my opinion that when dogfish are plenty we make more money, 
as there is less edible fish landed, and we get higher prices. Last 
spring on one trip we lost 20 tubs of trawls, valued at about $140, by 
the dogfish. It is my opinion that a bounty of 1 cent a fish would not 
encourage the fishermen to catch them. (J. O. Brigham, Boston, 
" Shepherd King.") 

It is my opinion that the price received for the dogfish would not 
pay us to save them. (Julius Anderson, Boston, schooner "Robert 
and Arthur.") 

In August, 1905, we set 40 nets just southeast of Thatcher's Island, 
5 miles, at 7 p.m. Had to haul them immediately, on account of dog- 
fish being so numerous. We got 50 mackerel, — 20 salable, and 30 
eaten all except heads; price, 25 cents each. This was done for several 
nights, with the same results. On September 1 started hand-line fish- 
ing on grounds located from Eastern Point, Gloucester, to Newbury - 
port, about 5 to 10 miles off shore. Have been on the grounds the 



144 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

past seven days, and each day after catching a few food fish, dogfish 
have appeared; and after making two or three berths of from 1 to 2 
miles each we were obliged to leave the fishing grounds. (Capt. Wm. 
P. Brinnick, Boston, sloop "Jennie Maud," 3 to 4 men.) 

We fish with trawls in the spring of the year until dogfish make 
their appearance; then we go south and fish for mackerel with nets. 
Dogfish are very numerous when the mackerel appear, and it is hard 
work to keep clear from them. They follow the fish along the shore, 
and are a pest from May until November, and sometimes later. The 
more mackerel, the more dogfish. They are so plenty in Massachusetts 
Bay after July 1 that we abandon netting and go sword-fishing until 
about September; then we go hand lining or trawling. Last spring 
one night off New York we lost 10 nets, valued at $10 each, besides 
the fish they contained. We had taken from part of our nets 1,800 
fish at 40 cents each, when dogfish struck; and we lost 10 nets and all 
the fish in the remaining net, valued at $2,000 to $4,000. (Capt. Fred 
Wolfe, Boston, "Priscilla," 8 to 12 men.) 

We have not been bothered so much in the channel this summer as 
previous years, and we have caught a great many more fish. We have 
had to sell them cheaper, although we have made as much money. 
When we strike dogfish they ruin our gear and prevent us from get- 
ting a trip. In September, 1905, we made 2 sets, and got a large 
quantity of dogfish, and did not get 1,000 pounds of food fish; the 3 
previous sets, in the absence of dogfish, we got 8,000 pounds of food 
fish each set. (John Thompson, Boston, schooner " Mary Edith," 14 
men.) 

Dogfish have been so plentiful for several years we cannot set any 
mackerel nets in falls as we used to, as dogfish chew the fish and gear 
all to pieces, and trawls about the same. (J. W. Sears, Provincetown.) 

I think it would be the best thing that could happen to the fisher- 
men, and to the public at large, making it possible to catch fish that 
it is now impossible to catch on account of dogfish. (Joseph Hobert, 
Provincetown, "Vesta," 4 men.) 

I have been in the business 20 years, and when I first went, the dog- 
fish would come about June 1 and go north in Massachusetts Bay, and 
be through by July 15. They would come back about September 1, 
and October 1 they would be gone by. Now they come May 15 and 
stay till November 1, without going away. When we are engaged in 
trawling, from November 1 to May 1, the dogfish are not on the coast. 
(John K. Cobb, Provincetown, schooner "Betsey Ross.") 

We arrived at Boston to-day, Nov. 3, 1903, from fishing off High- 
land Light, Cape Cod. Small dogfish were very plenty there, and 
bothersome. We would have had 25,000 or 50,000 more pounds of 
fish, if dogfish were not there. During this summer we have lost by 
dogfish, in two trips alone, 50 tubs of trawls, valued at $300. (Antonio 
K. Sousa, Provincetown, schooner "Philip P. Manto.") 

It is almost impossible to fish with nets in Barnstable Bay now. 
The main damage is that where they have been we cannot catch any 
other fish. (Alfred A. Mayo, Provincetown, "Iris.") 

Dogfish have driven many of our boat fishermen out of business by 
the destruction they have made, causing much loss of time and labor. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 145 

Used to save livers when they were in good demand for oil, but of 
late years they have not been worth marketing, unless encouragement 
is given by adding bounty. (William Pierce, Salisbury, dory, 1 man.) 

Believe annual damage to trawls and hand lines will average from 
one-half to three-quarters of actual value. Have seen large quanti- 
ties of hake and other good food fish driven upon beach by schools 
of dogfish. Market fish caught on trawls often entirely destroyed by 
dogfish, which are also found on trawls in large numbers. (H. F„ 
Woodward, Salisbury, dory, 1 man.) 

Dogfish cause great destruction to trawl gear; also responsible for 
large loss of bait and food fish. Have found may large cod and other 
food fish, which would weigh from 50 to 70 pounds, entirely eaten by 
dogfish, leaving only head and backbone hanging to hook. Set trawls 
with 900 hooks, and on hauling counted 700 dogfish, 2 hake, 1 cod. 
(Wallace Kenney, Beverly, sloop " Governor Cleaves," 2 men.) 

Twenty years ago there were about 150 sail of small fishing boats 
belonging to this port; in the past year there were less than 50. A 
great deal of this decrease is directly responsible to the dogfish pest, 
which has practically driven two-thirds of our fleet out of business. 
This seems to me to be an unanswerable argument in favor of a bill 
to protect this industry 7 , by paying a small bounty towards the wiping 
out of this nuisance. (Charles S. Currier, Newburyport, dory.) 

Used to make good year's work fishing. Now in spring of year, 
when dogfish school about here, have to knock right off trying to fish, 
as they will destroy all food fish caught, and cause great damage, if 
not total loss, to all fishing gear put in water. Have hauled trawls 
finding nothing but head or backbone left of codfish which would 
weigh, if whole, from 60 to 70 pounds each; others with large bites 
taken out, entirely destroying market value. If fishermen were en- 
couraged to make war on them by a small bounty, think everybody 
would benefit greatly by their decrease. (George M. Souther, New- 
buryport, dory.) 

Dogfish will bite holes in a gill net about 4 or 5 inches square; also 
on trawls bite off the gangings and completely destroy same, taking 
bait and hook, leaving nothing but running line. We lose about from 
one-third to one-half of our trawl gear every year in this manner. If 
a bounty is passed, will try to have satisfaction on them for losses 
sustained. They have driven about two-thirds of our former boat 
fishermen out of the business entirely. (A. P. Hilton, Newburyport, 
gasoline boat, 2 men.) 

Dogfish annually cause a heavy loss to small-boat fishermen. Trawls 
set over night are often found stripped of all marketable fish, besides 
being wrenched apart and snarled up so as to cause often total loss 
of material. After dogfish make their appearance many fishermen 
have to lay idle a long time, or go into some other industry to make 
a living. (Clarence C. Lunt, Newburyport, gasoline boat, 2 men.) 

Mine is the same story as that of everybody else around here. Dog- 
fish are a great nuisance, and if they could be driven off: shore or de- 
stroyed, believe it would be of lasting benefit not only to fishermen 
but to general public. When dogfish strike round here a great many 
of the boat fishermen, after suffering their first losses, haul their trawls 



146 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and go ashore to loaf, causing great loss of time, and making fishing 
pretty poor business to get living at. Fishing fleet of this port reduced 
over two-thirds inside of twenty years. (George Thurlow, Newbury- 
port, dory.) 

Have been fishing from here for many years, and have seen fleet 
of this port decrease in number from about 150 to present number, 
below 50. Believe dogfish are directly responsible for driving many 
fishermen out of the business. Twenty years ago could get as high as 
$1 to $1.25 per bucket for dogfish livers; present worth about 25 cents. 
This price, unless small bounty is attached, does not pay fishermen to 
try to kill them off. (Jabez M. Eaton, Newburyport, dory, 2 men.) 

Don't use anything but torches and dip nets to catch herring with, 
as I only fish short time each year. Have seen lots of damage done 
to nets and drag seines by dogfish getting inside and tearing their way 
out. Have seen lots of dogfish at night chasing schools of herring 2 
or 3 miles up the river. (John E. Dolan, Ipswich, gasoline boat, 2 
men.) 

Used to save dogfish livers some years ago, but at present price 
not worth marketing. Large schools of dogfish come off here in spring, 
and see scattering ones up to late in fall. Follow herring up in river, 
and cause destruction to fishing nets, etc., besides destroying fish caught 
in nets and on trawls. (Samuel S. Small, Ipswich, Grape Island, 
gasoline boat.) 

Have caught as high as 200 dogfish on hand lines in part of day, 
and lost all of bait. Have to lose much time in fishing by changing 
from one spot to another, on account of large schools of dogfish. 
When fishing for herring in river often see dogfish up 2 or 3 miles 
from mouth, after schools of herring. Many herring caught in nets 
destroyed so as to be unmarketable. (Edward Kent, Ipswich, dory.) 

In using drag seine or set nets often have them damaged by dog- 
fish, besides having to throw away many fish which were bitten by 
dogfish so as to destroy market value. Don't think annual loss to 
apparatus ($50) is any over-estimated, as some years it will cost a 
good deal more than that amount to repair gear alone, not reckoning 
time lost in fishing. (John E. Haynes, Ipswich, gasoline boat.) 

I fish mostly with crew of other boat, but occasionally set few nets 
for myself. Have often seen dogfish up in the river 2 or 3 miles. 
Believe they chase and scare the herring and bait fish, so as to make 
them a great deal harder to catch by fishermen. Often find herring 
partially eaten after being caught in nets. (Herbert T. McKenney, 
Ipswich, gasoline boat.) 

Only fish for herring in fall of year, mostly in the river and vicinity. 
Dogfish often seen chasing schools of herring, making it harder for 
fishermen. In fishing with drift or set nets, find large numbers of 
herring caught, so badly eaten as to destroy them for market. (J. F. 
Claxton, Ipswich, gasoline boat.) 

In replying to the foregoing questions, I have answered as truth- 
fully as possible, and there are some questions asked which are very 
hard to answer. I have seen $300 worth of trawls destroyed in one 
day by dogfish; and I have no hesitation in saying that unless the 
fishermen are paid for destroying them, dogfish will be so numerous 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 25. 147 

in Massachusetts waters that it will be impossible to obtain any food 
fish during the summer months. If we were paid for destroying them, 
when we get them on our trawls we could kill them by cutting off tail. 
Now we merely shake them off as quickly as possible, so we can get 
our trawls set again. (Valentine Neil, East Boston, schooner " Elmer 
E. Gray.") 

Dogfish are so plentiful on the coast and in the bays that it is im- 
possible to fish there between the months of May and November, and 
we have to go to some of the off-shore banks, such as Georges and 
Browns banks. If there was a bounty on dogfish (enough to make it 
an object to catch them), it would open a new industry for the fisher- 
men, and would give hundreds of men and boats employment during 
the summer season without going to the banks, and in a few years 
would materially increase the supply of edible and bait fish. (E. J. 
Cunningham, Boston, " Stranger.") 

On one trip this summer we lost $200 worth of gear, owing to 
the dogfish. (T. W. McComiskey, Boston, schooner " Catherine D. 
Burke.") 

If a bounty was placed on dogfish, I fear that it would be harder 
to get crews to fish for marketable fish, as the bounty would start the 
men for dogfish. ( Antonio P. Goulart, Boston, schooner " Walter P. 
Goulart.") 

I think if bounty went on dogfish it would make them scarce, and 
save labor for men and increase wages; and, more, it would give the 
men courage to destroy them. (Larance Norris, Boston, "Mary A. 
Whalen.") 

My opinion in regard to the dogfish question is this : they are both 
a benefit and an injury to the fisherman. Where they are a benefit is 
this : they act as a scavenger, and eat up the gurry when you are dress- 
ing the fish, which, if they did not, would sink to the bottom and rot 
and drive the fish away. They destroy the trawls, which are replaced 
by new, which is really a benefit to fishermen. They are in these waters 
during the summer months, when there is an over-supply of fish; and 
if the dogfish destroyed more than they do, the fishermen would get 
more for what fish they brought in, and the market would not be 
glutted as it is now, with the fleet of vessels that is now fishing. I 
think that the dogfish are more of a benefit than an injury to the 
fishermen at the present time. (H. Daly, Boston, schooner "Har- 
mony.") 

That the damage is not confined to the Massachusetts fishing 
interests is made plain by Professor Prince's statement : — 

The direct harm that a plague of dogfish can do is well-nigh in- 
credible. Thus in 1882 the pack of cured herring in the Shetland Isles 
was 134,000 barrels, whereas in 1888, owing to the presence of dogfish, 
the total quantity fell to 99,000 barrels, and in 1889 even lower, i.e., 
not more than 47,000 barrels, or only about one-third of the pack two 
years before, and representing therefore an enormous total loss. 

Many similar cases could be instanced; but the facts as they exist to- 



148 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

day in Canada are startling enough. The statement by Mr. Copp, M.P., 
in the House of Commons, Ottawa, on October 28 last, sufficiently indi- 
cates the grave nature of the matter. " The dogfish have become a 
serious menace to our fishermen in Nova Scotia," he said. " If the 
problem is not dealt with in some way it is going to seriously affect 
the fishing industries of the Dominion. . . ." The " Halifax Herald " 
of October 3 shows how the dogfish is helping to destroy the industry 
in Nova Scotia. This newspaper tells of " half a million shortage in 
our western Nova Scotia fisheries." It is estimated that west of Hali- 
fax (that is, in the counties of Lunenburg, Shelburne, Queen's, Yar- 
mouth and Digby) the fishery catch is $400,000 to $600,000 below the 
average year. 

A recent newspaper notice once more expresses this feeling of alarm : 
" Every week brings reports from widely different points about the 
trouble by dogfish, which are more formidable pests by sea than the 
potato bug is by land. Therefore some people contend that the govern- 
ment should take the matter up, and do something to exterminate the 
invading swarms of dogfish, or make them scarcer." 

Opinions as to the best method of dealing with the dogfish 
nuisance upon the Atlantic coast appeared to be so diverse that 
much difficulty arose in deciding how best the government 
could aid in abating the plague. Professor Prince treated the- 
whole subject in a special report last year, and summarized 
the many schemes, which had been urged upon the department's 
attention : — 



The Fishery Commission in Gloucester County, N. B., which spe- 
cially inquired into the matter along the south shore of the Bay des 
Chaleurs, found that the fishermen generally favored a government 
bounty, and the commissioners in consequence recommended the pay- 
ment of an adequate bounty to encourage the fishermen to exterminate 
the dogfish. The Commissioner of Fisheries himself favored depart- 
mental action through its officers as the most direct method of coping 
with the evil, as it appeared that a large bounty could not be offered, 
and the fishermen could not be expected to forsake their ordinary re- 
munerative occupations and sufficiently exert themselves to capture 
the schools of dogfish. A further scheme was the organization of re- 
duction works at the certain central points, where valuable products 
could be manufactured from fish waste, dogfish, etc. The manufacture 
of oil and fertilizers from dogfish, fish offal, etc., it was claimed would 
make possible adequate payment to the fishermen for the dogfish cap- 
tured and the fish offal brought to the reduction works, and the exten- 
sive and rapid destruction of the schools of dogfish would be actively 
stimulated. 

Hence a large building is being erected at Canso, as the first of 
these government-aided reduction works; and the plant, manufactured 
by the American Process Company of New York, is being installed: 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 149 

so that the utilization of dogfish and fish offal will be carried out next 
season. 

Two other plants have been obtained by the government, and re- 
duction works will be erected this year at some point north of Canso 
and at some point in western Nova Scotia. They will probably be 
run under departmental auspices, unless it appears more advantageous 
to have them operated under some mutual arrangement between the 
department and the local fishing firms. Whatever will most rapidly 
and effectively secure the extermination of the dogfish and their con- 
version into marketable products will, it need hardly be said, meet 
the general approval of the fishing population, who have suffered such 
serious losses in recent seasons from the dogfish plague. 

Their use as food has long been recognized in Norway, the Channel 
Islands, and in the Hebrides and northern islands of Scotland; and, 
indeed, in Aberdeen, Scotland, dogfish prepared in various more or 
less appetizing ways have found a ready market, and some such scheme 
is being tried by several parties in the maritime provinces. Recently 
three or four enterprising lobster packers in Prince County, Prince 
Edward Island, Cape Breton and Richmond counties, 0. B., and in 
Shelburne and Digby counties, western Nova Scotia, have most success- 
fully put up canned dogfish, which have been pronounced in that pre- 
served form as " superior to salmon." 

In most markets a prejudice exists against dogfish and all such 
members of the shark tribe, especially amongst our own population, 
who have such a superabundance of the most excellent kinds of food 
fishes available in the lakes, rivers and seas of the Dominion. No 
means, however, of creating a demand for dogfish products should be 
neglected, in new of the fact that, unless extensive measures be taken, 
and the wholesale extermination of dogfish stimulated, this greatest 
and worst enemy of the fishermen may continue to inflict loss and 
destruction along our Atlantic shores. 

From the Atlantic coast and the Shoals of Northumberland the 
complaints are general of the apparently increasing quantities of these 
fish, and of their interference with the line and net fisheries, — the 
line fishing by taking the bait, and the net fishing by destroying the 
fish in the nets and the nets also. 

The ravages of these scavengers of the sea have been written about so 
frequently to your department during the past few seasons, and by those 
interested, that it is needless for me to refer at any leng-tk to this 
important subject. The newspapers of the maritime provinces, with 
those of the New England States, have been deluged with correspond- 
ence on this very absorbing topic for several years past. What action 
to take in dealing with these sea wolves is a subject of serious concern 
for the whole North Atlantic seaboard, and it is earnestly hoped that 
vigorous steps will be taken which will lessen the ravages of this vora- 
cious fish, or that the schools of dogfish will make one of those sur- 
prising and mysterious movements with which they are credited, and 
disappear from our coasts with the same rapidity that they invaded 
them. 

Speaking about the mackerel industry, I may say that the waters 
of the gulf this season contained the greatest abundance of mackerel 



150 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ever witnessed as yet; but the general catch has been very limited, 
owing to the presence of dogfish on the grounds. Literally, mackerel 
were routed, as it were, from the shore, and had made an entire 
abandonment by the first of October. Although one of the greatest 
impediments to successful fishing of all kinds, the dogfish, looked upon 
with horror and disgust, bids fair to become, when largely introduced, 
one of the greatest and most remunerative industries in Canada. For- 
eign nations have already made a test of the dogfish, and pronounced 
it a favorite and substantial food fish, with very nourishing elements. 
On October 20 Mr. Geo. LeBrun packed a case of dogfish. I was in 
his kitchen on that day while he was preparing the fish, and he had 
some cooked on the table, which he offered me. I was much surprised 
at the taste, and found it very excellent, and not in the least oily, as 
anticipated. The flesh was white and soft, and very palatable. It 
must be borne in mind that the flesh of the dogfish contains no oil 
whatever, as none can be found or even tasted whenever cooked; hence 
the oil must be attributed to the skin. 

The greatest drawback of late years to the successful prosecution 
of the fisheries is the dogfish pest. What is to be done to exterminate 
them must engage the attention of the department. No doubt the home 
of this species of the shark family is the southern waters. Fifty years 
ago they were as numerous and destructive to other fish in the coastal 
waters of the maritime provinces as they are to-day. At that time 
large numbers were captured by the fishermen. A gallon of dogfish 
oil was worth then from forty to fifty cents; to-day less than half of 
that sum could be realized. Not only were those fish captured in the 
fifties and early sixties for their oil, but the flesh was fed to hogs, and 
sometimes dried, ground and fed to horses and cattle. They frequented 
our coastal waters during the summer months for about twelve years, 
when they disappeared until ten years ago; since then they appear 
to increase in numbers year by year. They make their first appear- 
ance each summer in the month of June, or about the time the mackerel 
make their appearance from the southern waters. The dogfish remain 
all summer. In the autumn they disappear, or about the time the 
mackerel schools begin journeying to their southern haunts. Like 
mackerel, they cannot exist in our waters in winter. 

Not only are the dogfish a hindrance to the successful prosecution 
of the fisheries on account of their destruction of the gill nets, and 
devouring the fish caught in nets and on trawls, but they frighten the 
food fish from our coast. Early in June I visited some of the cod 
banks off Sydney harbor. Equipped with cod gear, I fished on these 
banks, and experienced no difficulty in catching cod. An occasional 
dogfish was hooked, but they were not numerous on these banks at 
that time. In August I again visited the same banks, and no sooner 
did the baited hook reach near the bottom than a dogfish would bite. 
There were no codfish on the banks, evidently driven away by the 
voracious dogfish. A number of the mother fish caught were opened, 
and young taken out. From 3 to 5 young, 6 or 8 inches long, proved 
to be very much alive. They would squirm about the deck of the 
steamer as lively as the full-grown fish. Each of the young had a sack 
on one side near the neck. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 151 

The dogfish multiply very rapidly, and unless fished, or some means 
adopted to exterminate them, they will ultimately ruin our commercial 
fisheries. There is no doubt dogfish are the direct cause of the failure 
in recent years of the midsummer herring fishery. This excellent food 
fish, before dogfish made their appearance on our coast, came into our 
bays and harbors in immense numbers. They were captured by fisher- 
men and farmers by means of gill nets. Of late years, or since dogfish 
made their appearance, these valuable fish have disappeared from our 
coast. A bounty offered by the government of 20 cents per gallon 
for their oil would induce their capture by fishermen. 

On the European shores of the Atlantic, too, similar condi- 
tions obtain. A writer in the " London Mail " says : — 

The cry has gone up, " The dogs are upon us ! " This is no new 
cry. From Plymouth to the Lizard, from Newlyn to St.. Ives, all along 
the best fishing grounds of the west there comes this moan when the 
leaf falls, — " The dogs are upon us ! " And season after season the 
moan increases in anguish, until the cry is loud and bitter, as it is 
to-day, when our deep-sea fishers return with nets torn, and tons of 
dogfish upon their lines, for which there is no paying market. 

Our fishers are so helpless, which makes the moan pathetic when 
first heard, and then tragic and more tragic when winter comes, and 
with winter, want and the bitter cry of women and little children. 
And this happens year by year now, conceal it how we may, when the 
" gluttons of the sea " come in countless numbers, hunting, in close 
formation, pilchard and herring, and then swooping upon everything 
that swims. There is no mistake about numbers in the packs, for the 
fishers say they are so thick that one " may walk on them ; " and in 
home waters there is nothing to be compared to a charge of dogfish 
for magnificent destruction. It is not war, but slaughter of timid, 
dainty clupea, which dogfish devour until they vomit, and then con- 
tinue their almost endless feast. The fishermen speak of the advent 
of these gluttons as a " plague," and the plague has increased, and 
is increasing, in territorial waters. 

The story is simple. Dogfish hang upon the outskirts of immense 
shoals of pilchards, driving them towards the English Channel and 
into the sheltered bays of the Cornish coast, wherein they are captured 
in seines and driftnets. The more venturesome of our drifters meet 
them early in the season in the deep waters of the Channel, but the 
evil days come when the keen hunters approach the shore and prey 
upon the fish, now feeding with a delicious sense of security in shel- 
tered bights and bays. Our fishermen know the fact all too soon when 
their nets hang in ribbons, and the captured fish are devoured already, 
or remain in the mesh in all stages of mutilation. Formerly this 
" plague " was recurrent, and old men speak of long intervals between 
one plague and another; but now the dogs have multiplied out of all 
proportion, grown bolder, and hang on to their prey even when the 
men are drawing their nets, or what is left of them. 

The cry, " The dogfish are upon us ! " terrifies fishers and paralyzes 



152 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

industry for a season, for men may lose in nets alone in one night the 
profits of a month's strenuous labor. Last year 300 drift boats, carry- 
ing over 1,000 hands, were kept idle in the little ports of Looe, Pol- 
perro and Mevagissey alone, the men preferring to earn nothing in 
the very midst of their season's harvest, to the risk of having their 
nets cut to pieces by dogfish. At Plymouth, boats were idle and soup 
kitchens opened; and at Mousehole, Newlyn and St. Ives, distress was 
great. It is the fact that packs of dogfish effectually blockaded the 
fishing ports, and continued to do so until pilchards disappeared and 
the herring fishing was spoilt. The dread experiences of last year have 
so far been repeated. Swarms of dogfish are reported everywhere. 
The drifters venturing out hug the coast at the risk of having their 
nets torn by the rocks, and then only fish half time, through fear of 
the dogs scenting them and spoiling their gear. 

There are several varieties of dogfish, all having the same glutton- 
ous and destructive instincts; but the picked dog is the most dreaded, 
being armed under its two dorsal fins with sharp curved spines, with 
which it rips nets hanging in the sea with the ease of a mower cutting 
grass with a scythe. The mischief is not confined to the drifters, but 
extends to long liners, who fish abundantly in these waters for conger 
and skate. The dogs carry off their bait, sometimes bite off the hooks 
and go free, and when caught are of but little commercial value. A 
Looe fisherman recently reported hauling 1 conger and 500 dogfish on 
his "bolter;" so the men look serious when spoken to, and ask anx- 
iously if some remedy may be found. 

Dominant Species. 
That certain species become dominant, and increase so 
rapidly and over such a wide range of territory as to greatly 
diminish the number of other species of similar habitat, is a 
well-known biological fact, which requires no further proof. 
The most immediate examples are the English sparrow, the 
gypsy and brown-tail moths, etc. The facts indicate that the 
dogfish as a species is actually increasing in numbers, and ap- 
pears to be likely to become such a dominant species ; and until 
some natural or artificial check upon its increase arises, the 
damage done to the wealth-producing capacity of the North 
Atlantic Ocean will extend rather than lessen. 

Causes of Increasing Numbers of Dogfish. 
The causes of these increased numbers of dogfish are diffi- 
cult to ascertain. There appears no very obvious diminution 
in the numbers of the enemies of the dogfish. They are not 
known to be subject to any special epidemics, as are many other 
fish, e.g., the salmon family, menhaden, etc., or to be liable to 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 153 

any such cataclysm as destroyed such incredible numbers of 
tile fish; so that one is almost forced to seek the cause in the 
effect of human agency upon the balance of fish life. For al- 
most three hundred years the North Atlantic has been scoured 
for marketable fish. The breeding fish and the young of all 
sizes have been marketed or wasted with almost unspeakable 
prodigality. Our attention has in the main been devoted to the 
more readily available fish, such as the cod and herring family, 
mackerel, etc., while the dogfish, sharks, skates and rays have 
been gotten rid of with the least exertion or expense. Their 
capture has been even avoided to the utmost possible extent. 
It is a general practice to seek new fishing grounds when the 
dogfish strike. Thus the dogfish has been practically immune 
from capture. Other species have in many cases decreased in 
numbers. In no other case which the writer now recalls has 
there been a marked and certain increase. The dogfish, thus 
freed from a part of the competition, and so much better able 
to secure food, has multiplied in all sections of its range. The 
fishermen are largely responsible for this, though chiefly on 
account of the absence of knowledge and experience with such 
problems. Professor Prince, in his able report upon the dog- 
fish plague in Canada, says on this point : — 

If the parent dogfish, with their unborn brood of young, ready to 
emerge into the sea, were brought ashore, it would be one of the most 
effective steps possible to reduce their numbers. Yet it rarely, if ever, 
occurs to a fisherman to do this. Instead of that, the young are freed, 
and the parent fish, mutilated in some way, are as a rule also replaced 
in the water, though mutilation is of little moment to a dogfish. They 
are so hardy that even after the tail is cut off or the head badly in- 
jured they will swim off most actively. A shark, after being most 
cruelly injured, has been known to immediately return to the bait and 
be captured a second time. Owing to the hardy and well-protected 
character of the young, the offspring of a single female, though few 
in number, may approach, as already stated, the progeny of the cod 
or salmon, which produce eggs by thousands or even by millions each 
year. Fishermen hold that dogfish breed all the year round, but this is 
not so, and the fall and winter months appear to be the principal 
time. . . . 

Further, fishermen and others should be discouraged in the common 
practice of liberating young dogfish in the ocean, and the destruction 
of the parent fish with their broods of contained young should be en- 
joined. If, as is stated, the dogfish taken in December are for the 
most part females, their capture at that time is of immense importance. 



154 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The destruction of breeding female fish has been abundantly shown to 
be a direct means of reducing the supply of fish in the future. The 
increase of dogfish in recent years has been accounted for by their 
less extensive capture for oil purposes. The low price of fish oil has 
discouraged the annual destruction of dogfish, formerly carried on 
systematically. But that suggestion will not account fully for the in- 
crease. 

Various Methods which have been suggested foe, check- 
ing the Incursions of Dogfish. 
Many suggestions looking to increased killing of dogfish have 
been made by numerous individuals more or less competent to 
judge of the merits of various plans. These have been earlier 
summarized in Professor Prince's report : — 

1. Liberate alive some hundreds of dogfish having securely fastened 
outside their bodies (by means of hooks, wires, etc.) glittering and 
gaudy streamers or jingling chains or bells, calculated to terrify and 
frighten away the schools of dogfish, on the old principle of setting 
at liberty a rat with a bell hung round its neck. 

2. Inoculate a number of dogfish with some fatal or contagious dis- 
ease, thus securing the infection and death of all the schools of dog- 
fish which may hover near, on the principle adopted in reducing the 
pest of rabbits in Australia some years ago. 

3. Dynamite the great schools of dogfish when they appear. 

4. Employ the government cruisers and their men in capturing these 
pests, or let the government employ special vessels for the purpose, 
until the plague is reduced. 

5. Pay a bounty of 1 cent for every five tails of dogfish ($2 per 
1,000) brought to a fishing officer, and, after being officially recorded, 
destroyed by such officer. Many fishermen have declared that they get 
1,000 dogfish in a single day not infrequently; yet it is asserted that 
even $2.50 per 1,000 would not pay. 

6. Pay a bounty on the basis of the weight of the dogfish captured, 
say so much per 100 pounds. Some parties claim that $2 to $3 per 
ton or y<i cent per fish would pay the fishermen; while others say that, 
as dogfish average a weight of 4 pounds, such a bounty of 1 cent each 
fish would pay. Thus the suggested rates range from 10 or 15 cents 
per 100 pounds to 25 cents per 200 pounds. 

7. Pay a bounty on the total yield of oil, a fixed rate on each gallon 
of oil produced by a factory being guaranteed to any firm or company 
carrying on reduction works. 

8. Use long seines of strong cord, 1,000 yards or more in length, 
under departmental direction, and surround the schools, as is done 
with the schools of sharks in India. 

If, as seems clear, the commercial products yielded by dogfish bring 
such low returns in the market that it will not pay oil and fertilizer 
factories to utilize them, and cannot therefore pay the fishermen to 
fish for them or even to save them when caught accidentally, then a 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 155 

bounty paid by the government seems to be necessary. The livers of 
dogfish bring to the fishermen 25 cents per pail, and on an average per- 
haps at least 50 dogfish are required to make a pail of livers; and the 
loss of hooks, bait and time have all to be included; hence only the 
encouragement of a bounty will ensure the energetic and continuous 
destruction of these fish. Certainly the suggestions numbered 1, 2 
and 3 would probably harm the schools of valuable fishes as much 
as the detested dogfish, while the employment of a few vessels or gov- 
ernment cruisers would not suffice to deal with so general a pest. as the 
dogfish on our shores. Reliance can be placed only on the co-opera- 
tion of the fishermen all along the coast, stimulated by a bounty fairly 
and effectively distributed on a workable basis; unless, indeed, the dog- 
fish in the meantime take the course they have so commonly taken in 
former times and on other coasts, and disappear as suddenly as their 
hordes originally have appeared. The problem would then solve it- 
self. 

Development of an Economic Demand for Dogfish. 

Of all the suggestions made, the one which offers most ad- 
vantageous features to all parties concerned, — to the public, 
which now pays a higher price for fish than would he otherwise 
necessary ; to the fishermen, who now lose much time and suffer 
annoyance and damage from the voracity of the dogfish ; to the 
capitalists, who find the interest on their investments cut by 
the loss of gear and time, — is the development of an economic 
demand for dogfish. A bounty of a fixed sum for each dogfish 
destroyed, paid either directly to the fishermen, or, what would 
practically amount to the same thing, a subsidy or " protection " 
(protective tariff) to every industry based upon economic util- 
ization of the dogfish or dogfish products, such as, for example, 
the utilization of the cartilaginous skeleton and the connective 
tissue of the skin in making glue (it has been ascertained that 
the disagreeable oily odor can be completely removed by treat- 
ment with live steam), and the preparation of the remainder 
of the carcass as a poultry food. If the sterilization is made 
by live steam, the flavor of the flesh will be modified so that the 
proper amounts can be fed to laying hens without causing a dis- 
agreeable or fishy taste to the eggs ; while as a food for growing 
chickens and ducks it should be one of the best and cheapest 
sources of protein, — the most necessary and the most expensive 
element in the ration. Obviously for such a purpose only per- 
fectly fresh dogfish should be utilized, for poultry as well as 
human beings may suffer from ptomaine poisoning. Old or 



156 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

inferior quality may be profitably utilized in the manufacture 
of fertilizer. The liver and eggs should be removed, and the 
oil extracted separately from the body meat. Mr. Ellison of 
Cleveland, O., states that according to his observations 15,000 
pounds of dogfish yielded as follows: the livers weighed 2,274 
pounds, which furnished 1,010 pounds of oil, or about 44 per 
cent; the bodies, weighing 12,726 pounds, furnished 605 pounds 
of oil, less than 5 per cent, and 2,573 pounds of fertilizer, or 
about 20 per cent. (He does not, to our knowledge, state the 
per cent, of water in this fertilizer, or the results of chemical 
analysis. ) 

The observations of Mr. A. B. Cox, manager of the dog- 
fish reduction works at Canso, ~N. S., indicate that on October 
3 the dogfish livers contained a far larger percentage of oil 
than Mr. Ellison found. Mr. Cox's figures indicate a yield of 
practically 75 per cent, of oil from the livers and 5 per cent, 
from the flesh. It is probable that these differences in yield 
of oil are due to the greater freshness of Mr. Cox's material, 
as it is well known that dogfish, whales, etc., lose a considerable 
percentage of oil unless the rendering process immediately fol- 
lows death. 

The Dogfish Reduction Works at Canso, K". S. 

Oct. 2 and 3, 1905, we personally inspected at Canso the first 
of the dogfish reduction works to be put into operation under 
the auspices of the Department of Marine and Eisheries of 
Canada. 

This establishment began operations about September 15, 
and was designed to reduce about 10 tons of dogfish or fish 
offal daily. The machinery used was furnished by the Ameri- 
can Process Company, and is of the type generally used in the 
" menhaden factories " in this country, and with certain modi- 
fications in the " whale factories " of Newfoundland. At the 
time of beginning operations Mr. Cox was obliged to make a 
week's trip among the fishermen, to explain the plan and to 
induce them to bring in the dogfish caught. As soon as ship- 
ments began to come in from points outside of Canso, e.g., 
Arichat, Petit du Grat, etc., the Canso fishermen began to save 
their dogfish. The result was a great surprise to all. It had 




DOGFISH REDUCTION WORKS AT CANSO, N. S. 




2. CATCHING DOGFISH, CANSO, N. S. 




3. ARRIVAL OF DOGFISH CATCH, 




4. LANDING DOGFISH. 




5. THIRTY-TWO TONS OF DOGFISH ON THE WHARF. 



* , mintinifil 

' [ 

J. * "*^ 






<* ""'*. 


6* «^^Pw 



6. REMOVING LIVERS. 




7. LOADING THE ELEVATOR. 

The small white spheres on the cleared space on the 

wharf are dogfish eggs 



- '■ ' 

■ \, . . ■ 

'%t'« -vi- 

"'!■•■':■•'■■■'. , ' 



DRYING DOGFISH, FOURCHIE, C. B. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 157 

not been realized how many dogfish had been hooked and thrown 
overboard again. One of the fishermen had 2 trawls, set with 
1,500 hooks on each. He tended the first trawl as soon as the 
second trawl was set, and " nearly every hook had a dogfish." 
On October 2, in spite of the fact that notice had been sent out 
the two days previous that, on account of the overwhelming quan- 
tities which came in, no dogfish would be received until October 
4, we saw 8 loads from steamer, small schooners and dories 
brought and landed upon the dock. Three dories brought 7 
tons, three small schooners brought 17 tons, and one small 
steamer brought 8 tons, — a total of 32 tons. The price paid 
for the fish delivered on the dock was at that time $6 per ton 
if " livered," and $5 per ton if " unlivered." These prices in- 
cluded the livers. Even at $4 per ton the dogfish would ha 
been a bonanza for the fishermen. Two men in a dory coul 
easily make from $7 to $8 a day per man, catching dogfish 
within one mile of their own homes. 

Since our visit we learn that many improvements in the 
process have been developed, and several new mechanical de- 
vices are to be instituted. The results of treating the livers 
separately from the bodies have been much more satisfactory. 
The drying process has been much accelerated, and has resulted 
in a quality of fertilizer which more readily becomes available 
for plant food in the soil. 

There is a probability that certain special parts may be util- 
ized for particular purposes, e.g., the fresh eggs may be con- 
served in such a manner as to be used for some of the purposes 
for which the yolks of hen's eggs are now demanded. The em- 
bryo dogfish (" pups ") may be found to be satisfactory bait, 
and thus be worth handling separately. Eurther investigation 
may disclose. internal organs which can be converted into gela- 
tin, after the manner of the " sounds " of sturgeon, hake, weak- 
fish, etc. But above all, the flesh and the offal are converted into 
a valuable fertilizer, which will be of great assistance in increas- 
ing the crops of potatoes, fruits and garden truck, by furnishing 
a type of fertilizer much needed, on account of the short season, 
for pushing the crops to the rapid maturity necessary. 

We learn that the plant has been inspected and has received 
the approval of the officials of the Department of Marine and 



158 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Fisheries. The general sentiment among the fishermen is favor- 
able to the project. The chief objections are found among the 
opponents of the present government, who claim to see therein 
a shrewd political move. Be that as it may, the project prom- 
ises the destruction of a vast number of dogfish, thereby benefit- 
ing the public and the fishermen through the improvement of 
the bait and food fisheries. It furnishes a market for what was 
previously a " waste product " of the fisheries, or, even worse, 
a waste product which was positively injurious, unless removed 
at a considerable expense. In addition, it is a direct benefit to 
the farmers and to all citizens and land owners, since it fur- 
nishes a valuable fertilizer readily available at a low price. It 
is therefore not strange that such efficient action should have 
strengthened the political party which made such a project 
possible. 

Similar Plants Elsewhere. 

Since our visit a second and similar plant has been put into 
active operation at Shippegan, 1ST. B., on Chaleurs Bay, and 
contracts for a third plant have been placed. 

A Honolulu correspondent of the " New York Tribune " re- 
cently wrote that : — 

A company has been formed to hunt sharks on an extensive scale, 
and as a commercial enterprise. Several schooners have been purchased 
and fitted out with the necessary paraphernalia and appliances for 
capturing these monsters of the deep. 

The purpose of shark hunting is two-fold. One object is to obtain 
oil from them, the remainder of the shark to be used in the manu- 
facture of fertilizer for the sugar plantations of the islands. Shiploads 
of fish offal from the Alaska salmon canneries are brought here every 
year to be made into fertilizer for sugar lands, and it is believed that 
the bodies of sharks will supply the same material, and at less cost. 

The oil is to be sent to China, where there is a great market for it. 
Some shark oil has been sent to China from there for many years, but 
the greatest drawback to the trade was that until now there was no 
method whereby the strong odor of the shark could be eliminated from 
the oil. A successful process has at last been discovered, by the treat- 
ment of the oil with live steam, and a demand has been created for 
this product which is greater than can at present be supplied. 

In the fertilizer works it is estimated that thirty tons of shark a 
day can be utilized, and that this will employ the services of at least 
three schooners and their crews. 

The waters of these islands teem with sharks, and shark hunting is 
a pastime that appeals to many. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 159 

Dogfish as Food. 

There is another phase, and perhaps the most important 
asset in the dogfish problem, viz., its availability as a cheap and 
wholesome food. From personal experience we can give testi- 
mony to its satisfactory taste, lack of odor or " strength," and 
its consistency when cooked or canned. It has, when canned, 
a distinctly obvious lobster flavor, together with a certain salmon 
impression, so that from the taste it can best be compared to 
a mixture of canned lobster and canned salmon. When cut 
into steaks and fried, it closely resembles halibut. Its free- 
dom from bone makes it especially safe as a food for children 
or for aged persons. There would appear to be unlimited possi- 
bilities for developing a business in specially prepared brands 
of food, wherein the dogfish may be combined with rice, pota- 
toes, etc., making " canned fish balls, all ready to fry," etc., 
after the manner of " fish cheese " now being much used in 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The inferior cuts of meat 
can be converted into a food for growing poultry, pigs, etc. 
Objection may be raised to the fact that fish food may tend to 
affect the taste of meat when marketed. This is true of other 
foods besides fish, but it can be obviated by the proper method 
of feeding. On the coast of Nova Scotia dogfish are dried and 
fed to horses. " One every three days brightens the coat." 

Our English cousins are in advance of us in the exploita- 
tion of the dogfish as a valuable, cheap food. A writer in a 
London paper says : — 

The dogfish is excellent eating and ridiculously cheap, and the 
remedy should be near. Make it worth our men's while to catch, and 
the species will enter on a struggle for existence. Last year the Cor- 
nish fisheries committee held an official inquiry at the principal fishing 
ports, when it was clearly shown that, after paying all costs, charges 
and expenses, fish sold at Billingsgate at l 1 /^ d. per pound would pay the 
fishermen to catch in ordinary seasons. The Plymouth council engaged 
an expert cook to prepare dogfish for the table, with and without sauce, 
and the published results were excellent as to color, flavor and firm- 
ness under the slicer. No fish not " prime " could be better spoken of. 
Then it is nutritious and boneless, and so a very safe food for both 
young and aged. 

The committee of inquiry concerned itself but incidentally with the 
dietetic qualities of the fish and its value as a national food asset. They 



160 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

reported, however, on the terrible losses to our fishermen, threatening 
the extinction of an industry already too little remunerative; and, in 
a spirit of despair, suggested dynamite, and the establishment of fac- 
tories, as in the United States and Canada, for utilizing the fish for its 
by-products — oils, albuminoids and glucose — and its residue for land 
fertilization. The Devon fisheries committee joined the Cornish, and 
there has been a conference at Plymouth; but little has come of it 
except the passing of a resolution calling upon the government to do 
something. Men are now fearful of casting their nets in the home 
waters until April next, when the " plague " should disappear, silently 
and mysteriously, in obedience to some law not yet ascertained by our 
marine biologists. 

One suggestion, palliative at best, is the employment of small gov- 
ernment steamers to drag the home waters with specially prepared 
wire nets, which the picked dog cannot destroy with its sharp " spurs," 
and so insure peaceful fishing to drifters in sheltered bights and bays; 
for our fishers will not hear of dynamite or any downward explosive 
on their fishery grounds. 

The preservation of the fishing industry is in very truth a matter 
of national concern. Every village on our coast is a nursery for sea- 
men for the royal navy, and rears a population next to impossible 
to produce under the totally different conditions of atmosphere and 
employment in towns. The hereditary instincts of seamen are the 
slow growth of centuries, and discovery will come too late, if once our 
fishers are compelled to adopt other occupations, — a contingency which 
looms nearer every season of failure and disaster. At present our navy 
and naval reserve are recruited largely from the fisher class. 

Cannot the dreaded dogfish, the glutton of the sea, become a wel- 
come guest, and, instead of being treated as a waste product of nature, 
be converted into cheap food for the masses'? A brisk demand for it 
as an edible would dispel the gathered and still gathering gloom. Our 
fishermen would catch it with special net and hook, if only it could be 
sold at fairly remunerative prices. At present the dogfish finds its 
way principally to fried-fish shops; but if once known for the excel- 
lent table fish it is, for the low price at which it can be delivered in 
London and great industrial centers, it would be welcomed by thou- 
sands to whom strict economy in living is a first necessity. At Brighton 
and the Isle of Wight the fish is well known, and it is sold in many 
places under various names, at prices which would make our fisher- 
men's eyes glisten. The name " dogfish " is said to be against the 
fish for the tables of persons accustomed to something more euphoni- 
ous for their menus; but if it became the vogue, the fishmonger might 
be relied on to dissipate prejudice on that score. 

From now until April, at least, an unlimited supply of dogfish can 
be sent to market from the west, at rates which should be of the first 
importance to the necessitous, to the unemployed, and to all persons 
charged with the administration of charitable relief. Its consumption 
would benefit our fishermen, and make them anxious to catch instead 
of avoiding the dogfish, so thinning its ranks. It would also add, on 
the average, two remunerative working months to each year. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 161 



Other Commercial Possibilities. 

It is of interest to note that many sea-food canning factories 
were established in Japan to furnish supplies for the army. 
Canned dogfish is one of the staples. With the close of the war 
an outlet must be found for the product of these canneries. 
Considerable dogfish is also packed in Canada for export to the 
Western Islands and to the West Indies. 

It does not seem probable that in N"ew England and the 
Middle Atlantic States any favorable market can be developed 
for dogfish as food; and no encouragement should be given to 
put dogfish on the market under the name of halibut or other 
staple fish, or under any misnomer whatever. The supply of 
staple fresh fish is at present abundant, adequate, and satis- 
factorily cheap in price. There are in Massachusetts few can- 
neries where the fish might be utilized ; though in the States to 
the south of us dogfish might be canned when oysters, etc., were 
not available for the canneries. In this section the demand 
rather points towards currying oil, poultry food and fertilizer; 
and the logical plan would appear to be the development of 
some economical method of making the catching and sale of 
both large and small dogfish sufficiently remunerative to induce 
the fishermen to bring in the dogfish along with the cod, had- 
dock, pollock, mackerel and other valuable fish. 

Some further commercial possibilities are referred to in the 
report of Mr. Paul M. Carpenter. Here Mr. Carpenter supple- 
ments his observations on board the fishing vessels and at hand- 
line fishing at Provincetown, by calling renewed attention to the 
report of Mr. Charles N\ Stevenson on " The^ptilization of the 
Skins of Aquatic Animals," annexed to the report of the United 
States Commissioner of Eish and Fisheries for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1902. 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — On June 24, 1905, I was appointed an agent of the 
Massachusetts Commission on Fisheries and Game, for the purpose of 
investigating the food of certain deep-sea fishes, particularly of the 
dogfish, and to collect any information upon the damage done to the 
fisheries by dogfish or other predatory fish. I at once entered upon the 
discharge of my duties, establishing my headquarters at Provincetown. 
I have devoted my attention chiefly to the study of the dogfish and his 



L62 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

habits, this fish having of recent years become a serious menace to the 
fisheries of the Commonwealth. 

The attention of the United States Fish Commission was first called 
to the rapid increase of dogfish in Atlantic waters in February, 1882, 
by Capt. J. W. Collins, then attached to the United States Commission 
on Fish and Fisheries at Washington, and later, until his lamented 
death, the accomplished chairman of the Massachusetts Commission on 
Fisheries and Game. In a letter to Prof. S. F. Baird, then United 
States Commissioner, Captain Collins wrote : — 

In the " Cape Ann Advertiser" of Feb. 18, 1882, I find the following paragraph : 
" Immense schools of dogfish, extending as far as the eye can reach, have appeared 
off Portsmouth, an unusual sight in winter." Is it not possible that the presence 
of dogfish in such abundance in that vicinity, this winter, may have something to 
do with the scarcity of cod in Ipswich Bay ? It is a fact well known to fishermen 
that dogfish in summer will drive the various species of bottom fish from the 
grounds, and it may be that they are quite as voracious and troublesome to the cod 
in winter as in warmer weather. 

Again, two years later, Captain Collins called the attention of the 
government to this matter, in a letter dated July 7, 1884, in which he 
wrote : — 

Capt. Joseph Smith of Gloucester, Mass., tells me that while off Wood Island, 
Me., in August, 1880, he observed what he supposed to be at first a moderate-sized 
school of mackerel, at the surface of the water. On closer inspection, however, he 
found that only a small number were mackerel, probably not exceeding half or 
three-quarters of a barrel, and these were completely surrounded by an immense 
school of dogfish. The body of dogfish was formed in such a manner as to enclose 
the mackerel on all sides and underneath, completely preventing their escape. 
Captain Smith had an opportunity of observing the mackerel closely, and says that 
many of them he noticed were bitten by the dogfish, some being deprived of their 
tails, and others having wounds on their sides. He is of opinion that every one of 
the mackerel was ultimately eaten by the dogfish. It is probable, he thinks, that 
at first a much larger body of mackerel was surrounded. The school of dogfish he 
estimated to contain at least enough for 100 barrels. Another school of dogfish, 
surrounding a small body of mackerel, was seen on the same day. 

Annexed to the annual report of the United States Commissioner 
of Fish and Fisheries, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1903, is a 
report by Mr. Barton W. Evermann, assistant in charge of the Division 
of Statistics and Methods of the Fisheries. In discussing the dogfish 
Mr. Evermann says : — 

Dogfish appeared on the coast in and near Penobscot Bay in unwonted numbers in 
1902, and committed great havoc among the deep-water fishes. They appeared earlier 
than usual, being found near Monhegan Island as early as the middle of May, and 
becoming quite plentiful all along the coast in June; but August appears to have 
been, as usual, the month of the greatest abundance. As illustrating their abun- 
dance, and the damage wrought by them to the shore fisheries, Mr. John N. Harri- 
man of Stockton Springs, who fishes a great deal in the lower Penobscot Bay, near 
Matinicus, at Isle au Haut, etc., stated that he never knew dogfish so plentiful. 
They came into the bay early, about June 1, and remained until late in the season. 
A Searspoit fisherman also caught dogfish just outside of Brigadier Island. Mr. 
Alvah G-. Dorr of Bucksport, who fishes for haddock, cod, etc., near Gott's Island, 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 163 

found dogfish troublesome about the last of June. Around Mount Desert Rock 
the large fleet of fishermen usually at work there were all driven from the fishing 
ground by the dogfish early in July, and had hardly begun again September 9. 
The dogfish not only seize the bait on trawls, but attack other fish that have been 
hooked. On August 9 Mr. Dorr set his usual trawl, 1 tub of 500 hooks, about 1 mile 
outside of Gott's Island, and secured at one haul 217 dogfish, 5 haddock and a good 
many heads of haddock, of which the rest had been eaten off by dogfish. On the 
same day another man fishing in that locality, with about the same number of 
hooks, caught in one haul 224 dogfish, 2 hake heads, and 3 skates. Mr. Dorr opened 
perhaps half a dozen dogfish, and found that nearly all were females, with living 
young within, about 8 fish to each mother, which would swim off on being thrown 
into the water. In the Penobscot River, near Sandy Point, a trawl set by Mr. 
Ernest A. Partridge of Stockton Springs, in 15 fathoms of water, took 50 dogfish in 
one day. Occasionally, but not very often, dogfish are caught in salmon weirs. 
The fishermen report 9 dogfish caught in weirs at Stockton Springs, 6 at Penobscot 
and 9 at Verona. 

In the summer of 1904 the dogfish became unusually and remark- 
ably troublesome to the fishermen of Cape Cod. Capt. Benjamin R. 
Kelley of Provincetown, a fisherman of much experience, found them 
far more plentiful in that vicinity than ever before. They made their 
appearance in large numbers, he says, about the middle of July. They 
were very large and voracious, and were so destructive of nets and 
gear that near the end of July many of the fishermen were obliged to 
take up their nets and trawls, dry them and store them away, in order 
to save them from destruction. Some of the larger vessels reported 
the loss of hundreds of dollars' worth of nets and trawls destroyed 
by dogfish. Before the close of the season it became impossible to 
keep a hook on the bottom for ground fishing, the dogfish not only 
destroying the fish on the trawls, but devouring the bait and destroying 
the gear. In the south channel, southeast of Noman's Land, these 
fish were especially, numerous and troublesome, seriously reducing the 
value of these fishing grounds. Lobster men also reported much annoy- 
ance from the dogfish, which would enter the pots and consume the 
bait. Frequently 4 or 5 dogfish would be found in a single lobster pot. 
The mackerel, once so plentiful in Cape Cod Bay, in the season of 
1904 were quite scarce, the scarcity being due, in the opinion of the 
fishermen, to the presence of the dogfish in so great numbers. 

Upon examining the edible fish caught on the trawls, it was notice- 
able that, contrary to the reported habit, comparatively few presented 
the appearance of having been attacked by dogfish. From these facts 
stated, together with the additional fact that many of the dogfish 
caught appeared to be not fully grown, I concluded that the pugna- 
cious nature of the dogfish does not develop until he approaches ma- 
turity. I found no trace of lobsters or shellfish in the stomachs, 
although the occasional presence of large deep-sea scallops on the trawls 
was evidence of an abundant supply of these shellfish at the depth 
reached by the trawls. 

Although the month of August is the time of j^ear in which the 
dogfish may usually be expected to be the most annoying, the reports 
from all the fishermen indicated a far less number than usual in 
the vicinity of Cape Cod. In numerous trips which I made to the 
Ledge and other fishing grounds within a day's sail of Provincetown, 



164 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

experience indicated much less annoyance than usual to the fishermen 
from this cause. Reports were persistent of the presence of dogfish 
in great numbers off the coasts of Maine and Nova Scotia. This re- 
port, taken in connection with an unusual scarcity of mackerel in 
Cape Cod Bay during the past summer, was taken by fishermen as an 
indication that the mackerel had fled to the eastward, pursued by the 
dogfish. 

In August I visited the United States biological station at Wood's 
Hole, and there learned that conditions similar to those at Cape Cod, 
relative to dogfish, prevailed at that point. 

The fishermen of Provincetown were also perplexed and annoyed 
by an unusual scarcity of squid, which is commonly found in great 
numbers in the harbor, and which is used generally for bait. Many 
vessels were detained in port for a large part of the season by the 
difficulty of procuring this bait. Others used porgies or herring for 
bait, although squid is preferred. It is not impossible that some con- 
nection may be traced between the scarcity of dogfish and that of squid 
in the vicinity of Cape Cod, for it is certain that the dogfish is fond 
of the squid as food. 1 In the summer of 1902 an immense school of 
squid, pursued by dogfish, took refuge in the shallow parts of Province- 
town harbor, and was left on the shore by the receding tide. So enor- 
mous was the number of these stranded squid that the board of health 
of the town found it necessary to employ a large number of men to 
remove the bodies, in the interest of the public health and comfort. 

The report of the appearance of dogfish in great numbers on the 
Maine coast is confirmed by an article published in a New York news- 
paper, annexed to this report (see p. 166), which describes these fish as 
swarming in immense numbers in the vicinity of Old Orchard. 

I beg to call the attention of the commission to some considerations 
respecting the utilization of dogfish for commercial purposes. 

Annexed to the report of the United States Commissioner of Fish 
and Fisheries, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902, is a report of 
Charles H. Stevenson on " The Utilization of the Skins of Aquatic 
Animals." Concerning the utilization of the skins of sharks, rays 
and dogfish, Mr. Stevenson says : — 

The skins of sharks, rays and dogfish are commonly very rough, and studded 
with numerous horny, tuberculous markings or protuberances. Some have small 
imbricated and triangular scale-like tubercles; others unimbricated and nearly 
rhomboid, which in one species ranged near each other in quincunxes, or they may 
be quite square, compact, and comparatively smooth on top. These protuberances 
are usually firmly fixed to the skin, so that they are not easily separated therefrom. 
They are rough and hard, and take a polish almost equal to stone. 

These skins, like those of all cartilaginous fishes, are very durable. A peculiar- 
ity, in addition to the markings above noted, is the non-porous character. The 
pores that are everywhere present in the skins of most mammals, which give the 
natural grain in the tanned leather, are entirely indiscernible in the skins of these 
fish. The result is to render them almost proof against water absorption. Al- 
though by skillful tanning the fibres of seal and other skins may be plumped and 
the body of the membrane solidified, yet much water exposure loosens up the fibre 
and gradually permits absorption. Not being of a porous nature, shark skin is 

1 We found at Canso, N. S., a remarkable scarcity of squid, but an astounding 
abundance of dogfish. — G. W. F. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 165 

naturally free from this defect. But the advantage is also a disadvantage in some 
respects. The non-porous leather is practically air proof as well as waterproof, and 
that is a serious defect when its use for footwear is considered. Beyond this, the 
skins of sharks and similar fishes may be prepared in a very durable, non-cracking 
leather, for which many uses may be found. 

Formerly, large quantities of these skins were used for polishing wood, ivory, 
etc., for which they are excellent, owing to their roughness, hardness and dura- 
bility. But the great improvements made in preparing emery compositions and 
sandpapers have resulted in substituting them almost entirely for polishing pur- 
poses. However, a small demand yet exists for shark skins for cabinet workers' 
use. 

The principal uses made of the skins of sharks and allied fishes at the present 
time are for covering jewel boxes, desk ornaments, card cases, sword sheaths, 
sword grips, and a great variety of small articles for which the tuberculous mark- 
ings peculiarly adapt them. The demand for these purposes, however, is small 
and restricted, and each producer has to develop his own market. Comparatively 
few of these skins are prepared in the United States, and diligent search among 
the tanneries and leather stores will result in the finding of only a few skins. 
Many, however, are prepared in France, Turkey and other countries in southern 
Europe, and also in China and Japan. 

A Parisian manufacturer has made quite a reputation tanning the skin of a 
species of Malabar shark into morocco; and establishments in Turkey make green 
leather from the skin of the angel shark found in the Mediterranean Sea. The 
skin of the diamond shark obtained in the North Sea, and so called because of the 
shape of the markings or protuberances, is used to cover the sword grips of German 
officers, and for this purpose is not surpassed by any material obtainable. Some 
parts of the skin of certain varieties of sharks, when dried and hardened, take a 
polish equal to that of stone, and bear a strong resemblance to the fossil coral 
porites, and are much used in the manufacture of ornaments and jewelry. 

In preparing them for the use of cabinet makers, shark skins are merely cleaned, 
and not tanned. The hard, dry skins are soaked in lukewarm water for three or 
four days, shaved on the flesh side to remove surplus flesh and muscular tissue, 
and then dried. The skins of some species of sharks are so hard that they cannot 
be shaved. The appearance of these skins is improved by bleaching, using chlor- 
ide of lime and sulphuric acid. The durability of some of them is remarkable, 
outwearing many sheets of sandpaper of equal area. 

In tanning shark skin for leather or ornamental purposes, an alum process is 
usually employed. Each establishment usually has its own particular method, but 
the general process is much the same, consisting of a preliminary soaking, liming, 
bating and fleshing, and then tanning or preserving in an alum compound. The 
hard skins are first soaked in water four or five days, and then in lime water for 
two to six days, depending on the condition of the texture, temperature of water, 
etc. The skins are washed free of lime and bated in bran water, then shaved on 
the flesh side, to remove all excess of flesh and the like. The alum solution in 
which they are immersed is composed of a pound of alum and one-fifth of a pound 
of salt to a gallon of water. The skins remain in the solution two or three days, 
with occasional stirring. On removal they are dried and are then ready for 
manufacturing. 

The subject of the utilization of dogfish for oil and guano is briefly 
discussed by Mr. B. Frank Gallup of East Boothbay, Me., in a letter 
to Prof. S. F. Baird. Under date of Sept. 26, 1882, Mr. Gallup 
wrote : — 

Allow me to call your attention to a new industry, started this season on this coast 
upon scientific principles, and which promises to be a success, providing there is a 
bounty allowed to fishermen. I refer to the catching of dogfish and making them 



166 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

into oil and guano. I have paid this season $1 per 100 fish, and the fishermen claim 
that the price is too low ; yet it is all that I can afford to pay for them, — in fact, 
all they are worth. My views are that, if the fishermen receive a bounty in addi- 
tion to the above price, many more would engage in the business, and add their 
mite to ridding the ocean of these destructive fish. I have this season converted 
the porgie factory, formerly owned by Gallup & Holmes, into using the fish, and can 
handle during their stay here say 1,000,000 fish, besides being instrumental in de- 
stroying twice that number in young fish, nearly matured. 

I beg leave to add that some years ago an establishment was, so I 
am informed, put into operation at Provincetown for the rendering 
of oil from dogfish; but the oil so procured proved of so poor a quality 
that its production did not prove commercially profitable, and the 
establishment was closed. 

I also beg leave to annex to this report a newspaper clipping, which 
concerns a single phase of the subject treated in this report. 

Very respectfully, Paul Moulton Carpenter. 

Enemies of Food Fish. — Maine Trawlers complain that the 
Dogfish is driving them from Business. 

[From the <! New York Sun."] 

The hotels at Old Orchard, Me., have been driven to the conclusion 
that their supply of fresh fish will have to come from a distance this 
season. The schooners which used to circuit about the bay do not now 
seek the mackerel and porgies. Some visitors saw the cause of the 
trouble a few days ago, in Casco Bay. They had gone out with a couple 
of old fishermen for a night's trawling. Some new lines had been care- 
fully set, and then the buoyed half mile of line put out a day or two 
previously was visited. Hardly, however, had the two begun to pass 
the heavy cord with its dependent lines over the roller in the bow of 
the boat, when one of them began to swear, and wound up by saying, 
"No use; I guess dogfish have spoiled the whole thing." 

As line after line came up, it was found that all the bait was gone 
and most of the hooks missing, and many of the cords broken on 2 short. 
There is no chance to catch one of the thieves at such times, the men 
explained, when one of them has been hooked in such a manner that 
he cannot cut the line with his hundred of wedge-shaped teeth. When 
once the tough skin of the brutes is broken, so that the blood comes, 
the other dogfish will scent the carrion from an incredible distance, 
and hurry to the feast. 

Near Prout's Neck at the east corner of the beach the school was 
seen a day later from a coasting schooner. They were chasing an im- 
mense drove of small mackerel, young cod and porgies, which were leap- 
ing out of the water in every direction, in vain endeavors to escape the 
implacable enemy. There was some generalship about the attack. The 
fish were headed into a little bay with rocks at each of its points. 
The school of dogfish were in a crescent formation, completely cutting 
off all retreat in the shallow water. The food fish quite realized their 
hard fortune, and many tossed themselves against the rocks or on to the 
shore, to escape the teeth of their pursuers. The flashing of the gleam- 
ing bellies as the dogfish turned themselves to give play to the mouth 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 167 

under the pig-like snout was incessant, and like short sticks the back 
fins stood above water almost as far as one could see. 

No one who has not seen them would believe the immense size of these 
schools of dogfish, or mackerel sharks, as some of the coast fishermen 
call them. The fishermen say that until a few years ago a pack of 50 
would be a large body; now they travel in thousands. 

To the ordinary whales and large sharks the men are not unfriendly. 
These are the big dogs which bring the flocks in where the nets and 
trawls can get them, for the way of escape from these giants is by the 
shallow waters. But the dogfish drive them away from the in-shore 
fishing places to places where the fishermen cannot get at them. 

When first taken out of the water they are pretty enough, so far as 
appearances go. About 5 feet in length, of true shark formation, with 
straight dorsal fin sticking up some 20 inches, a mouth like a new moon 
some inches back underneath the snout, of a lovely dark-blue color, 
shading to white below, long and lean, they have all the lines of aristo- 
cratic racers. 

All along the coast there are vague grumblings of the need of govern- 
ment intervention. The Canadian government is subsidizing factories 
which will convert the little sharks into fertilizer. But there does not 
seem to be very much promise in these attempts. 

Suggestions have been made that a good export trade with Europe 
could be built up in the canned flesh of the pests. The flesh is not at 
all bad when boiled, and so far as is known the dogfish are not unclean 
feeders. Possibly it may yet pay the fishermen to catch them and sell 
them to the canners. 

The skin of the dogfish is strong, and as rough as a carpenter's rasp. 
Small quantities of it are tanned and used for the grips of fine swords 
and dirks. A few ladies' reticules have also been made from it. If the 
natural color of the living fish could be retained, there could be no 
prettier covering for handbags, valises and small trunks, and one would 
imagine it would be as easy to set a fashion in it as it was in alligator 
skin. 

Conclusion. 

In closing, renewed emphasis should be laid upon the impor- 
tance of devising and putting into practical operation some plan 
whereby the fishermen may receive proper remuneration for the 
time, labor and capital necessary to bring the dogfish ashore, 
where the bodies may be made of economic value, thus, by kill- 
ing, to check the increase of this destructive fish, which is 
rapidly becoming an additional " white man's burden." 

Whatever system may be adopted for controlling this evil can- 
not he expected to exterminate the dogfish. Yet, if the problem 
is thoroughly canvassed in all its details and wisely worked out, 
unquestioned economic value can be attained at a cost merely 
trifling, when ranged alongside the accruing benefits. 



168 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

From the wide distribution of the dogfish and its migratory 
habits, a union of efforts along similar lines will be most ad- 
vantageous ; thus with our northern neighbors, Canada and New- 
foundland, we have reciprocal interests in this matter, even if 
we have no treaties of reciprocity. The type of continental 
free trade carried on by the dogfish race is immensely prejudicial 
to the productive economic capacity of the ocean, and must be 
controlled by as rigorous efforts as are applied to terrestrial pests. 
The information which we have secured in the preparation of 
this report compels us to range ourselves with those who are of 
the opinion that these matters demand national consideration. 
The actual amount of damage done to the Massachusetts fish- 
eries is a serious handicap to the prosperity of an industry which 
is a great source of national wealth, and the nursery of our 
national navy. Similar conditions obtain in Newfoundland, 
Canada and Great Britain, and are of sufficient importance to 
warrant an international commission, which may determine 
upon a concert of effort to control this economic plague. 

Finally, we call renewed attention to the following facts : — 

1. The annual damage by dogfish to marketable fish and 
fishing gear owned in Massachusetts is not less than $400,000 
(see pp. 115, 116). 

2. This damage falls directly upon the fishing industry, but 
indirectly and ultimately upon the purchasing public. 

3. The inroads of the dogfish upon the profits of the fisher- 
men have at present a decided tendency to drive capable men 
from our maritime industries. If this continues, the difficulty 
of securing men for the navy will be greatly augmented. (Mas- 
sachusetts now furnishes more men than any other State except 
New York.) 

4. This damage is not confined to the coast of Massachusetts, 
but extends over practically the entire coast of the North At- 
lantic Ocean. The Dominion of Canada has already made a 
substantial move. Under the direction of its Department of 
Marine and Fisheries three dogfish reduction works have been 
established, for securing oil and fertilizer from the dogfish. The 
industry of canning dogfish for food is being fostered by the 
same department, and is developing with abundant promise of 
success. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 169 

5. On our Atlantic coast are numerous glue manufactories 
and menhaden rendering plants, where dogfish could be con- 
verted into oil and fertilizer, provided the catching and trans- 
portation of dogfish could be made to yield a living profit. 

6. The theory and practice of subsidies and protection to 
" infant industries " is prominent in the development of these 
United States. Our fishing industry is to-day sorely in need 
of a small degree of protection, through a subsidy, bounty or 
other governmental assistance, whereby an industry may be 
established which shall make the capture of dogfish as profit- 
able as is the capture of the staple market fish. 






REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS ON 
FISHERIES AND GAME 



THE LOBSTER FISHERIES 



AND THE 



CAUSES OF THEIR DECLINE. 



THE LOBSTER FISHERIES. 



Is the Lobster actually threatened with Commercial 

Extinction ? 

If reliance should be placed merely upon the market reports 
to answer this question, the probability is that the dealers' al- 
most universal answer, " There are just as many lobsters in the 
market to-day as there ever were/ 7 would be accepted as a true 
index of existing conditions. If, however, we should take a 
broader survey, and study the conditions in Massachusetts from 
1888 to 1905, inclusive, as are shown by the sworn statements of 
the fishermen of Massachusetts, we would face evidence that the 
total number of lobsters caught in Massachusetts has declined in 
the last fifteen years, or since 1890, from 1,612,000 to 426,000; 
and this, too, notwithstanding the use of the most approved 
apparatus, e.g., power boats which permit a far wider fishing 
area, and the stimulus of higher prices which have caused 
notable extension of the fishing season, e.g., in Maine the lob- 
ster fishery is now carried on during every month of the year, 
instead of during seven or eight months, as formerly. 

Official reports from the hatcheries, too, indicate a gradual 
yet positive decrease in the number of egg-bearing lobsters 
which can be secured. The aggregate number of egg-bearing 
lobsters given in the sworn statements of the fishermen was 
9,865. This is the basis upon which the figures given for 1888 
and the subsequent years were made. This would indicate a 
tremendous decrease in the number of breeding lobsters, from 
70,909 in 1890 to about 10,000 in 1905. 



174 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Date. 


Fisher- 
men. 


Traps. 


Number of 

Lobsters 

above Ten 

and One-half 

Inches. 


Egg-bear- 
ing 
Lobsters. 


Average 

Catch 
per Pot. 


1888 


367 


21,418 


1,740,850 


- 


81 


1889, . 










344 


20,016 


1,359,645 


61,832 


68 


1890, . 










379 


19,554 


1,612,129 


70,909 


82 


1891, . 










327 


15,448 


1,292,791 


49,973 


84 


1892, . 










312 


14,064 


1,107,764 


37,230 


79 


1893, . 










371 


17,012 


1,149,732 


32,741 


62 


1894, . 










425 


20,303 


1,096,834 


34,897 


54 


1895, . 










377 


17,205 


956,365 


34,343 


56 


1896, . 










453 


22,041 


995,396 


30,470 


45 


1897, . 










388 


18,829 


896,273 


23,719 


48 


1898, . 










340 


16,195 


720,413 


19,931 


44 


1899, . 










327 


15,350 


644,633 


16,470 


42 


1900, . 










309 


14,086 


646,499 


15,638 


46 


1901, . 










331 


16,286 


578,383 


16,353 


35 


1902, . 










410 


20,058 


670,245 


- 


34 


1903, . 










309 


20,121 


665,466 


- 


33 


1904, . 










326 


19,539 


552,290 


13,950 


28 


1905, . 










287 


13,829 


426,471 


9,865 


31 



Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Fisheries, 
Gloucester, Mass., Nov. 8, 1905. 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — I submit herewith a brief report of the propagation 
of lobsters during the current year. 

The results of the season's work were very unsatisfactory. Not 
only was there a large falling off in the collections of egg lobsters, 
but the quality of the eggs was very poor, causing a much heavier 
loss than in any previous season. The eggs were not as far advanced 
in development as in past seasons, and were a month late in beginning 
to hatch. The eggs also appeared flabby, and lacking in vitality. The 
severely cold winter doubtless had a great deal to do with these condi- 
tions. 

The total collections in Massachusetts aggregated 1,450 egg lobsters, 
which yielded 22,721,000 eggs, — a decrease of 30 per cent, from last 
year. There were 16,880,000 fry hatched and distributed at various 
points along the Massachusetts coast. 

Appended will be found tables showing the collections from the 



1905.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



175 



several fishing centres covered by our collecting operations, and the 
distribution of fry. 

Very respectfully, C. G. Corliss, 

Superintendent. 



Collections of Egg Lobsters in Massachusetts, 1905, Gloucester, Mass., Station. 



Locality. 


Egg 
Lobsters 


Locality. 


Egg 
Lobsters. 


Gloucester 

Lanesville, .... 

Rockport, 

Salt Island, .... 
Beverly, 


174 
59 

363 
40 
12 


Boston harbor, including Hull, 
Boston dealers, 
State boat " Egret," 

Total, .... 


256 

407 

139 

1,450 



Distribution of Lobster Fry in Massachusetts Waters, from Gloucester, Mass., 

Station, 1905. 



Date of Plant. 


Point of Liberation. 


Number 
of Fry 
planted. 


June 24, ... . 


Off Salem, 


100,000 


24, 








Off Marblehead, . . .- 




400,000 


26, 








Off Gloucester, . 




600,000 


July 1, 






. 


Off Salt Island, . 




750,000 


3, 








Off Gloucester, . 




500,000 


8, 








Boston harbor, 




1,250,000 


8, 






• 


Off Gloucester, . 




1,200,000 


11, 








Off Scituate, 




2,400,000 


12, 






• 


Off Gloucester, . 




600,000 


15, 








Off Rockport, 




1,200,000 


18, 








Off Beverly, 




1,000,000 


19, 








Off Annisquam, in Ipswich Bay 




1,400,000 


20, 








Off Gloucester, . 




1,000,000 


21, 








Off Manchester, . 




1,200,000 


22, 






• 


Off Gloucester, . 




1,100,000 


23, 






• 


Off Beverly, 




1,000,000 


24, 






• 


Off Rockport, 




850,000 


26, 








Off Rockport, .... 




330,000 


Tot 


al, 


16,880,000 



176 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Fisheries, 
Woods Hole, Mass., Jan. 23, 1906. 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Sir : — Herewith I submit a brief report of the lobster work done 
at this station during the season of 1904-05. 

Early in the season it was decided to try the experiment of collect- 
ing about 500 egg-bearing lobsters in the fall, and holding them in 
live cars floated on the surface. One hundred were placed in two cars 
and sunk to the bottom of the harbor, part of them being in about 18 
feet and the remainder in about 35 feet of water. Three hundred lob- 
sters were placed in live cars, which were floated on the surface during 
the entire winter. These cars were moored in the outer basin at the 
station, and during part of the winter this basin was covered with ice 
over a foot thick. One hundred of the lobsters were liberated in the 
small basin at the station, and nearly all escaped, only 6 being taken 
out in the spring. The cars which were sunk to the bottom lost about 
25 per cent, during the winter. In all, 292 lobsters were recovered in 
the spring, and these yielded 2,929,000. The egg's seemed to be of 
good quality, but did not hatch as soon as others which were collected 
in the spring from waters of this State, being from one to two weeks 
later. The total number of eggs received at the station was 17,404,000, 
and from these 13,016,000 fry were hatched. Of these, 3,132,000 were 
planted in Connecticut waters and the remainder in the waters of this 
State. In all 707 lobsters were received from the waters of this State; 
105 of these were collected by the employees of this station, the re- 
mainder being shipped to us by the employees of your department. 
Respectfully, E. F. Locke, 

Superintendent. 

The following is an abstract of the report of Deputy Foster, 
of the launch " Egret," in the lobster work. The "Egret" 
went into service April 26, and was hauled up for the winter 
on November 29. During this time she ran 447 hours, cover- 
ing 4,693 miles; collected 2,602 egg-bearing lobsters, of which 
1,393 were over 12 inches and 1,209 less than 12 inches, 129 
under 10% inches; liberated 968, 10 died during transporta- 
tion, sent to Woods Hole hatchery 1,079 (670 were over 12 
inches, 409 less than 12 inches), sent to Gloucester hatchery 537 
(328 over 12 inches, 209 less than 12 inches). 

Received the following lobster fry from Woods Hole hatchery : — 
On June 7, 600,000, which were liberated as follows: 240.000 off 

Davis Ledge, near Minot's Light; 240,000 off Scituate; 120.000 near 

whistling buoy off Plymouth. 

On June 14, received 1,000,000, which were liberated as follows: 

285,000 near Harding's Ledge; 330,000 inside Minot's; 385.000 off 

Scituate. 




Lobster trap commonly used in Cape Breton. 




Lobster cannery of H. E. Baker, at Fourchu, Cape Breton. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 177 

July 1, received 1,600,000, which were liberated as follows: 400,000 
near Graves Ledge; 600,000 three quarters of a mile south-southwest 
from Fawn Bar buoy; 200,000 near Thieves' Ledge; 400,000 near 
Point Allerton buoy. 

From the Gloucester hatchery we received the following fry : — 

June 24, 1,000,000, which were liberated between Baker's Island and 
Pig Rocks. 

July 8, 1,250,000 fry, liberated between Pope's Head and Nahant. 

July 11, 2,400,000 lobsters, which were liberated between Scituate 
and Boston Light. 

We have let go 580 adult lobsters from hatchery between Eastern 
Point and Nahant, 430 between Scituate and Boston Light, 205 around 
Boston islands. 

Condition of the Fisheries elsewhere. — Reports, official and 
from the press, from the Straits of Belle Isle to the Dela- 
ware Capes, the entire lobster-producing coast, are well-nigh 
unanimous, both that the number of lobsters is decreasing and 
that the average size of the individuals is gradually diminish- 
ing. Prof. E. E. Prince, E.R.S., Commissioner of Fisheries 
of the Dominion of Canada, in 1896 wrote: — 

In the Dominion of Canada there remains the last great lobster 
fishery of the world, and it is not too much to say that this fishery has 
reached a critical stage. 

The signs of exhaustion are unmistakable. Small, immature lob- 
sters, 5 to 8 inches long, which a few years ago were rejected with con- 
tempt, are now eagerly taken, and form, in some districts, the staple 
article on which the lobster canners depend. Instead of two or three 
lobsters sufficing to fill a one-pound can, not less than five, six, seven 
and even ten lobsters are now required. 

Ten years ago the average size of lobsters was 10 inches (2 pounds 
weight), while thirty years ago an old fisherman testified that 13 inches 
(3V2 pounds weight) was the average. 

In order to keep up the catch each season, the quantity of gear is 
being increased year by year all around the coast, yet the average 
number of lobsters taken per trap has been steadily diminishing. 

A prominent packer in Prince Edward Island publicly stated that 
at one cannery the number of cans packed, as compared with the num- 
ber of traps operated, revealed that during a period covering six sea- 
sons the average number of one-pound cans to each trap was 24 in 
1891, 163/4 in 1892, 13 1 / 3 in 1893, 12y 2 in 1894, 7 1 / 3 in 1895 and 5V 2 in 
1896. 

This kind of thing cannot continue; and the utilization of berried 
and soft-shelled lobsters is indicative of the desperate means resorted 
to to maintain an average pack. 

The Bangor " Commercial," under date of May 1, 1905, 

says : — 



178 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The outlook for lobsters along the Nova Scotia coast is that they will 
be the scarcest ever known, was the statement made by Capt. J. P. 
Burns of the lobster smack " Etta M. Burns," which arrived in Port- 
land Wednesday morning with a trip of 12,000 fine, large live lobsters. 
Captain Burns said that the fish are much scarcer than ever before. 
There are more smacks here than usual, and more dealers are going 
into the business. 

The Boston "Transcript," on Sept. 5, 1905, says: — 

Noank, Conn., September 5 : Lobster fishermen in this locality re- 
port that the season has thus far been unsatisfactory. The yield of 
lobsters has been small, even smaller than the harvest of last year. Un- 
less some large catches are made during the few remaining weeks of 
the season, many of the lobstermen will get no profit whatever from 
the summer's business. The only condition which has been favorable 
has been the high price which the lobsters have commanded. 

Similar reports could be quoted indefinitely that the same 
conditions of decline obtain in Maine, New Hampshire, Con- 
necticut, New York and Rhode Island, though in the two lat- 
ter States the number of lobsters actually caught in the waters 
of each State cannot be accurately ascertained, for the figures 
include great numbers of 9-inch lobsters caught in the waters 
of Massachusetts, Maine and Nova Scotia, and marketed in 
Rhode Island and New York; thereby an apparently increased 
catch may be indicated. 

It is difficult to conceive a more fallacious argument than the 
common one that the quantity of fish caught, as represented --by 
the reports of the transportation companies and of the market, 
is the most accurate indication of the quantity of fish in the 
ocean. The all important factor in such reports, and one which 
is usually totally ignored, is the number of men, the amount of 
gear required to make this catch and the aggregate number of 
days of fishing. If an annually larger number of men and an 
increased quantity of gear, working a greater number of days, 
are necessary to meet the market demand for a specific number 
of pounds, it can indicate nothing less than correspondingly 
temporary or permanent contraction of the source of supply; 
and the market reports of a larger number of lobsters caught 
is but a more certain proof that the number of lobsters remain- 
ing as breeders is thereby still further diminished. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 179 

Perhaps the most conclusive evidence is that furnished by 
actual personal observations of competent persons, whose judg- 
ment is unswayed by pecuniary interests. The statement made 
by our late chairman, Captain Collins, is of value here, as 
typical of the observations of nearly every one who has famil- 
iarly known any particular stretch of sea coast for the past thirty 
or even twenty years : — 

You have been told how easy it was, before the lobster fishery began 
on the central coast of Maine, — say about 1847 to 1849, — for a boy 
to pull big specimens of the species from under boulders along the sea- 
shore. At that time the waters of that section swarmed with lobsters; 
the supply seemed inexhaustible; in the inner reaches, among islets 
and ledges where now it would be of little use to set pots, lobsters could 
be taken in large numbers fifty years ago. So near were the fishing 
grounds to where I lived that on one occasion my brother and I hauled 
our pots in a southeast gale. Where we could get from five to a dozen 
lobsters to a pot in those days it would now be difficult to catch one in 
a dozen pots. Those were the days when smacks from Noank, New 
London and elsewhere frequented the harbors of Maine in search of 
cargoes of lobsters for the markets of Boston and New York, chiefly 
those of the latter city. 

Then came the destructive canneries. We are familiar with the 
result of the introduction of the canning factory on the coast of Maine. 
The influence of it was to gradually reduce the number and size of lob- 
sters. Finally, the canning of lobsters along the coast of that State 
was stopped. 

It was first limited by law in 1897, and the time each year during 
which canning could be prosecuted was reduced from time to time, until 
this form of packing could be carried on only from April 1 to July 15, 
the balance of the year being close season, so far as the canneries were 
concerned. In this respect the regulations were similar to those now 
in force in Canadian waters, but they did not avail to delay perceptibly 
the decadence of the lobster. In 1879 and 1880 I visited nearly every 
harbor and cove along the coast of Maine, and interviewed hundreds 
of lobster fishermen. Already there were complaints of a scarcity of 
lobsters, for, notwithstanding a large increase in gear, the catch per 
man was not so much as formerly. All this is a matter of history 7 . 
Still, the yield of the Maine fishery in 1880 was 14,234,182 pounds of 
lobsters; at present it is only a little in excess of 10,000,000 pounds, 
although in the mean time the material increase in the price of the lob- 
ster has caused an enormous increase in apparatus employed, and also 
a considerable increase .in the numbers of the fishermen. 

And again: — 

In 1887, when I was at Seldom-come-by harbor, at Fogo Island, off: 
the east coast of Newfoundland, an old fisherman came alongside of the 



180 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

" Grampus " with a lot of large lobsters that he had gaffed from be- 
neath the boulders along the shore just outside of the sea- wash. Mr. 
Fred. A. Lucas of Washington, who was with me at the time, as a 
scientist from the United States National Museum, was in the same 
region last year [1902] on official business, and he informs me that 
where the incident I have related occurred the lobster is now very scarce. 

Your commissioners have personally inspected many points 
on the coast of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward 
Island, Magdalen Islands and Newfoundland, where the lob- 
ster fishery is carried on; and even here, in the very heart of 
the greatest lobster fisheries of the present day, the opinions 
of the future of the lobster industry are decidedly pessimistic, 
if the present methods are continued. 

As a result, therefore, of a most judicial and open-minded 
desire to obtain true facts, we are forced to conclude that there 
are fewer lobsters in the ocean to-day than there were fifty or 
even ten years ago. This is true throughout the entire range 
of the lobster. In the neighborhood of the great markets of 
New York and Boston the decline is most obvious. In actual 
numbers there are probably not more than one lobster to-day, 
where there were ten fifty years ago. But the most alarming 
fact is that the capacity of the race to rehabilitate itself has 
been tremendously impaired through the diminished average 
size of the lobsters at present living. For this reason the total 
number of lobster eggs annually produced is markedly less than 
formerly; e.g., an 8-9 inch lobster produces on an average 5,000 
eggs; a 13-14 inch lobster produces 30,000 to 40,000 eggs at 
one laying. Therefore thirty years ago, when the lobsters aver- 
aged above 13 inches long, the egg-production was as an average 
at least twice to four times what the average female lobster pro- 
duces to-day, when the size of the lobsters which are taken in 
the traps averages about 9 inches, or even less. From this it 
is obvious that it will require a closed season of a long period, 
say not less than five years, for the lobster race to regain its 
former productive capacity, and a still longer period before any 
lasting results can be secured. 

The decline has, in our opinion, been rendered less conspicu- 
ous through the efforts of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, 
of the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries of Canada, and of the 



1905. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 181 

State governments of the New England States, notably Maine, 
Bhode Island and Massachusetts, to protect and to propagate 
the lobsters on their coasts. 

As a result of our investigations, we are of the opinion that 
there has been a decided decrease: (1) in the number of lob- 
sters living to-day as compared with ten years or even one year 
ago; (2) in the average size; (3) in the number caught per pot; 
(4) in the number of lobsters of breeding age; (5) in the aggre- 
gate number of eggs laid, upon which the future of the lobster 
depends; there is (6) marked evidence of the absence of lob- 
sters from extensive areas where they were formerly numerous. 

We are of the opinion, too, that the methods employed up 
to the present time have been rendered inadequate by lack of 
attention to certain laws of nature (to which reference is made 
later; compare pp. 190, 197, 199, 203, 205), and this, too, in 
spite of the conscientious study and well-considered activity of 
the officials of the United States Bureau of Fisheries and of the 
various States, who have earnestly attempted to check the de- 
cline, and whose efforts have the confidence and the support of 
every honest national and State legislator. 

Causes of the Decline. — Since this decline is a fact, and not 
a theory, let us consider the existing conditions surrounding the 
lobster industry, for within these conditions must exist the 
causes for the decline, and the decline can be checked most 
readily by modifying the conditions. 

First, let us be so open-minded as to consider the real mean- 
ing of the report that the catch of one year exceeds that of the 
previous year: e.g., reference to the table on p. 174 shows that 
the catch in Massachusetts in 1890 exceeded that of 1889, that 
of 1893 exceeded that of 1892, that of 1896 exceeded that of 
1895, that of 1900 exceeded that of 1899 and that of 1902 ex- 
ceeded that of 1901. This does not prove that there were more 
lobsters in the ocean in one year than another, — it merely in- 
dicates that more were caught; the cause of this increase is 
shown in the table. In each year where an increased catch 
appears it is found that there was also an increased number of 
men employed in the catching, except in 1900, where there 
were 18 men (a relatively small proportion) less than in 1899. 
No one can rationally contend that an increased catch in anv 



182 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

one or two years can be an argument to prove an increase in the 
number of lobsters, especially when the figures for the annual 
catch prove to-day, in spite of really greater efforts, less than 
one-third as many lobsters were caught last year than were taken 
in 1888. In 1902 the yield had shrunk to 1,005,367 pounds, 
valued, at the then prevailing price of 11 cents per pound, at 
$110,590.37. The decline is now even more rapid. The catch 
of 1905 from the sworn returns was 426,471 lobsters, which at 
the present price of 18 cents per pound were sold by the fisher- 
men for $95,955. A comparison of the returns of 1904 and 
1905 indicates that during the past year there has been in the 
lobster industry of the State a decline of 39 men; 56 boats, 
valued at $3,893.50; 5,710 pots, valued at $6,376; $478.35 in 
other property; and, further, a decreased catch of 125,819 lob- 
sters, and an income diminished by $22,065.57. Therefore, we 
must carefully consider the value of such testimony, and the 
catch of one season is not a safe criterion. 

Conditions introduced by Man responsible. — In the natural 
struggle for existence the lobster was formerly a dominant ani- 
mal. Before man became its greatest enemy, there is abundant 
evidence that the lobster was a favored race. But with the 
coming of the white man the balance of nature was upset, and 
the lobster is now decreasing on account of the conditions in- 
troduced by civilized man. Such conditions surrounding the 
present lobsters can be grouped under two heads. (1) The in- 
creased market demand, arising from an increasing population 
and accumulated wealth, with a demand for toothsome dainties, 
entirely apart from their value as a food. This demand has 
not been met by a correspondingly augmented source of supply. 
(2) The other condition introduced by man is the laws in force 
since 1873, which, although slightly modified in detail, have 
the same fundamental principle. 

The Increased Demand. — The extent of the increased de- 
mand is indicated by the fact that the public are willing to pay 
a price treble and quadruple that of ten years ago; and this in 
spite of the fact that, on a basis of 20 cents per pound for boiled 
lobster lO 1 /? inches or over in the shell, the actual cost of the 
edible meat is not less than 80 cents per pound upon the table 
of the consumer. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 183 

This increased demand has led to a great development in 
the methods of lobster fishing; to the use of more traps by a 
larger number of mem who find that the advancing price com- 
pensates for the increasing scarcity of marketable lobsters. By 
the application of power to sail boats and dories the radius 
of the fishing grounds is vastly increased, and the labor and the 
risk from stress and storm much lessened. Improved methods 
of shipment have been devised, where, by means of ice, tanks 
and refrigerator cars, lobsters can be satisfactorily shipped 
two or three thousand miles. The increased demand, too, has 
led to the selling of a greater number of " short " lobsters. 
Whether the laws of the States legalize the catching only of 
those above 10% inches, or 9 inches, or 8 inches, the catching 
of " shorts " below any of these figures 1 goes merrily on, in 
spite of the best efforts of. those entrusted with the enforcement 
of the laws. We found the same state of affairs in Newfound- 
land, in Nova Scotia, on the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and in the Bay of Eundy, as in New England waters. 

Commissioner Nickerson of Maine says : " There is a greater 
demand for short lobsters to-day than ten years ago." 

The ever-increasing number of summer residents on the New 
England sea coasts, in cottages and in hotels, the multitudes of 
hungry excursionists from our cities, coming by train, trolley 
and steamer to the shore resorts, are the direct incentive to the 
sale of millions of illegal lobsters. A person who is competent 
to observe and to form a trustworthy judgment estimates that 
during the summer season of 1905, covering about one hundred 
days, not less than 1,720,000 short lobsters were sold at the 
resorts on the shore between Boston and Gloucester. The com- 
mission's patrol launch " Scoter " was instrumental in com- 
pelling the return of upwards of 900,000 short lobsters to the 
water during the summer of 1905 in Boston harbor alone. 

1 As an indication of the size of lobsters used by those engaged in the short-lobster 
trade, the measurements of the " shorts " seized in two cases taken at random are of 
interest. In one seizure of 58 " shorts," taken south of Cape Cod, the smallest was 
6 iuches; 14 measured 8 inches or less; 37 measured 9 inches or less; and 7 were 
less than 10^ inches but over 9 inches. In another seizure of 128 " shorts," taken 
north of Cape Cod, the largest lobster was 10 inches, the smallest 6^ inches; 48 
measured 8 inches or less, 87 measured 9 inches or less and 23 were over 9 inches 
and less than 10 inches. 



184 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In Maine, Warden ET. J. Hanna, who has been a warden for 
more than twelve years, and who previously had been a practical 
fisherman, is of the opinion that annually 10,000,000 short lob- 
sters are used as bait for dinner traps, and that over 5,000,000 
short lobsters are consumed by the summer visitors, — a total 
of not less than 15,000,000 " shorts " destroyed in Maine an- 
nually ; and this does not include " the few taken home by very 
many fishermen for the use of their own families*" The hand- 
ling of short lobsters has developed into a business, so thoroughly 
organized that detection and the imposition of fines sufficiently 
large to make the business unprofitable is a difficult matter. 
Our judges sometimes fail to recognize the value of a heavy 
penalty, which, though sometimes bearing heavily upon the in- 
dividual punished (in many cases the fine imposed is paid by 
the principals in the business rather than by their agents who 
have been arrested), would be of the nature of a warning; e.g., 
the paltry fine of $25 imposed last September upon a notorious 
violator, who had long been under the surveillance of our depu- 
ties, for the possession of 128 short lobsters, was a severe blow 
to the efficient enforcement of the lobster law. 

The schemes for outwitting the deputies and of evading the 
short-lobster law far excel the peculiar ways of Bret Harte's 
" Heathen Chinee." In general, since to secure conviction it 
is necessary to seize the short lobsters while in possession of 
the offender, the illegal lobsters are kept where they can readily 
be thrown overboard in case a deputy appears. Our deputies 
have compelled the fishermen thus to throw overboard at least 
one million " shorts " this year. In case a deputy does not ap- 
pear, the " shorts " are placed in a sunken bag or car, the loca- 
tion of which is marked by a buoy kept just under water, or by 
an inconspicuous floating object which would attract no special 
attention, such as a bit of wood, kelp, etc., or the bag or car may 
be hung by a small line over the stern of a boat, or to a boat- 
mooring, or pile under a wharf. When 50 to 500 " shorts " 
have been accumulated, these are taken in the night by regular 
collectors who ply along the shore from Eockport to Plymouth. 
Some such have been driven so hard by our deputies as to go 
out of the business, but " there are others." They have a well- 
organized system of sentinels and spies, who keep track of and 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 185 

report the movements of the deputies. The fines imposed by 
the judges, even at the maximum, are small when compared 
with the profits ; and usually this amount is reckoned as a con- 
tingent expense of the business, and is divided among those par- 
ticipating in the profits. Most of these lobsters are marketed 
as " lobster meat." The following report from Deputy Burney 
indicates how the law is evaded during the summer at many 
places along the shores between Boston and Gloucester : — 

Lynn, Mass., Aug. 1, 1905. 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Gextlemex : — Comptying with your request, I make this report of 
my observations upon the short-lobster traffic on the shores of Massa- 
chusetts. The enforcement of the lobster law is becoming more diffi- 
cult each year, on account of the methods adopted to evade it by the 
lobster fishermen on the north shore. 

In the past it was the custom of the fishermen to land their catch; 
then it was a comparatively easy matter to catch the violators. At 
present, landing the catch is dangerous, and in some cases a very costly 
way to dispose of their lobsters. The fishermen have adopted ways of 
avoiding that. It was soon found that there was a growing demand 
from the beach houses and hotels along the shore for lobster meat out 
of the shell. Raw meat soon became too dangerous to handle, and other 
means had to be found. The new way is an evasion of the law, and it 
is relatively safe. There are two ways to work it: one is to cut up 
the raw meat into small cubes, when it is impossible to show to the courts 
that it is lobster tails; the other is to scald the lobsters on board the 
boats, cut the meat up, and land it in pails and firkins. 

There has been but one conviction (in my recollection) on scalded 
meat, and that was on meat not cut up. 

One or two instances are sufficient for examples of what happens 
nearly every day during the summer season. On Wednesday, July 19, 
I was at Salem Willows. Two boats ran in on the Beverly side and 
anchored a short distance off shore. I could see very plainly with my 
glass every move of the men. They were busy for more than a half 
hour, shocking out and cutting up lobster meat and putting it into 
firkins. When they had finished, the meat was taken by one of them 
to the restaurants at the Willows. They were not gone over ten minutes 
when another boat came from the Beverly shore and did the same thing. 

Tuesday, the 25th of July, off the Magnolia shore, I saw two sloops at 
anchor, their crews busy " shocking " and cutting up meat. This is some- 
thing that can be seen almost if not every day. In past seasons it was 
common talk that a man could run down to the nearest beach any morn- 
ing early and get a mess of shorts. I am asked quite often, " Where are 
all the shorts? I used to get a mess once in a while, but I can't get them 
now." I venture to say that where there were hundreds of short lob- 
sters landed every day five years ago, there is not one dozen landed to- 
day. Of course there are some men who loill take chances, but they 
are few. Where a man can sell his shorts off shore to the boats en- 



186 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

gaged in buying shorts, he will not bring them ashore and take chances. 
A* number of lobster fishermen with whom I have talked say that this 
is the poorest season they have ever had. 

Yours respectfully, Thomas L. Burney. 

On the south shore of Massachusetts some " shorts " are 
handled locally, but the greater number are shipped to Rhode 
Island and New York, being landed at Newport. Every boat 
and every stranger is carefully scrutinized, to learn if he is 
" all right; " and at the slightest suspicion the signal is passed 
to " stand by to heave the ' shorts ' overboard." 

The public is largely to be blamed for this condition of affairs. 
The seashore public creates the demand. It is a common prac- 
tice to leave baskets outside the doors, where in the early morn- 
ing short lobsters " descend like manna from heaven,' 7 at the 
rate of 50 cents to $1 per dozen, according to risk of detection. 
People who carry on such practices might not steal private prop- 
erty, but they thus steal public property. A finer public senti- 
ment should develop. To the unthinking, the attitude of the 
State appears to be directed solely against the poor fishermen, 
in a rather petty way. On the contrary, the State is doing its 
duty in protecting public property and the interests of the 
fishermen. Too often the fisherman discounts the future by ex- 
cessive greed in destroying fish, for fish means money. 

The public, however, should be particularly warned, and in 
no uncertain terms, against the use of " lobster meat," i.e., lob- 
ster meat which is taken from the shell at a distance, from the 
place where it is consumed. The State Board of Health and 
the local health boards in every town and city are distinctly and 
earnestly urged to deal with this lobster meat problem. The 
facts are as follows : ■ — 

Lobster-meat Problem. — Ever since the law prohibiting the 
killing and possession of short lobsters has been in effect, the 
fishermen and consumers of lobsters have devised all sorts of 
expedients to use short lobsters in violation of the law, and to 
escape detection by the officers. A most common scheme (de- 
scribed on p. 185) is to boil the lobsters on board the boat, remove 
the meat from the shell, cut up the meat in such a way as to de- 
stroy all evidence possible as to the size of the lobster, and bring 
the meat ashore. This meat is then sold by the pound to private 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 187 

customers, to hotel and to restaurant keepers and to near-by city, 
town and shore resorts. This practice is not alone a screen for 
the " short-lobster trade/' but it is a positive and serious menace 
to the public health. Numerous severe and even fatal cases of 
ptomaine poisoning can be traced directly to the use of the lob- 
ster meat prepared in this manner; e.g., one day's record is 
given below : — 

Hull, September 1 : Francis H. Cleverly of the Hull board of health 
went over to Fort Andrews at Peddoeks Island this morning, and ob- 
tained for the first time from Dr. Luke B. Peek, the post surgeon, who 
attended Antonio Gomes, Joseph Oliver and Joseph Oliver, Jr., who 
died on the island Sunday morning, a doctor's certificate. 

In the doctor's certificate Dr. Peck states that to his best knowledge 
and belief the cause of the death of all three was ptomaine poisoning, 
from eating lobster that was supposed to have been decomposed. 

The board of health will accept the cause of the death of all three 
as attributed by Dr. Peck as final, there having been no autopsy. (Bos- 
ton " Globe," September 2.) 

Lynn, September 1: After attending a banquet at which lobster 
salad was served, several of the great chiefs of the Improved Order of 
Red Men, who were guests of Winnipurkitt tribe in this city last night 
and to-day, were taken ill, and in many cases had to call in physicians. 

The one who suffered the most from what the physicians call lobster 
poisoning is Frederick Williams, 84 Tracy Avenue; the others who 
were compelled to call in physicians are William Embree, George East- 
man, Roscoe Patton, Jacob Steadman, E. L. Hiller and W. J. Spoonley. 
These are all members of the Lynn tribe, and it is not known how many 
of the visiting great sachems have been affected. 

Williams and Spoonley were taken ill while attending the outing 
tendered to the visitors to-day at Nahant, and forced to leave for home 
long before the rest of the party.. On arriving home they went imme- 
diately to bed and called in their physicians. The others who did not 
attend the outing were taken ill about the same time. Others of the 
party were affected, but in a less degree. 

It is said by the caterers that none but the best lobsters were used 
in the salad, and that they cannot imagine why any serious effects 
should be felt. The lobster was bought for fresh, and it was not canned, 
as was alleged by many of the members of the party; in fact, much of 
it was bought at the fish market of one of the members of the com- 
mittee. The other edibles were also fresh, nothing being used that had 
ever been canned. (Boston " Globe," September 2.) 

These facts should be known to the public, and specific warn- 
ing given as to the danger to health and even to life of such 
methods of placing lobsters on the market. Every responsible 
hotel or restaurant manager should refuse to buy lobsters unless 



188 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

either in the shell or canned, and customers should object to 
being served with lobsters at such hotels or restaurants as do 
not conform to practices which safeguard the life or health 
of patrons. It is a well-known fact that crab and lobster meat 
spoils very quickly after exposure to the air. The reason is 
that the texture of the meat is very loose and spongy, with many 
spaces through which the air penetrates. This air carries the 
bacteria which cause putrefaction and the rapid development of 
certain ptomaines which are virulent poisons even in very small 
quantities. The bacterial changes which give rise to ptomaines 
progress most rapidly at about the temperature of ordinary ice 
chests; e.g., at about 50° F. Ptomaines may develop without 
the presence of an offensive odor. In the case of the properly 
boiled lobster, kept in the shell until ready to serve, these 
changes do not begin so quickly or progress so rapidly, for the 
reason that adequate boiling sterilizes the shell and the meat, 
and the sterilized shell protects to a considerable measure the 
meat enclosed within it so long as the shell is unbroken. Upon 
removal of the shell the air has readier access to the meat, and 
ptomaine formation or putrefaction soon ensues; therefore, the 
shell should not be removed until close to the time for serving 
the meat. In the case of lobster meat removed from the shell 
at some distance from the point of consumption, the length of 
time between the removal from the shell and the appearance of 
the meat upon the table is in many instances too long for safety. 
Further, lobsters boiled and prepared under such unfavorable, 
not to say unclean, conditions are not only often imperfectly 
sterilized, but also liable to infection from unsanitary surround- 
ings and careless handling, and therefore much more liable to 
rapidly develop ptomaines. Unclean handling, filthy recepta- 
cles, etc., may also introduce the germs of typhoid and other 
serious infectious diseases. Our deputies are using every effort 
to make this practice of using illegal lobsters unprofitable, and 
special attention will be directed to cases where lobsters are 
sold as meat. But the most effective remedy is a public knowl- 
edge of the clangers of ptomaine poisoning from the use of " lob- 
ster meat " or " picked meat," taken from the shell in places 
unknown, and at any considerable period of time before being 
prepared for the table. Purchasers should therefore be warned 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 189 

against buying lobster meat unless it is in the shell or canned; 
and, in buying lobster, never buy one which was boiled after 
death. 

Many of the lobsters which die in transit, together with the 
" sleepy " (i.e., moribund) and the " Joe " (i.e., crushed or 
otherwise mutilated) lobsters, reach the consumer as " picked 
meat." Such should be bought very cautiously, for the reason 
that the history of the preparation of it is unknown. " Hash " 
is said to be above suspicion only " when you know the lady as 
made it ; " but in the case of " picked meat " and " lobster 
meat " you should in addition know the condition of the lobster 
and the sanitary conditions under which the meat was prepared, 
together with the length of time since this preparation. 

The sale of lobster meat, therefore, is a serious menace to the 
lobster supply; it is a burden upon the law-abiding lobstermen 
and lobster dealers; and, above all, it is a positive menace to 
public health. The public should demand that lobsters be sold 
only in the shell or canned. It would be for the great advan- 
tage of the public if the present Legislature should pass a law 
similar to that now in force in Maine, which is as follows : — 

All lobsters or parts of lobsters sold for use in this state or for ex- 
port therefrom must be sold and delivered in the shell, under a penalty 
of twenty dollars for each offence; and whoever ships, buys, sells, gives 
away or exposes for sale lobster meat after the same shall have been 
taken from the shell, shall be liable to a penalty of one dollar for each 
pound of meat so bought, sold, exposed for sale, given away or shipped. 
Any person or corporation in the business of a common carrier of mer- 
chandise who shall knowingly carry or transport from place to place 
lobster meat after the same shall have been taken from the shell, shall 
be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars upon each conviction thereof. All 
lobster meat so illegally bought, shipped, sold, given away, exposed for 
sale or transported shall be liable to seizure, and may be confiscated. 
Nothing contained herein shall be held to prohibit the sale of lobsters 
that have been legally canned. 

While the greatly increased demand without an adequately 
increased source of supply, involving, as it does, more care- 
fully devised methods of increasing the catch and of utilizing 
every possible source of supply, — e.g., the legal killing of large 
lobsters and the illegal killing of short lobsters, and evasion of 
the law through the practice of preparing and selling illegal 
sized lobster as " meat," — is responsible to a considerable de- 



190 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

gree for the decline of the lobster supply, the most important 
factor has been generally overlooked, — the present laws. 

Effect of the Present Laws. — These laws have been in force 
since 1873, supplemented by a close season in Canadian waters, 
by the prohibition of canning in Maine, by the prohibition of 
the killing of egg lobsters in all the States, and strengthened by 
the efforts of the States and national authorities to secure the 
purchase of the eggs upon the egg-bearing lobsters taken in the 
traps, thereby making such lobster legally salable to the agents 
of the State and the United States Bureau of Fisheries. For 
the initiation of this practice of purchasing egg-bearing lobsters 
from the fishermen at a price above that of the market, due 
credit should be given to the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 
This practice has resulted in the hatching of millions of eggs 
which otherwise would have been scraped off and destroyed. 

In spite of arrests, imprisonment and fines in all the States 
and Maritime Provinces for violating the lobster laws, the de- 
cline in the lobster supply has continued, and is no longer dis- 
puted by those best capable of formulating an unbiased opinion. 
Upon examining the lobster laws of all the States and of the 
Maritime Provinces, it was noticed that one glaring biological 
error is prominently common to all, viz. : in every case the ef- 
forts are directed to protecting the immature, under the fal- 
lacious assumption that the fundamental source of the lobster 
supply is the young lobster, which by growth will become of 
legal size for market; whereas, in point of biological fact, the 
fundamental source of supply is not the young lobster, which in 
and of itself alone is to furnish the market supply, but the 
search must be carried back one more step. It is the egg which 
is the ultimate source; and the future supply of young lobsters 
ivhich by growth may be expected to furnish the marketable 
supply is at the basis dependent upon the number of eggs pro- 
duced. Thus, by instituting a law that only those above a cer- 
tain size shall be killed, we have committed a blunder similar 
to that which would be patent to every one if by practically 
uniform legislation it should be decreed that only poultry 
should be marketable which had reached the breeding age, 
and that every effort should be made to place every bird of 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 191 

breeding age upon the market within the shortest possible in- 
terval after reaching maturity. 

To make this plain, it is necessary to bear in mind certain 
important facts in the life history of the lobster. For most of 
these facts the public is indebted to scientists connected with 
the United States Bureau of Fisheries and the Ehode Island 
Commission on Inland Fisheries, notably professors F. H. Her- 
rick, H. C. Bumpus and A. D. Mead, and the students working 
under their immediate direction. 

(1) The lobster grows rather slowly, and it is at least four 
or five years old before reproduction begins. 

(2) The natural rate of reproduction is slow. One litter 
of eggs is produced, under favorable conditions, according to 
Herrick, every two years, instead of annually ; there is, however, 
a possibility that the large lobsters, say 12 inches or over, which 
do not moult so frequently as the smaller sizes, may produce 
a litter of eggs every year. 

(3) The growth is not gradual, as, for example, in the case 
of chickens. On the contrary, only at the time of shedding does 
a very marked increase in size become evident. By actual ob- 
servations and measurements, Herrick found that the average 
increase is 15.6 per cent; i.e., a 6-inch lobster upon moulting 
becomes a hard-shelled 7-inch lobster within a month, and simi- 
larly a 9-inch lobster may become a 10%-inch, and a 10%-inch 
may become a 12-inch lobster. 

(4) The area inhabited by the lobster is a restricted one. 
They are not migrants in the sense that mackerel and bluefish 
are. The only migration is from deeper to shallow water dur- 
ing the period when the eggs are hatching, — June and July. 
Under modern methods of capture the lobster is pursued by its 
chief enemy, man, throughout the year, though most actively and 
by the greatest number of fishermen during the summer months. 

(5) The eggs are not laid and abandoned, but are carried 
outside of the body, attached to the swimming feet under the 
abdomen, for ten to eleven months, which is the time required 
for the development of the young in the egg. 

On both biological and practical grounds the present laws 
intended to govern the lobster industry cannot be arraigned too 



192 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

strongly. In addition to including the biological fallacy that 
the breeding animals alone should be killed, it is a law which is 
well-nigh impossible to enforce. A. C. Bertram, Esq., inspector 
of fisheries for Cape Breton, has well said, " It wonld require an 
officer in each boat to prevent illegal work." Some of the devices 
by which the law can be evaded have been referred to above 
(p. 184). Not less than 2,000,000 illegal lobsters have been 
annually killed in this State in the past three years ; in Maine, 
not less than 15,000,000 per annum; in the Maritime Provinces, 
including Newfoundland, practically every lobster caught, large 
and small, is retained. The officials seek to save only the egg- 
bearing lobsters. The coast line is so extensive and the lobsters 
so numerous that little attention can be devoted to the detection 
of illegal practices. The lobster fisheries of Canada are now 
practically what the Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut lobster fisheries were fifty years ago ; but now a positive 
decline is seen to be impending, even there, and evidences of the 
increasing scarcity of lobsters are beginning to appear. This 
decline shows the same features in Canadian waters as in Mas- 
sachusetts waters, viz. : — 

(1) Decreased average size. 

(2) Diminished catch per trap. 

(3) The practical disappearance of lobsters from regions 
where they were formerly plentiful. Just as in the New Eng- 
land States lobsters first disappeared from the regions nearest 
the markets, so the decline is most marked near the settlements. 

(4) A decreased number of egg-bearing lobsters. 

(5) An increasing price. 

Our Canadian brethren appear to have been the first to be 
impressed with the necessity of protecting the adult lobsters, 
for the purpose of securing a natural method of hatching. It 
is true that the United States Bureau of Fisheries has for many 
years bought the egg-bearing lobsters, but the chief claim has 
been that by so doing they were able to hatch millions of eggs 
which otherwise would have been scraped off by the fishermen 
for the purpose of marketing the mother lobster. The claim is 
not seriously put forward that the artificial hatching of lobster 
eggs is preferable to the natural method. 

The closest approximation to the natural methods is that now 



THE LOBSTER POUND OF H. E. BAKER, AT FOURCHU, CAPE BRETON. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 193 

in operation on the east coast of Cape Breton Island, not far 
from Lonisbnrg. The general plan was well stated by R. 1ST. 
Yenning, Esq., at the convention in Boston, in 1903, as fol- 
lows : — 

In connection with efforts to maintain the supply of lobsters by 
methods of artificial propagation and protection of the breeding fish, 
an interesting experiment was this year [1903] initiated at Fourchu, 
Cape Breton County, N. S., under the auspices of the Department of 
Marine and Fisheries. An arrangement was made with Mr. H. E. Baker 
of Gabarouse, a large operator in the canned and live lobster trade in 
Cape Breton Island, for the utilization of his lobster pounds at Four- 
chu, which were partitioned off for the reception of lobsters of different 
classes and in different stages. (See illustration opposite.) 

The principle of the scheme was to purchase from the fishermen 
50,000 desirable seed lobsters, and place them in a suitable pound for 
protection, where they could be retained and fed during such time as 
fishing operations were proceeding ; after which, or when the eggs were 
sufficiently advanced, the lobsters were to be liberated along the coast 
whence they were taken, thus permitting such of them as had not al- 
ready cast their fry in the pounds to hatch their eggs in their natural 
haunts, in conformity with the strict methods of nature. 

A specialist of the department was sent to inspect the working of 
the scheme, and on the 5th of August he reported that the eggs were 
hatching out in millions within the enclosures of the pounds, and the 
young lobsters were making their way through the wire netting into the 
sea. At the time of his visit there were still in the pounds about 20,000 
berried lobsters, the eggs of which were in various stages of develop- 
ment, while the enclosure was teeming with vigorous, newly hatched fry. 

It is perhaps not too sanguine a conclusion to say that, so far as 
can be proved by the facts actually observed in the experience of those 
charged with the conduct of this experiment, its result was a complete 
success. At all events, these 49,769 mothers, with their progeny, were at 
least saved out of the actual catch of the fishermen, and would otherwise 
have found their way to the markets, either as canned goods or exported 
alive, after the eggs had been raked off. 

In October, 1905, the chairman and Commissioner Delano 
had the privilege of inspecting this pound, under the guidance 
of Messrs. A. C. Bertram, inspector of fisheries for Cape Breton, 
H. E. Baker, owner of the pound, and the Hon. Alexander 
Johnston, M.P. The method of construction is shown in the 
illustration. The area is approximately one acre. The location 
is admirably chosen, both on account of being a natural resort 
of lobsters during the hatching season, and also because the cur- 
rents are such that the just-hatched and helpless lobsterlings are 
scattered over a wide area in all directions by the gentle currents. 



194 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The results can scarcely fail to be of future benefit in assisting 
to check the decline, as well as of present benefit to the lobster 
fishermen by providing a ready legal market for egg-bearing 
lobsters, thus reducing the temptation to scrape off the eggs for 
the purpose of evading the law. Mr. Bertram, at the convention, 
in 1903, supplementary to the statement of Mr. Venning, quoted 
above, said : — 

What we all desire to do, it appears to me, is to consider the ques- 
tion of keeping up the supply. I may say that in the early '80s we 
began by hatching out lobsters by artificial means, with what we called 
an incubator. I think that this system of hatching lobsters was origi- 
nated in Newfoundland by a Mr. Neilson. The first incubator was a 
wooden box, with a perforated, metal bottom, about 3*4 feet in length, 
made like a cradle, which he anchored in the bays and harbors; the 
motion of the water would keep it rocking, and this hatched the lobster 
fry, which would escape through the perforations of the car. There 
were no beneficial results from this system, and we soon abandoned it. 
Last year a pound was created on Cape Breton Island, costing about 
$5,000. 

The greatest drawback that we have discovered for keeping up the 
supply was that the fishermen cared not what happened to-morrow, so 
long as they were provided for to-day. It would require an officer in 
each boat to prevent illegal work, and it was very hard to detect them 
when the spawn had been rubbed off: each egg-bearing lobster. 

With this pound system we buy up the egg lobsters from the fisher- 
men; such lobsters are put in cars by the packers, and a boat goes 
around the coast and takes up the lobsters that are in the cars and 
carries them to the pound. We leave them there until the close season 
begins, then we liberate the lobsters from the pounds; therefore, those 
fish would have time to spawn. Then, when the close season begins in 
another section we take the egg-bearing lobsters out of the pound and 
liberate them along other sections of the coast, and then they spawn 
annually. 

I believe that this is the right system. I am thoroughly convinced 
that our government is warranted in any reasonable expense for this. 
Ten thousand dollars for this was appropriated this year. 

The following extract, from Professor Prince's report on 
" Fish Breeding," is of importance in this connection : — 

The lobster pounds operated by Mr. H. E. Baker of Gabarouse, Cape 
Breton, under the department's auspices, were again very successful. 
The lobsters, according to the contract, were collected from the fisher- 
men by Mr. Baker hi his business as a lobster packer, excepting that 
he employs extra tug assistance and sailing smacks and special hands, 
and selects fine- seed lobsters, — that is, female lobsters bearing egg's. 
These were carefully carried, not to the cannery, but to the reserve 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



195 



tidal pounds at Fourchu, Cape Breton, and after the commencement 
of the close season were replaced in the open sea, so that they might 
incubate and hatch out their eggs under natural conditions. On July 
22, the first batch of seed lobsters were liberated, to the number of 
24,800; and between July 30 and August 13, 31,820 more lobsters were 
set free in the sea, being scattered over the known breeding resorts 
of these valuable crustaceans. During their confinement in the pounds 
the lobsters were fed with herring and other food. Some mortality is 
of course unavoidable; but this was last year kept very low, but was 
slightly higher this year, as the report of the officer in charge on behalf 
of the department shows. Mr. H. C. V. LeVatte stated the mortality 
as follows : — 




1904 

(PerCent.). 



May, 
June, 
July, 



The increased mortality in July this year was due to the extreme 
heat of the sun, and the only remedy was the removal of the lobsters, 
which were placed in crates and conveyed to deeper cooler water, where 
the death rate at once decreased and the sickly lobsters recovered. " The 
natural propagation of lobsters," says Mr. LeVatte in his report, sent 
to me on December 31, " will no doubt materially increase the supply 
on this coast, and I consider Mr. Baker's scheme has proved a success." 
Of course the system adopted at Fourchu is a somewhat complicated 
one, and can only be satisfactorily adopted where the skill and experi- 
ence of trustworthy parties can be secured. Mr. Baker is a lobster 
packer of long and unusual experience, and in his hands a scheme in- 
volving the handling, transference in crates, planting in the tidal en- 
closures, feeding and care and final retransplanting in the sea again, 
can be carried out with a greater measure of success than in most 
localities. The department also authorized one of its officers to super- 
vise the work, and furnish proper reports of the progress of the opera- 
tions of impounding and of replanting in the ocean. The system is 
so open to abuse that in many localities it could not possibly succeed 
so well as it does on the Cape Breton coast. 



While this method comes nearest of anything thus far at- 
tained to the prime necessary condition, viz., the utmost pos- 
sible protection to the adult lobster, it is open to the following 
objections: — 

(1) The escape of millions of young, just-hatched lobster- 
lings from the interstices of the pound cannot fail to attract 



196 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

fishes, which devour enormous quantities. This is a most serious 
objection, when it is borne in mind that under natural condi- 
tions but a few eggs hatch at a time, and, as the mother lobster 
crawls along the ocean bottom, the young escape in such small 
numbers as to be of slight evidence to predaceous fish. If no 
trail is left, comparatively few fish are attracted, and relatively 
few young are thereby destroyed. If it proved expedient to 
develop this method, smaller and scattered pounds, favorably 
located, will, in our opinion, yield better results than a single 
large pound. 

(2) The second objection lies in the fact that the fishermen 
are paid at the expense of the public for doing what is obviously 
for their own interest. 

(3) The plan does not extend far enough. Not a sufficient 
number of individuals are protected, and these only of one sex. 
(a) It is of equal importance to preserve the males which are 
of breeding age, for nature has established the proportion of 
male to female lobsters, necessary to insure fertilization of the 
eggs, at approximately equal numbers. Herrick puts it at 100 
males to every 106 females, and the observations of the writer 
confirm this. (&) Not all the females of breeding age are in- 
cluded. Our observations indicate that not over 20 per cent, 
of the mature females are thereby protected. If it is an advan- 
tage to protect some of the female lobsters, it must be of greater 
advantage to protect all of them. The method pursued by the 
Bureau of Fisheries for many years, and two years ago adopted 
in Massachusetts, of buying the egg-bearing lobsters and hatch- 
ing the eggs artificially, is open to all of the above objections, 
and to the more serious one that artificial hatching, if followed 
by the liberation of the just-hatched fry, appears to the writer 
to be far inferior to the natural methods. The chief value which 
can be claimed for this method is that many lobsters are carried 
off shore and liberated, where the eggs hatch under natural 
conditions. 

The method devised by Dr. H. C. Bumpus and elaborated by 
Dr. A. D. Mead and his assistants is a distinct advance, for the 
reason that it aims to rear the lobsterlings past the age when 
they float helpless at the surface of the water, a prey to surface- 
feeding fish. This method should prove of great value in eluci- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 197 

dating in a scientific manner the natural history of the lobster. 
Its limitations are found in the commercial impracticability of 
operating on a sufficiently large scale at a satisfactory cost. 

The problem which must be solved is nothing less than the 
checking of the decline of the lobster supply, and restoring the 
lobster to the position which it formerly held, as wholesome and 
delicious food for the people at large, rather than to permit it 
to become merely a delicacy to grace the banquet table. The 
methods now available must be through legislative action, af- 
fording practical assistance to nature in increasing the efficiency 
of natural methods. Legislative action must be either in the 
direction which promises to lead to increasing the egg produc- 
tion of the race, or to the control of the lobster s enemies, of 
which man is the chief. Action on both these lines would prom- 
ise most satisfactory results. Such laws, to be effective, must be 
judged by the probability: (1) of their leading to an increase 
in the supply of lobsters without limiting the present demand; 
(2) of appealing to the common sense of the people, as likely 
to secure the results aimed at; (3) of rapid, efficient, equitable 
and inexpensive enforcement; (4) of working the least possible 
injury to important vested interests, both of fishermen and 
dealers; (5) of furnishing the most satisfactory market con- 
ditions with reference to the public demand in regard to size, 
season, price, etc. 

Legislative Action which seeks to increase the Reproductive 
Capacity of the Lobster must protect the Adult. — Attention 
has been called above (p. 190) to the fact that the actual source 
of maintenance of the supply of legal and marketable lobsters 
is only indirectly those lobsters which are just below the legal 
length (and which, if spared, would become of legal length in a 
brief time). The direct and fundamental source is the eggs, 
from which come the small lobsters; and therefore the num- 
ber of future marketable lobsters depends directly upon the 
number of eggs laid. Her rick has shown that the egg-pro- 
ducing capacity practically doubles three times in the growth 
from 8 to 14 inches, being for an 8-inch lobster an average of 
5,000 eggs; 10-inch, 10,000; 12-inch, 20,000; 14-inch, 40,000. 
" A 17-inch lobster produces about 63,000 eggs," on an average. 
" The largest number recorded was 97,440 eggs. In one case 



198 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

the lobster was 15 inches Long, and in another L6 inches long." 
This proves that the more valuable lobsters for egg-production 
are those above 10% inches long, arid that the number of eggs 
produced is very greatly influenced by the number of breeders 
above 10% inches. Herrick found that " female lobsters be- 
come sexually mature when from 8 to 12 inches long. The 
majority of all 10%-inch female lobsters are mature. In 100 
dissections 25 females were found, from 9%g to 12 inches long, 
which had never laid eggs; but in 8 of them the ovaries were 
nearly ripe. Of the 17 immature, 6 were 10% inches or over 
in length, and in most cases the ovaries would not have become 
mature for two years." Of the 2,602 egg-bearing lobsters col- 
lected by the " Egret " during the season of 1905, from May 1 
to December 1, only 129 measured less than 10% inches; 161 
measured exactly 10% inches, 25 measured 10% inches, 63 
measured 10 inches, 16 measured 9% inches, 16 measured 9% 
inches, 3 measured 9% inches and 6 measured 9 inches. 

From the data which the writer has secured by personal 
observation from Rhode Island to Newfoundland, there are in 
the ocean, for every lobster 10% inches and over, from 3 to 6 
lobsters 9 to 10% inches. The number varies in different locali- 
ties. The aggregate weight of the average 100 lobsters 10% 
inches and over, as they come to the Boston market, varies be- 
tween 160 and 170 pounds. 1 

The aggregate weight of 100 lobsters from 9 to 10% inches 
is about 105 pounds (weights taken from individuals actually 
weighed and measured). I found that it required 155 9-inch 
lobsters to weigh as much as 100 of the average size in the 
Boston market. One hundred and fifty-five 9-inch lobsters can 
be expected to lay 190,000 eggs within a year, assuming that 
one-half of the number are females, and that one-half of these 
have reached the period of egg-laying and average 5,000 eggs 

1 One thousand and ten lobsters from entire original packages, chosen to fairly 
represent a typical shipment from Nova Scotia, comprised 563 11 inches or less, or 
5fr.3 per cent., and 437 over 11 inches, or 43.7 per cent. ; of these latter, 262 were 
between 11 and 12 inches, 151 were between 12 and 13 inches, 25 were between 13 
and 14 inches and 9 were 14 inches. The largest was 14f inches, the smallest was 
10 inches; of the 1,000, 35 were below the legal limit of 10J inches. These were 
selected from probably upwards of 6,000 lobsters. Of the remaining 5,000, many of 
those above 9 inches were shipped to Rhode Island and New York ; the balance 
w ere canned, or consumed in Nova Scotia. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 199 

each; 100 lobsters above 10% inches similarly can be expected 
to lay 1,000,000 eggs within a year, assuming that 50 of them 
are females, and each of these yields 20,000 eggs. 

While, commercially, the larger size (10%-inch) is worth 55 
per cent, more than the smaller one (9-inch), biologically, i.e., 
in its egg-laying capacity, the larger size is more than 500 per 
cent, more valuable for increasing the lobster supply. 

All this goes to prove that the lobsters above lO 1 ^ inches are 
most valuable for egg producers, and that to increase the repro- 
ductive capacity of the race the larger lobsters {i.e., above 10% 
inches) must be protected by law. What sane breeder, working 
for the improvement of a race of domesticated animals, would 
kill as many as possible of the best breeders, and depend upon 
the progeny of the youngest stock to improve or even maintain 
the standard ? Yet such is the effect of the present lobster law. 

Legislation should adequately protect the Lobster from its 
Enemies. — The other main point is the method of securing ade- 
quate protection from enemies. The former wonderful abun- 
dance of the lobster on our shores proves that, so far as natural 
enemies are concerned, the lobster is not only well able to 
maintain itself, but probably also to increase in numbers. It 
appears to be its own worst natural enemy, as its cannibalistic 
proclivities are notorious, though probably not operative to a 
very large extent except when confined in too restricted quar- 
ters. So long as the ordinary number of individuals (mainly 
immature) were killed by their natural enemies, such as dog- 
fish and other sharks, cod, bass, etc., no disastrous consequences 
were evident. But how disastrous and alarming have been the 
results of the onslaught by man, chiefly upon the mature indi- 
viduals, under the direction of the present laws, which have no 
common-sense foundation, and no parallel or precedent in deal- 
ing with animals of similar habits, as an excuse for remaining 
on the statutes ! 

The present law, fixing the legal size at 10% inches, had its 
origin in a complete misconception, due to a lack of biological 
experience. It was argued that if lobsters as small as 8 inches 
were taken, many lobsters would be killed without having had 
a chance to reproduce a single litter of eggs; whereas, if none 
were killed less than 10% inches long, the majority would have 



200 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

laid at least one litter of eggs. Since 1873, when this law 
originated, our biological experience has widened. Thinking 
people now wonder that the error could have been committed 
of expecting beneficial results from any law the tendency of 
which is to reduce the reproductive capacity of the animal, first, 
through the destruction of those adults which laid the most 
eggs, and, second, by a tendency to limit the breeding to im- 
mature animals. The law was copied by successive States, 
until laws practically identical in the primary features are in 
force throughout the lobster-producing States. 

A further severe arraignment of the present law is its in- 
herent difficulty of enforcement. This difficulty is not peculiar 
to conditions in Massachusetts, — it is the same from New 
York to Newfoundland (compare p. 192). 

There appear but two worse laws than that of Massachusetts, 
and the difference is only one of degree, not of kind. Two 
States permit the capture and sale of 9-inch lobsters, and in some 
sections of the Maritime Provinces 8 inches is the legal length. 
Under the leadership of those who for their own selfish gain 
would strive to annihilate the last lobster, the attempt is made 
annually, under various covert pretexts, to foist upon the de- 
pleted industry a straight 9-inch law, thus for a brief present 
gain increasing the burden under which the industry is gradu- 
ally sinking. To offset such efforts, however, earnest and honest 
good sense has thus far successfully prevailed. There is ex- 
pressed on every side a sincere desire to ascertain the proper 
method of checking the depletion of the lobster supply, and 
immediately applying the remedy. 

A Close Season, — Advantages and Objections. — Of the 
various propositions, the one most seriously considered is that 
of a close season, either for a term of years or for a portion 
of each year. A close season for a term of years would be of 
great advantage to the lobsters, and without question would 
bring about an increase in the number of lobsters in the ocean; 
but, as has been indicated above, the period, to be of any value 
commensurate with the loss which would be entailed to vested 
interests, must be for at least ^.ve years ; and even then, if the 
present laws permitting the killing of adults should again go 
into force, the results of the five years' close season may dis- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 201 

appear in a single season of fishing. Unless the close season 
extending through a term of years is supplemented by a law 
which removes the cause of the depletion, the lobster supply is 
merely made intermittent, instead of perennial and perpetual. 
There must follow a consequent demoralization of the market, 
and an economic waste. In the opinion of those who have given 
the problem the most study, the lobster fisheries can by proper 
measures be made an abundant and permanent source of wealth 
to the fishermen and dealers, and a continuously available deli- 
cacy for man for an indefinite period of time. 

A close season for a portion of the year is usually the first 
resort. It is based upon the argument that, inasmuch as a 
decline is caused by the killing of too many individuals, a close 
season must tend to restrict the number killed; and if the kill- 
ing is entirely prohibited during the breeding season, the num- 
ber of young which may be produced is likely to be increased. 
A close season may bring very manifest and satisfactory re- 
sults in cases when the animal is a rapid breeder, or where the 
young reach maturity in a short time, say within one year, as 
birds. But it is by no means safe to argue that therefore a close 
season is equally applicable for checking the numerical decline 
of every or any particular animal. This is notably true of the 
lobster. A close season must fail to bring the expected results, 
for the reason that the lobster is a slow breeder, ordinarily lay- 
ing eggs but once in two years, and carrying these eggs, attached 
to the modified legs under the abdomen, for ten or eleven months 
after laying; while the young require probably from four to 
seven years to reach maturity, and to attain a length of 7 to 10 
inches. 

Since the lobster breeds but once in two years, and carries 
the eggs from ten to eleven months after laying, it manifestly 
can make no difference to the race whether the young are 
destroyed as unlaid eggs, as eggs recently laid, or as eggs just 
on the eve of hatching. The chief value of the close season to 
the lobster is that fewer lobsters may be caught ; but the lobster- 
men and the public bear the burden, while the lobster does 
not get a commensurate benefit. 

Even in Massachusetts there may be practical difficulties in 
deciding upon a date for beginning and ending the close sea- 



202 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

son, on account of the various opinions as to how long such a 
close season should be, and from the fact that the lobster catch- 
ing begins south of Cape Cod earlier in the spring than it does 
on the north shore. This ground for discord increases some- 
what if the regions for which uniform laws are necessary are 
as far separated as New York and Newfoundland. 

A further defect of a close season during a portion of the 
year is the fact that the lobster is especially convenient and sat- 
isfactory for human food during the warm season, which is the 
period of hatching (May 15 to July 25) and the period of egg 
laying (August to October). 

Finally, the fundamental defect of a close-season law is that 
it restricts the demand, but does not adequately and economi- 
cally increase the supply. The aim of sound economic legisla- 
tion should be to increase the supply, without limiting the 
demand. In general, laws prescribing close seasons, restrictions 
in times and methods of catching, prohibition of canning or 
otherwise limiting the demand, should be the last resort, and 
then only after it has been found that efforts to increase the 
supply are futile. 

Aside from the practical difficulties of securing a close sea- 
son throughout the lobster range, and enforcing the laws, the 
value of the close season to the lobster as a race is commensurate 
with the duration of this close season. The longer it extends, 
the better for the lobster, but the worse for man. The burden 
upon investments in the lobster fisheries is increased. The ab- 
sence of the lobster from the human food supply is felt by the 
public. Yet all this is of little avail, for the effects of the 
close season are not permanent, — the causes of the decline have 
not been removed. The lobsters, through a close season, either 
from one to six months each year or for a continued series of 
years, may have a chance to " catch up," only to be themselves 
" caught up " with redoubled energy, resulting in a glutted 
market and consequent economic waste for a time, with the cer- 
tainty of a rapid return to the former conditions which made 
a close season necessary. 

The grave objection to the present laws, namely, the practical 
difficulties in the way of enforcement, is also present in the case 
of a close season for catching, unless the law carries with it the 
prohibition of possession or sale during that close season both 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



203 



for lobsters caught in Massachusetts and in other waters. The 
utter impracticability of securing close seasons for a uniform 
period from New York to Newfoundland, is a further objec- 
tion to be considered. 

Results under the Present lOy^-Inch Law. — The 10%-inch 
law was fixed at this definite point in the belief that, by the 
time the lobster reached 10% inches, practically all the indi- 
viduals had laid at least one litter of eggs ; and it was fixed at 
the 10%-inch point in the hope and expectation that, on ac- 
count of the seemingly inexhaustible numbers, one litter of eggs 
would be sufficient to maintain a supply. Later experience has 
brought into relief the fact that nature has secured the con- 
tinuance of the lobster supply by fixing the number of eggs 
at not far from 500,000 to each pair of lobsters. It was a 
serious biological error to believe that a reproductive capacity of 
5,000 or 10,000 eggs could be expected to furnish as many lob- 
sters as there would be if lobsters were permitted to produce the 
full number of eggs which nature demands for maintaining the 
species, viz., 500,000. Therefore, it is obvious that the lobster 
must be given greater opportunity to breed, and as many adult 
individuals must be saved as possible, in order that the supply 
may not become commercially extinct. In other words, we must 
furnish the lobster additional length of time for breeding, so that 
the adults, instead of being exposed to capture as soon as they 
have produced say 15,000 eggs, should be protected for the pur- 
pose of enabling them to produce the full life quota of approxi- 
mately 500,000 eggs. Under the present laws we put a premium 
upon the catching of the adults of breeding age, whereas some 
laAV should be devised which will protect these adults. 

Under the present laws, the number of adult breeding fe- 
males has steadily and rapidly decreased. Eeference to the fol- 
lowing figures, compiled from the annual reports, indicates the 
startling magnitude of this decline : — 



Year. 


Total Number 

of Lobsters 

caught. 


Number of 

Egg-bearing 

Lobsters 

caught. 


Or One 

Egg-bearing 

Lobster to 

every — 


1890, 

1905, 


1,612,129 
426,471 


90,909 
9,865 


22.8 
42.1 



204 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The average female lobster in Massachusetts waters produced 
in 1905 15,670 eggs, according to the computations made from 
1,311 specimens by Supt. C. G. Corliss at the Gloucester hatch- 
ery. This indicates a decline of at least 50 per cent, from the 
natural average yield per individual female. 

The other line of action, namely, that of purchasing egg- 
bearing females from the fishermen and dealers (who, by keep- 
ing the lobsters in confinement in pounds, have discovered an 
additional source of profit from the sale of such lobsters as 
chance to lay a litter of eggs while in the pound), and either 
permitting the eggs to hatch while still attached to the swim- 
merets of the mother, or liberating the egg-bearing mother at 
the close of the open season for catching, approximates more 
closely to the correct and necessary method, namely, the pro- 
tection of the breeders. 

Proposed New Law. — In the opinion of the writer, — and 
the opinion is supported by many competent authorities (see 
p. 210), — if we would adequately protect all adult lobsters 
above 10% inches we could safely permit the legal capture of 
those between 9 and 10% inches. Such a measure presents no 
similarity to the ordinary 9-inch law, i.e., which permits the 
capture of all lobsters above 9 inches ; but it combines the ad- 
vantages of such a 9-inch law with the benefits of a close season 
law for an extended period, i.e., it permits the catching of lob- 
sters above 9 inches, which are of least value in maintaining 
the species, and puts a close season upon those above 10% inches, 
which lay the greatest number of eggs, and eggs of the best 
quality for producing the strongest progeny. The ordinary 
9-inch law, permitting the catching of everything above 9 
inches, would be calamitous to the lobster industry. The public 
owes a debt of gratitude to the officials and members of the 
Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Association, who have 
actively opposed such a 9-inch law at the public hearings and 
elsewhere. 

The present suggestion, however, is entirely different, since it 
provides for a close season upon the adult and upon the smallest 
lobsters, permitting the catching only of those between 9 and 
10% inches. The present chairman of the commission in 1902 
made an investigation of the question, at the instance of His 
Excellency Governor Crane and Captain Collins, then chairman 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — ]S T o. 25. 205 

of this commission. His report in no way covered the question 
of the expediency of such a change in the law ; he merely called 
attention to the scientific basis of the law. As the present chair- 
man of the commission, it is his duty to consider in addition the 
expediency of such legislation, and to call attention to the fact 
that such legislation is entirely untried, and is a theory, pure 
and simple. Yevertheless. it is a theory, or. rather, a biological 
principle of action, which has teen applied with success to what- 
ever animals and plants man has -found necessary or possible to 
domesticate ; and has been proved to be an absolutely essenUo. 1 
procedure, if we would maintain and increase the supply of such 
domesticated animals and plants. It is. therefore, not entirely 
a new theory, but merely the application of an old theory to a 
new case. The results of such a law are not susceptible to proof 
until the evidence can be furnished by the actual observations 
upon the effects of such a law. 

It is important, in a case like the present, to give greater 
attention to the objections to such a law than to the advantages. 
These objections appear to be at least five. 

First of all. it is not uniform legislation throughout the lob- 
ster-producing States, and there is a possibility of working hard- 
ship to other States. Tor example : undoubtedly from Maine 
there would be a tendency to divert the 9-inch lobsters to the 
Boston market, and Maine would then be in the same position 
with reference to Massachusetts and the States south as is To- 
day Massachusetts in reference to the 9-inch laws in force in 
Xew York and Rhode Island. In addition to that, the States 
of Maine and the Canadian Provinces would be deprived of 
their market for large lobsters. This, however, should be an 
ultimate benefit, as more eggs would be laid, and therefore a 
larger number of marketable lobsters would develop from these 
eggs. Should Massachusetts and Yew York, the States where 
the most lobsters are marketed, pass the suggested law protect- 
ing the adults, and permitting the sale only of those lobsters 
between 9 and 10% inches, the other States and Provinces 
would probably find it to their advantage to follow with simi- 
lar laws. 

Secondly, the law is on its face more difficult to enforce, 
because two measurements, the 9-inch as the lower limit and 
the lQio-inch as the upper limit, are necessary. The difficulty 



206 



FISH AND GAAIi:. 



[Dec, 



of dealing with the upper limit can, however, be remedied by 
the use of a pot with a legal-sized ring (of such inside measure- 
ments as would prevent the entrance of lobsters above 10% 
inches), and an inspection and registration of the pot, instead 
of the inspection of the lobsters. Our observations upon the 
catches made by pots with various-sized rings follow. These 
figures cover the observations on experimental lobster pots with 
entrance rings of the sizes indicated, and shoAV that a smaller 
number of large lobsters are caught in the smaller rings. 

Largest -Lobsters out of a Total of 325 caught in these Pots. 



Inside Diameter of 
Entrance Ring. 


Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


Inside Diameter of 
Entrance Eing. 


Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


3-inch ring, . 


11 


2| 


41-inch ring, 


m 


3J 


32-inch ring, . 


121 


- 




12 


3 




12 


3 




12 


3 




12 


H 




12 


3 


4-inch ring, . 


121 


3 




12i 


n 




12 


2| 




12* 


3* 




12i 


3J 




12 


2£ 




12 


3 




12 


3| 




12 


3J 




13 


3* 



A S^-inch ring permitted the entrance of 20 lobsters 10% 
inches or over, out of a total catch of 56 lobsters, or 35.7 per 
cent. 





Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


1 

Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


io| 


- 


10f 


2* 


io| 


2| 


12| 


- 


11 


2| 


Hi 


2| 


m 


- 


10f 


2i 


n 


21 


ni 


- 


11 


2§ 


Hi 


2f 


Hi 


2± 


io| 


2i 


n 


2f 


10f 


"2* 


12 


3 


12 


Si 


li 


n 


lOf 


2| 







1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



207 



A 3-incli ring permitted the entrance of but 4 lobsters of 10% 
inches or over, ont of a total catch of 37 lobsters, or only 10.8 
per cent. 



Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


Length 
(Inches). 


Diameter 
(Inches). 


11 
11 


2! 
2| 


11 

101 


2} 
2i 



The third objection is the injuries to vested interests, — to 
capital invested in the lobster business. It is a fact that such 
a bill, if it became a law, would reduce the average size of 
marketable lobsters six-tenths of one pound, and more lobsters 
would have to be handled by the lobster dealers for a given 
amount of money (in exact figures, 155 lobsters to every 100 
lobsters under present conditions). Undoubtedly, too, the price 
per lobster paid by the dealers to the fishermen would be on the 
average correspondingly less than at present. On the other 
hand, the public demand and use a lobster as small as 9 inches, 
and the use of at least three times as many lobsters as under the 
present law would, in the opinion of the writer, do less damage 
to the future supply of lobsters than does the present destruc- 
tion of lobsters above 10% inches. 

A fourth objection is found in the fact that perhaps in at 
least two places in Massachusetts the large lobsters predominate 
in the catch, and therefore the present interests of the fishermen 
at these places might be injured. But it is not entirely certain 
that this injury would be actual, and from personal observa- 
tions we are convinced that there are even at Cape Cod at 
least six lobsters between 9 and 10% inches to every one over 
10% inches. 

A fifth and most important query is, will enough lobsters 
escape the critical period of 9 to 10% inches and pass into the 
exempt class, where they can be sure of an extended period 
of egg-producing usefulness ? This is entirely problematical, 
and there is at present absolutely no knowledge bearing upon 
the case. It is a fair presumption that enough would so escape. 
In any event, the lobster would have, under the proposed con- 



208 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ditions, — exemption from capture after reaching the point of 
10% inches, — far greater opportunity to lay a larger number 
of eggs than under existing conditions, since under the present 
laws not only every lobster above 10% inches is exposed to 
capture, but, as a matter of fact, a greater number of those 
between 9 and 10% inches or even smaller are captured, in 
spite of all the machinery of law-enforcement which can be 
brought forward. The fact that lobsters on the average increase 
15.6 per cent, at a moult is of importance. Thus, a 9-inch lob- 
ster would become 10% inches in one moult, and a 9%-inch 
lobster would become 11 inches, and thus exempt. Many indi- 
viduals would pass within a few days entirely beyond the legal 
size for capture; and the actual length of time which a lobster 
requires to pass through the dangerous period of adult life (i.e., 
from 9 to 10% inches, the only period when exposed to legal 
capture by man) may be, after all, relatively brief for any one 
lobster. Yet there should be such a number of individuals as 
to satisfactorily supply the market. 

Our experience with the present laws dates from 1873. Since 
that time, even with the protection of a certain number of adults 
by purchase of egg-bearing lobsters and the hatching of eggs 
by the United States Bureau of Fisheries, and in spite of the 
fact that the 10%-inch limit was fixed at a point where the 
lobster had an opportunity to produce at least one litter of eggs, 
there has been a gradual decline in the catch of lobsters in Mas- 
sachusetts from 84 per pot in 1891 to 26 per pot in 1904. The 
present laws are difficult to enforce: first, the public demand 
for 9 to 10% inch lobsters is strong; second, it is easy to destroy 
the evidence that a lobster was below the legal limit of size; 
third, the law is easily evaded (as described on p. 184), and 
therefore tempting; fourth, it is not practicable to properly 
safeguard the law-abiding fishermen. Honorable men throw 
overboard the short lobsters from their traps, and see these 
caught the next day by unscrupulous neighbors. 

In the opinion of this commission, the lobster is approaching 
commercial extinction. In the neighborhood of the great mar- 
kets, i.e., in the waters of Connecticut, Rhode Island and Mas- 
sachusetts, the decrease is especially evident; yet the biological 
conditions and the productive capacity of the range still re- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 209 

main essentially the same as they did when these same waters 
produced at least ten times the number of lobsters that they 
do to-day. Under wise laws, these waters might again pro- 
duce as many lobsters as they did twenty or more years ago ; 
but, in order to produce again the requisite number of lobsters 
to meet the demand, not only must there be protection for all 
the adults of breeding age, but active measures must be taken 
for placing the artificial lobster industry upon a commercial 
basis, when the value of the number of young lobsters produced 
will be in dollars and cents greater than the actual cost of pro- 
duction. The trout, shad and oyster industries have reached 
that stage. The lobster industry at present has not; but the 
outlook is promising, and appears to lie through the protection 
of the breeders, supplemented by protection of the just-hatched 
young up to such a stage as they are able to care for themselves 
on the bottom of the ocean, either after the methods developed 
by Bumpus and Mead in Rhode Island, or by the method of 
specially protected breeding reserves or nurseries for the young ; 
and on this your commission hopes to have something to report 
next year. 

In conclusion, we may say that for the interests of the Com- 
monwealth and of the lobster a new law, restricting catching 
to those lobsters between 9 and 10% inches, and putting a close 
season upon both males and females above 10 % inches, is with- 
out doubt a step far in advance. It is not a departure so radical 
as it appears to the popular mind at first glance." The close- 
season law has many obvious advantages, and the protection of 
the adult lobster is already in practical operation to a limited 
extent. The proposed measure is a combination of the two, and, 
though essentially a compromise measure, it embodies the ad- 
vantages of both laws, with the disadvantages of neither. 

Finally, such a law as would permit the legal catching and 
marketing of any lobster between 9 and 10% inches, except 
those with eggs attached, would readily meet the market condi- 
tions in all the States and the Maritime Provinces. It would 
permit fishing to be carried on at all seasons, for the close sea- 
son would then be upon only a part of the lobsters all the year, 
instead of upon all the lobsters for a part of the year. 

During the past four years this modification of the law has 



210 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

been carefully considered, and now numbers among its adherents 
many persons whose intelligence is unswayed by personal con- 
siderations, since they are interested in the lobster neither as 
fishermen nor dealers, and whose opinion is, therefore, of great- 
est weight. 

The opinions given on the pages which follow have been ex- 
pressed by prominent scientists, who are active students of 
marine biological questions : — 

The killing of the breeding animals is the most rapid and certain 
method of reducing the numbers of undesirable animals. This has long 
been known in the case of land animals. 

Prof. E. E. Prince, E.E.S., Commissioner of Fisheries of the 
Dominion of Canada, thus calls attention to the value of such 
practice when it is desirable to use the most effective method 
to diminish the number of fish of little value, e.g., suckers, perch, 
pike, etc. (" Methods of Coarse Fish Extermination," Sessional 
Paper No. 22, 190-i, p. Ixxiv.) If it were actually desired to 
exterminate the lobster, what more effective method could be 
used than the present practice of catching the adults ? 

I have long held the belief that our protection of lobsters was in- 
effectual, on account of its allowing the large lobsters, upon which we 
depend for keeping up the stock, to be destroyed. They are the sole 
source by which the species is to be maintained. In all similar cases 
we are coming to learn from our studies of fish and game that a large 
number of eggs and young are produced to maintain the numbers of the 
species. 

The greatest fatality in most species occurs during the period from 
the egg to maturity. Most biological enemies surround the species in 
its immature stages. Man often strikes the adults of a species upon 
which it depends for maintenance, and in that way, before he knows 
it, has worked extermination. 

We should revise our measures of protection distinctly, so as to in- 
clude the breeding members of the species; and we should take our 
food-supply fishes and lobsters and practically all game species from 
the immature stages, before they have arrived at the important breed- 
ing stage. For that reason I should advocate the taking of lobsters only 
under IOV2 inches or between the lengths of 9 and IOV2 inches, for at 
least a term of years. (C. F. Hodge.) 

The following letter was received from Prof. Sidney I. Smith 
of Yale: — 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 211 

New Haven, Conn., Jan. 19, 1906. 
My Dear Dr. Field : — Your proposition to protect the larger in- 
stead of the smaller lobsters appears to me by far the best method yet 
suggested for the preservation of the fishery on our coast. Between 
thirty and forty years ago, when lobsters were still abundant, I believe 
that less than 1 per cent, of the young were produced by individuals 
under 10% inches in length, and I presume that this may be true at 
the present time. Even if the protection of the small individuals was 
fully enforced, it would, I believe, have comparatively little effect in 
preserving the supply of young, while the protection of the larger in- 
dividuals would insure such a supply. 

Very truly yours, Sidney I. Smith. 

Williams College, Willi amstown, Mass., Feb. 6, 1906. 
Dr. Geo. W. Field, Chairman, Commission on Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — Will you allow me to say that the proposed recom- 
mendation to alter the existing lobster laws of the State of Massachu- 
setts seems to me to be very wise, in view of their failures in this State, 
as well as the failure of the laws of other New England States and those 
of New York, to prevent a marked decline in the lobster supply. 

Concerning new legislation, I do not believe in completely restrict- 
ing production for a part of a year of for a term of years by a close 
season. I have argued against it in the case of the soft clam. One New 
England State has a close season of several months on the soft clam. 
It has not in any way prevented the falling off of the supply, so far 
as my observation goes. 

As breeding in lobsters is so slow a process, and as the production of 
eggs increases so enormously with age in the female, I believe that the 
proposed amendment of the law, to protect lobsters more than 10% 
inches long, allowing the capture and sale of those less than that length, 
would be the wisest measure that could be proposed. 

Very truly yours, James L. Kellogg, 

Professor of Biology , Williams College. 

Dartmouth College, Biological Department, 
Hanover, N. H., Feb. 8, 1906. 

My Dear Professor Field : — I have read your report, with its 
recommendations for changes in the laws controlling the lobster in- 
dustry, with very great interest. 

I believe you have worked out a plan for legislation based on thor- 
oughly sound biological principles. Your plan appears to me simple 
and practical, easy to enforce by trap inspection and control, very 
flexible, so that, without changing the principles on which it is based, 
it will be possible, as experience may dictate, to raise or lower the 
dimensions and age of the protected sizes by regulating trap construc- 
tion; and, finally, it promises, in my opinion, to effectually check the 
rapid decline in the number of lobsters without hardship to either the 
producer or the consumer. 

I wish you every success in your efforts. 

Yours very truly. William Pattek, 

Professor of Zoology. 



212 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The following statement is made by Dr. F. II. Herrick, who 
is the well-known special investigator for the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries, upon the lobster and the lobster indus- 
try:— 

In restricting the size of marketable lobsters, the Atlantic coast States 
have adopted, and tried to enforce, a method which may be accurately 
described as (1) partial protection of the young and adult, with 'em- 
phasis on the young, the aim being apparently to allow the adult to 
breed at least once before it is sacrificed. This, however, is not always 
done, since, as I have demonstrated elsewhere, the period of maturity 
is commonly delayed until after the 9-inch stage, and may even be de- 
ferred until the animal is over 11 inches long. This method, which has 
been given more than a fair trial, has proved sadly lacking. 

We cannot speak of protection for the young alone as a method 
in this sense at all, for to destroy all adults indiscriminately is to wipe 
out the egg producers, and with them the race. 

Protection of the adult alone in a strict sense is not practicable, 
because, as we have just seen, the period of maturity fluctuates between 
wide limit (8 to nearly 12 inches), and because the market must be 
supplied with animals of fair size. 

The method which may be described as (2) partial protection of the 
adult and young, with emphasis on the adult, was first proposed by 
Dr. George W. Field in 1901. He advocated a change of the existing 
policy' of protecting chiefly the young lobster, by placing the weight 
of restrictive laws upon the adult animal above a certain size, as 10 
to 11 inches, when it is becoming most prolific, and therefore most 
valuable for the fishery. He would protect also the young up to the 
length of 8 or 9 inches; so that it would be permissible to capture 
adolescents and adults of all lengths between 8 and 10 inches, or be- 
tween 9 and IOV2 or 11 inches, while at either end would stand a per- 
manently protected class of adults and young. Such a method has all 
the weight of biological fact and sound common sense on its side. 

I formerly advocated the retention of the 10y2-inch law, and opposed 
any reduction of this standard, because under the present method (see 
No. 1 above) this would cut out almost every trace of protection af- 
forded adult animals, the present laws being designed, as already stated, 
to permit the lobster to breed at least once during its lifetime. On 
the other hand, I am heartily in favor of reducing the legal size-limit 
of marketable lobsters to 9 inches, provided the larger adults are 
placed in a permanently protected class. 

To apply the principle of preserving the larger, breeding adults, I 
should favor fixing the limits of length between which it would be 
legal to sell or destroy lobsters at 8 to 10 inches, permanently protect- 
ing all animals above and all below these sizes. It might be an easier 
step from present conditions to set these limits between the 9 and IOV2 
inch stages, as I am informed by Dr. Field is the plan favored by the 
Department of Fisheries and Game in Massachusetts. This is not a 
vital matter, so long as the principle of protecting the adult is main- 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 213 

tained; and this is best done by placing the bar close to the average 
period of sexual maturity, or approximately at the 10 or IOV2 inch 
length. 

Upon general principles, I should further retain the law prohibiting 
the destruction of berried female lobsters, however easily such a law 
may be evaded by the unconscientious fisherman. 

Francis H. Herrick. 



The arguments, evidence and testimony seem to prove that 
a change in the law, so as to make it legal to catch, possess and 
sell only such lobsters as are above 9 inches and not over 10% 
inches, would be of advantage to the consumers, fishermen and 
dealers, by providing an abundant supply of lobsters throughout 
the year. 

The Proposed Law combines Close Season and 9-Inch Law. — 
It would combine the best points of a close season (by putting 
a close season on all lobsters above 10% inches and below 9 
inches) and of a straight 9-inch law (by permitting the legal 
sale of lobsters between 9 and 10% inches, size-limits which 
include the largest number of lobsters now caught). 

Would be more readily and economically, enforced. — By for- 
bidding the use of any pot other than a legal, standard pot, with 
the seal of the inspector, having an entrance ring not exceed- 
ing 3 or 3% inches, the law could be more readily and economi- 
cally enforced, since no large lobster could enter the pot, and the 
further possession of large lobsters would be illegal. The lower 
limit could be controlled by the prohibition of the use of lob- 
sters under 8 inches as bait, or of their possession for any other 
purpose whatever. The temptation to keep an 8-inch lobster 
would be less than that involved in the possession of a large 
lobster. 

Would increase the Number of Eggs produced. — It would 
immensely increase the number of eggs produced, and therefore 
the number of young lobsters which would by growth meet 
the market demand. 

Would improve the Quality of Eggs produced. — By perpet- 
ually reserving the best specimens of mature age as a breeding 
stock, the best quality of young would be produced. 

Objections. — The chief objections appear to be the difficulty 
of enforcement, on account of an upper and a lower limit of 



214 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 1905. 

size (it should be noted that the upper limit can be cared for 
by an entrance ring of a specified size upon the pots or traps), 
and the danger that too many small lobsters would be caught. 
But the crux of the whole matter is that the present laws 
result in a diminished yield of eggs, and to this is to be as- 
cribed the obvious and alarming decline of the lobster in all 
waters where the effects of these pernicious laws have become 
evident; and we therefore urge upon you a most careful, judi- 
cial and prompt consideration of this important question. 



APPENDICES 



[A.] 
List of Commissioners. 



United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

George M. Bowers, Conmrissioner. 

Hugh M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner. 

Irving H. Dunlap, Chief Clerk. 

John W. Titcomb, Assistant in charge of Division of Fish Culture. 

Barton W. Everman, Assistant in charge of Division of Inquiry Respecting 

Food Fishes. 
A. B. Alexander, Assistant in charge of Division of Statistics and Methods. 
W. P. Titcomb, Disbursing Agent. 
Hector von Bayer, Architect and Engineer. 

Superintendents of United States Fisheries Stations. 

E. E. Race, Green Lake, Me. 

Charles G. Atkins, Craig Brook, East Orland, Me. 

W. F. Hubbard, Nashua, N. H. 

E. N. Carter, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

C. G. Corliss, Gloucester, Mass. 

E. F. Locke, Woods Hole, Mass. 

Livingston Stone, Cape Vincent, N. Y. 

J. N. Wizner, Havre de Grace, Md. 

L. G. Harron, Bryan Point, Md. 

C. K. Green, Fish Lakes, Washington, D. C. 

George A. Seagle, Wytheville, Va. 

R. K. Robinson, White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. 

Alexander Jones, Erwin Fishery, Tenn. 

J. J. Stranahan, Cold Springs, Bullochville, Ga. 

C. P. Henkel, Tupelo, Miss. 
S. G. Worth, Edenton, N. C. 

S. W. Downing, Put-in- Bay, O. 

Frank N. Clark, Northville, Mich. 

S. P. Wires, Duluth, Minn. 

S. P. Bartlett, Quincy, 111. 

R. S. Johnson, Manchester, la. 

H. D. Dean, Neosho, Mo. 

J. L. Leary, San Marcos, Tex. 

W. T. Thompson, Leadville, Col. 

D. C. Booth, Spearfish, S. D. 
James A. Henshall, Bozeman, Mont. 
G. H. Lambson, Baird, Cal. 
Claudius Wallich, Clackamas, Ore. 
Henry O'Malley, Baker Lake, Wash. 



218 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 



Arizona. 

Fish and Game. 

T. S. Bunch, Safford. 

W. L Pinney, Phoenix. 

Jean Allison, Jerome. 

California. 

W. VV. Van Arsdale, President, San Francisco. 

W. E. Gerber, Sacramento. 

John Birmingham, Jr., Pinole. 

Charles A. Vogelsang, Chief Deputy, .... San Francisco. 

Colorado. 
J. M. Woodard, Denver. 

Connecticut. 

George T. Mathewson, President, Thompsonville. 

E. Hart Geer, Secretary, Hadlyme. 

Robert G. Pike, -Middleton. 

Delaware. 

A. D. Poole, President, Wilmington. 

J. D. Bush, Secretary and Treasurer, .... Wilmington. 

Florida. 
Honorary Fish and Game Commissioner. 
John Y. Detwiler, New Smyrna. 

Georgia. 
A. T. Dallis, La Grange. 

Idaho. 

William N. Stephens, Rexburg. 

Illinois. 

State Game Commissioner. 
John A. Wheeler, Springfield. 

Board of Fish Commissioners. 

Nat II. Cohen, President, Urbana. 

S. P. Bartlett, Superintendent, Quincy. 

August Lenke, Treasurer, Chicago. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 219 



Indiana. 

Z. T. Sweeney, Columbus. 

E. E. Earle, Chief Deputy Indianapolis. 

Iowa. 
Fish and Game Warden. 
George A. Lincoln, Cedar Rapids. 

Kansas. 
D. W. Travis, Pratt. 

Maine. 

Inland Fisheries and Game. m 

L. T. Carleton, Chairman, Winthrop. 

J. W. Brackett, Phillips. 

Edgar E. Ring, Orono. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries. 
A. R. Nickerson, . . . . . . . Boothbay Harbor. 

Maryland. 
Fisheries Commissioners. 

James D. Anderson, Somerset County. 

Charles F. Brook, Montgomery County. 

State Game and Fish Warden. 
Col. John W. Avirett, Cumberland. 

Assistant Warden. 
Oregon Milton Dennis, Baltimore. 

Massachusetts. 

George W. Field, Chairman, Sharon. 

Edward A. Brackett, Winchester. 

John W. Delano, Marion. 

Office, State House, Boston. 

Michigan. 
Fish Commissioners. 

Freeman B. Dickerson, Detroit. 

George M. Brown, Saginaw. 

Charles D. Joselyn, Detroit. 



220 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 



Oame and Fish Warden. 
Hon. Charles H. Chapman, 



Sault Ste. Marie. 



Minnesota. 
Uri L. Lamprey, President, . 
H. G. Smith, First Vice-President, 
O. J. Johnson, Second Vice-President 
D. W. Meeker, Secretary, 
S. F. Fullerton, Executive Agent, . 



St. Paul. 
Minneapolis. 
Glen wood. 
Moorehead 
St. Paul. 



Missouri. 



Joseph H. Rodes, 



Sedalia. 



Montana. 

State Game and Fish Warden. 



William F. Scott 


. Helena. 


Nebraska. 




Gov. John H. Mickey, 

George L. Carter, Chief Deputy, .... 


. Lincoln. 
. Lincoln. 


New Hampshire. 




Nathaniel Wentworth, Chairman, 

Charles B. Clarke, Financial Agent, 

Merrill Shurtleff, Secretary, 


. Hudson Centre 
. Concord. 
. Lancaster. 


New Jersey. 




Benj. P. Morris, President and Treasurer, 

Richard T Miller, 

David P. McClellan, 

Percy H. Johnson, Secretary, .... 


. Long Branch. 
. Camden. 
. Morristown. 
. Bloomfield. 


New Mexico. 




Page B. Otero, 


. Santa Fe. 



New York. 
Forest, Fish and Oame Commission. 
James S. Whipple, Commissioner, .... Salamanca. 
J. Duncan Lawrence, Deputy Commissioner, . . Bloomville. 
John D. Whish, Secretary, Albany. 



Shellfish Commissioner. 
B. Frank Wood, New York. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



221 



North Dakota. 
District Game Warden. 

F. W. Schlechter, District No. 1, 

William McKean, District No 2, 

Ohio. 
Commissioners oj Fish and Game. 
Paul North, President, 
Thomas B. Paxton, 
J. F. Rankin, . 
D. W. Greene, 
George W. McCook, 
George C. Blankner, Secretary, 
J. C. Porterfield, Chief Warden, 



Fessenden. 
Sanborn. 



Cleveland. 

Cincinnati. 

South Charleston. 

Dayton. 

Steubenville. 

Columbus. 

Columbus, 



Eugene Watrous, 



Enid. 



Oklahoma. 

Territorial Game and Fish Warden. 

Oregon. 
Master Fish Warden. 
H. G. Van Dusen Astoria. 



Game and Forestry Warden. 



J. W. Baker, 



Pennsylvania. 

Game Commissioners. 
William M. Kennedy, President, 
C. K. Sober, . 
James H. Worden, . 
William Heywood Myers, 
Charles B. Penrose, 
Frank G. Harris, 
Dr. Joseph Kalbfus, Secretary 



W. E. Meehan, 



Commissioner of Fisheries. 
Board of Fishery Commission. 



John Hamberger, . 
Henry C. Cox, 
Andrew R. Whitaker, 
W. A. Leisenring, . 



Cottage Grove. 



Pittsburg. 

Lewisburg. 

Harris burg. 

Williamsport. 

Philadelphia. 

Clearfield. 

Harrisbur°\ 



Harrisburg. 



Erie. 

Wellsboro. 
Phoenixville. 
Mauch Chunk. 



222 



FISH AND (JAMtt. 



[Dec, 



Rhode Island. 
Commissioner of Inland Fisheries 
Henry T. Root, President, 
William P. Morton, Secretary, 
J. M. K. Southwick, 
Charles W. Willard, 
Adelbert Roberts, . 
Albert Davis Mead, 
William H. Boardman, 



Providence. 

Johnston. 

Newport. 

Westerly. 

Woonsocket. 

Providence. 

Central Falls. 



Commissioners of Shell Fisheries. 
James M. Wright, . 
Herbert M. Gardiner, 
Philip H. Wilbour, . 
George W. Hoxie, . 
John II. North up, . 
James C. Collins, Clerk, 



Foster. 

Barrington. 

Little Compton. 

Charlestown. 

Warwick. 

North Providence. 



Commissioners of Birds 
John H. Flanagan, Chairman, 
W. Gordon Reed, 2d, . 

E. R. Lewis, 

William H. Thayer, 

A. O'D. Taylor, .... 



Providence. 

Cowesset. 

Westerly. 

Bristol. 

Newport. 



Joseph H. Acklen, 



Tennessee. 
State Warden. 



Nashville. 



John Sharp, 



Utah. 



Salt Lake City. 



Henry G. Thomas, 



Vermont. 



Stowe. 



Washington. 
T. R. Kershaw, ........ Bellino-ham. 



West Virginia. 

Game and Fish Warden. 



James H Marcum, 



Huntington. 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



223 



Wisconsin. 

State Warden. 
Henry Overbeck, Jr., Madison, 



Commissioners of Fisheries. 
The Governor, Ex Officio. 
Calvert Spensley, President, . 
Jas. J. Hogan, Vice-President, 
E. A. Birge, Secretary, 



William J. Starr, , 

Henry D. Smith, 

Jabe Alford, , 

A A. Dye, 

James Nevin, Superintendent 



Mineral Point. 
La Crosse. 
Madison. 
Eau Claire. 
Appleton. 
Madison. 
Madison. 
Madison. 



22 \ 



FISH AM) GAME. 



[D 



ec, 



[B.] 

DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD FlSH. 



Brook Trout. 

Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery during April and May, 1905. 



Applicant. 


Xanie of Brook. Town. 


Number. 


Alfred Read, 


Barry 


Westfield, 


5,000 


Ward Rees, .... 


Tekoa, . 






Westfield, 




5,000 


L. A. Pierce, 


Smith, . 






Westfield, 




5,000 


George Bowers, . 


Root, . 






Westfield, 




5,000 


R. R.^Andrews, . 


Ponders Hollow, 




. Westfield, 




5,000 


F. A. Pierce, 


Sodom, 




. Westfield, 




5,000 


J. B. Hazelton, . 


Slab, . 




. Westfield, 




5,000 


L. H. Bowers, 


Kellogg, 




. 


Westfield, 




5,000 


Robert L. Soper, 


Oak Orchard, 






Westfield, 




5,000 


Wm. A. Soper, . 


Jacks, . 






Westfield, 




5,000 


W. J. Morton, . 


Cold Spring, 






Westfield, 




5,000 


W. T. Thomas, . 


Hollister, . 






Westfield, 




5,000 


C.F. Cowdrv, 


Mulpus, 






Lunenburg, 




5,000 


C.F. CowdrV, . 


Bixby, . 






Ashby, . 




5,000 


C. A. Hunter, . 


Robins, 






Concord, . 




5,000 


L. N. Fowler, . 


Heyward's, 






Concord, . 




5,000 


John A. Buguey, 


Harrington's, 






Concord, . 




5,000 


Thomas Curry, . 


Sheehan, 






Concord, . 




5,000 


David L. Ball, . 


Angiers, 






Concord, . 




5,000 


Chas. B. Adams, 


Brown and Pota 


sh, '. 




Webster, . 




5,000 


Chas. B. Adams, 


Simpson, 






Webster, . 




5,000 


P.S.Callahan, . 


Bemis, . 






Sturbridge, 




5,000 


0. L. Howlett, . 


Marcy, 






Holland, . 




5,000 


E.E. Whiting, . 


Mechanic, . 






Upton, 




5,000 


L. F. Despeaux, 


Mill, . 






Upton, . 




5,000 


Patrick Shaughnessy, 


Bernard, 






Upton, 




5,000 


E.C.Vinton, 


Hudson, 






Grafton, . 




5.000 


F. A. Anderson, 


Cold Spring, 






Grafton, . 




5,000 


George Pogue, . 


George, 
Axtell, . 






Grafton, . 




5.000 


Wm. Gillespie, . 






Grafton, . 




5,000 


Horace H. Adams, . 


Adams, 






Grafton, . 




5,000 


Geo. E. Whitehead, . 


McCracken and 


Darters, 




Millbury, 




5,000 


Wm. L. Taft, 


Poor Farm, 






North bridge, 




5,000 


Geo. L. Gill, 


Carpenter, . 






>>orthbridge, 




5,000 


C.V.Dudley, . 


Prentice, 






Xorthbridge, 




5,000 


W. E. Johnson, . 


Purgatorv, . 






Northbridge, 




5,000 


A. S. Xoyes, 


Burt, . 






Northbridge, 




5,000 


Cyrus H. Mentzer, . 


Cold Harbor, 






Xorthborough, 


5,000 


Win. A. Gaines, . 


Edgell's, . 






Framingham, 


5,000 


Arthur E. French, 


Thayer, 






Palmer, . 


s;ooo 


C. L. Allen, 


Barber, 






Worcester, 




5,000 


H. A. Sharp, 


Diamond, . 






Norfolk, . 




5,000 


Geo. B. Green, . 


Canoe River, 






Mansfield, 




5,000 


E. L. Freeman, . 


Gurney, 






Medway, 




5,000 


L. C. Humphrey, 


Doggetts, . 






Rochester, 




5,000 


G. F. Prevear, . 


McGovern's, 






Leominster, 




5,000 


G. F. Prevear, . 


Lunenburg, 






Leominster, 




5,000 


G. F. Prevear, . 


Fail, . 






Leominster, 




5,000 


G. F. Prevear, . 


Pottery, 






Leominster, 




5,000 


G. F. Prevear, . 


Chauchit, 






West Sterling 




5,000 


Hobart Raymond, 


_ 


5,000 


Gilbert Flagg, . 


_ _ _ 


5,000 


Chas. Grimes, 


Cook, 


Hubbardston, . j 5,000 


E. A. Woodward, 


Natty, 


Hubbardston, . ' 5,000 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



225 



Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery, etc. — Concluded, 



Applicant. 


Name of Brook. 


Town. 


Number. 


Alfred C. Murdock, . 
L. H. Ruggles, . 
Jas. H. O'Hara, . 
Jas. H. O'Hara, . 
Jas. H. O'Hara, . 
Patrick Shaughnessy, 
E.E. Whiting, . 
L. F. Despeaux, 


Davis Meadow, 

Moose, . 
Sheldon, 
Old World, . 
Stickney, 
Bernard, 
Mechanic, . 
Mill, . 










Hubbardston, 
Hardwick, 
Deerfield, 
Deerfield, 
Shelburne, 
West Upton, 
West Upton, 
West Upton, 




5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 


















310,000 



Fry distributed from 


the Adams Hatchery during April and May, 


1905. 


Joseph D. Fontaine, . 


Punch and Simonds, . ) 






Joseph D. Fontaine, 




Cherry Rum and Fisk, . [ 


Greenfield, . 


30,000 


Joseph D. Fontaine, 




FirstGorgeandSecondGorge, ) 






Chas. F. Jacobus, 




Gill Schoolhonse and Dry, 


Turner's Falls, 


5,000 


N. P. Farwell, . 




Dry, 


Gill, .... 


5,000 


Farwell Pfernick, 




Clark, . 






Buckland, 


1 


John L. Haigis, . 




Drake, . 






Buckland, 


I 


Wm. H.Noonan, 




Dragon, 






Shelburne, 


y 30,000 


W. G. Rotherham, 




Apple Valley, . 






Shelburne, 


J. S. Outhouse, . 




Avery, . 






Charlemont, . 


i 


James W. Wild, . 




Wilder, 






Charlemont, . 


j 


Frank W. Rice, . 




Town and Wood, 






Lanesborough, 


10,000 


Geo. F. Sayles, . 




Dry 






Adams, . 


5,000 


Geo. F. Sayles, . 




Bassett, 






Adams, . 


5,000 


Harry J. Sheldon, 




Gordon, 






Adams, . 


5,000 


James H. Krum, 




Tunnel, 






North Adams, 


5,000 


James H. Krum, 




Hudson, 






North Adams, 


5,000 


James H. Krum, 




Sherman, . 






North Adams, 


5,000 


C. H. Sage, . 




- 








C. H. Sage, . 




: : : j 


Great Barrington, . 


15,000 


C. H. Sage, . 








H. O. Hicks, 




Cold River, 


Adams, . 


5,000 


L. B. Moore, 




Slater 


) 






L. B. Moore, 




Jerusalem, . 




Tryingham, . 


15,000 


L. B. Moore, 




Riverside, . 


1 






H. F. Barrett, . 




East Hoosac, 




Adams, . 


5,000 


B. H. Shaw, 




Walker, 




Windsor, 


5,000 


E.L.Bird, . 




Hollis, .... 




Windsor, 


5,000 


W. S. Hathaway, 




Hathaway, . 




Savoy, 


5,000 


J. A. Morrison, . 




Cold, .... 




Middlefield, . 


5,000 


John Z. Frizzell, 




Fuller, Pierce and Trout, 




Peru, 


10,000 


J. G. Bennett, . 




Pettibone, . 




Cheshire, 


5,000 


J. M. Burns, 




Smith, .... 


) 






J. M. Burns, 




Shaker, 




Pittsfield, 


15,000 


J. M. Burns, 




Sackett, 


I 






S. G. Tenney, . 




Idlewild, 




William stown, 


10,000 


A.P.Ramage, . 


Dunbar, 




Monroe, . 


5,000 












215,000 



Fry distributed from the Winchester Hatchery during April and May, 1905 



W. F. Davis, 


Gallagher's, .... 


Acton, 


3,000 


J. Sidney White, 






Cole's 






Acton, 




3,000 


J. Sidney White, 






Wills', .... 






Acton, 




3,000 


Cli fiord Poor, . 






Pearl and tributaries, 






Boxford, 




3,000 


Clifford Poor, . 






Pearl and tributaries, 






Boxford, 




3,000 


Clifford Poor, . 






Pearl and tributaries, 






Boxford, 




3,000 


Clifford Poor, . 






Pearl and tributaries, 






Boxford, 




3,000 


Caleb L. Smith, . 






Golden Cove, 






Chelmsford, 




3,000 


Wm. A. Lang, . 






Ambrose Hale, . 






Billerica, 




3,000 


Geo. W. Alcott, . 






Golden Cove, 






Chelmsford, 




3,000 


F. A. Griffin, 






Nashoba, 






Westford, 




3,000 



226 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 



Fry distributed from the Winchester Hatchery, etc. — Concluded. 



Applicant. 


Name of Brook. 


Town. 


Number. 


Henry Boynton, 
Wm.E. Badger, 


Black, 


Lowell, . 


3,000 


Trull's and Hood's, . 


Tewksbury, 




3,000 


H. S.Crysler, 


Crooked Spring, 


Chelmsford, 




3,000 


Ernest N. Schofield, . 


Argella and Mill 


Groveland, 




6,000 


Ernest N. Schofield, . 


Grindle and Morrill's, 


Groveland, 




6,000 


Chas. M. Kimball, . 


Houghton's 


South Acton, 




3,000 


Chas. M. Kimball, . 


Rocky, . . ■ . 


South Acton, 




3,000 


Chas. M. Kimball, . 


Cemetery, 


South Acton, 




3,000 


Chas. M. Kimball, . 


Taylor's, 


South Acton, 




3,000 


Wm. Finncane, . 


_ _ _ 


Methuen, 




3,000 


A.S.Mitchell, . 


Brown's 


Lexington, 




3,000 


H. M. Monroe, . 


Trout 


Lexington, 




3,000 


Edward S. Payson, . 


Grassland, 


Lexington, 




3,000 


O. W. Whittemore, . 


Mill 


Arlington, 




3,000 


N. J. Hardy, 


Reed's, . . . 


Arlington, 




3,000 


Roswell Wetherbee, . 


Ryan's, 


Lexington, 




3,000 


M.E.S.Clemons, . 


Causeway and Witham's, 


Andover, 




3,000 


Joshua D. Upton, 


Willis, . * 


North Reading 


T . 


3,000 


John H. Sweetser, 


Hall's 


Woburn, . 




3,000 


Wm. J. Hammond, . 


Cutler's 


Woburn, . 




3,000 


Chas. H. Buss, . 


Lincoln 


Woburn, . 




3,000 


Charlie A. Jones, 


Shaker Glen, .... 


Woburn, . 




3,000 


C.C.Taylor, 


Cutler's, 


Woburn , . 




3,000 


Frank W. Ames, 


McManus 


Woburn, . 




3,000 


John T. Hill, 


Sandy, 


Woburn, . 




3,000 


Frank W. Mcintosh, 


Fowle 


Bedford, . 




3,000 


S. M. Hawey, . 
Lewis A. White, 


Bennett, 


Burlington, 




3,000 


Sandy 


Burlington, 




3,000 


Chas. E.Taylor, 


Walker's 


Burlington, 




3,000 


E.C. Far well, . 


Tributary Ipswich River, 


Reading, . 




3,000 


Arthur Roberts, 


Huckleberry, .... 


Reading, . 




3,000 


Geo. W. Lovell, . 


Tan Yard 


Middleborough, . 


3,000 


S.E.Bisbee, 


Bennett's 


Middleborough, . 


3,000 


Willard Osborn, . 


Green Bottom, .... 


Lakeville, 


3,000 


John Moody, 


Clark's 


Middleborough, . 


3,000 


Harry K. Perkins, . 


Linus Snow, . 


Bridgewater, . 


3,000 


Arthur J. Wallen, 


Ice House, 


Campello, 


3,000 


John J. Kennedy, 


Dead Meadow 


S tough ton, 


3,000 


Walter H. Edgerly, . 


Meadow, 


West Bridgewater, 


3,000 


C. H. Leonard, . 


Ford's 


Middleborough, . 


6,000 


Seth Damon, 


Old Swamp River, . 


Weymouth, . 


3,000 


Geo. L. Peabody, 


Plyer 


Hanover, 




3,000 


Geo. L. Peabody, 


Silver, 


Hanover, 




3,000 


R. R. Freeman,*. 


Town Brook, .... 


Wellfleet, 




3,000 


Maynard D. Orr, 


Wyne, 


Rockport, 




5,000 


Murray J. Bowen, 


North branch Palmer's River, 


Rehohoth, 




3,000 


George W. Field, 


Beaver Hole Brook, . 


Sharon, . 




5,000 . 


Geo. F. Pearson, 


Marshall's, 


Lowell, . 




3,000 








190,000 



Fry distributed from 


the Hadley Hatchery during April and May 


1905. 


F. M. Smith, 


Leaping Well, .... 


South Hadley, 


4,000 


S. E. Bliss, .... 


Leaping Well, . 






South Hadley, 


4,000 


Geo. Hoffman, . 


Buttery, 






South Hadlev, 


4,000 


B.C. Brainard, . 


Buttery, 






South Hadlev, 


4,000 


F.E.White, 


Elmer, east branch, 






South Hadlev, 


4,000 


John Shields, 


Elmer, west branch, 






South Hadlev, 


4,000 


Charles H. Sawyer, . 


Running Gutter, 






Hatfield, . 


5,000 


T. F. Ahern, 


Ahern Brook, 






Sunderland, . 


5,000 


Peter McHugh, . 


Board, . 






Northampton, 


5,000 


Edward Miller, . 


Robert's Meadow, 






Northampton, 


5,000 


Louis Gavlor, 


Parsons, 






Northampton, 


5,000 


Wm. H. Feiker, . 


Loudville, . 






Westhampton, 


5,000 


Eli M. Converse, 


Pierces, 






West Brookfield, . 


5,000 


J. B. Haskins, . 


Allen, . 






WestBrookfield, . 


5,000 


C.H.Clark, 


Kent Meadow, .... 


West Brookfield, . 


5,000 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



227 



Fry distributed from the Hadley Hatchery, etc. — Concluded. 



Applicant. 


Name of Brook. 


Town. 


Number. 


C. E.Bill 


White, 


West Brookfleld, . 


5,000 


E.W.Lawton, . 






Elwell, . 






Ware, 


5,000 


M.C.Wood, 






Sampson, . 






Ware, 


5,000 


M. W. Smith, . 






Hampshire, 






Goshen, . 


5,000 


F. E. Hawkes, . 






Rogers, 






Goshen, . 


5,000 


John Doherty, . 






Packard, 






Goshen, . 


5,000 


W. A. Smith, 






Highland, . 






Goshen, . 


5,000 


W. S. Gabb, 






Nipping, 






Cummington, 


5,000 


W. S. Gabb, 






Clark, . 






Cummington, 


5,000 


W. S. Gabb, 






Shaw, . 






Cummington, 


10,000 


W. S. Gabb, 






Mitchell, . 






Cummington, 


10,000 


Henry L. Pierce, 






Paige, . 






Barre, 


10,000 


John S. Rice, 






Tolman, 






Barre, 


5,000 


Geo. R. Simonds, 






Prince, 






Barre, 


10,000 


M. R. Goddard, . 






Hubbardston, 






Hubbardston, 


5,000 


B. F. Pierce, 






Hu board ston, 






Hubbardston, 


5,000 


Stewart K. Pierce, 






Ragged Hill, 






Hubbardston, 


5,000 


Chas. A. Brown, 






Lovewell, . 






Hubbardston, 


5,000 


H. L. Shepardson, 






No name given, 






Phillipston, . 


5,000 


Chas. N. Dyer, . 






Conesto, 






Hubbardston, 


5,000 


Arthur W. Pratt, 






Bailey, 






Gardner, 


5,000 


Edward L. Knowltoi 


i, 




Poor Farm, 






Gardner, 


5,000 


C. E. Barron, 






Moores, 






Westminster, . 


5,000 


C. T. Mellen, 






Bigelow Hill, 






Westminster, . 


5,000 


J. W. Toner, 






Cooledge, . 






Gardner, 


5,000 


A. H. Jefts, . 






Sanger, 
Buckman, . 






Athol, 


5,000 


L. P.Hapgood, . 










Athol, 


5,000 


Ezra O. Bradford, 






Ellinwood, . 






Athol, . 


5,000 


N. P. Farwell, . 






Fall River, . 






Bernardston, . 


10,000 i 


Chas. F. Jacobus, 






Dry and Clark, 






Gill, 


15,000 i 


Harland M. King, 






Wheeler, 






Athol, . 


4,000 


Robert Brookhouse, I 


r., 




Rice, 






Athol, 


4,000 


M. B. Waterman, 






Sanger, 






Athol, . 


4,000 


A. G. Wesley, . 






Sweetwater or Wright, 




Athol, . 


4,000 


E. B. Newton, . 






Ellinwood, . 




Athol, 


4,000 


J. W. Jackson, . 






Gillard and Olds, 




Belchertown, 


5,000 














279,000 



1 These lots were brown trout. 



Fingerling Brook Trout Plants. 



C. B. Sampson, . 
Arthur E. Fitch, 
H. D. Moulton, . 
Everett Flood, . 
Wm. H. Roberts et a 
Alfred Read et al., 
J. F. Barrett, 
H. L. Pierce, 
H. O. Elliott, 
H. G. Howard, . 
Walter Aiken, 
L. N. Hadley, . 
John C. Dudley, 
J. E. Stuart, 
C.L.Allen, 
P. A. Dowd, 
F. L. Hager, 
George Pogue et al., 
F. S. Casavant et al., 
E. A. Woodward, 
C.E.Bill etah, . 
Chas. W. Eggleston, 
C. F. Cowdry et al., 
C. F. Cowdry et al., 
H. W. Barnes et al., 
Charles B. Adams, 
Geo. F. Prevear et al., 



Broad 

Thayer, 

Moulton and Creamery, . 
Tributary to West Reservoir, 

Poor 

Powder Mill, . . . . 
Tributary of Ware River, 
Tributary of Prince River, . 

Willow 

Cooper, 

Trout, 

Trout, 

Ellis, . . 

Bigelow and Goodridge, . 

Barber's, 

Weasel, . . 

Beaman's, 

Cold Spring, . . . . 

Bailey, 

Tannery, 

White, 

Mad, 

Bixby 

Mulpus, 

Purgatory, 

Potash, 

Tophet, 



Holyoke, 

Palmer, . 

Monson, . 

Monson, . 

Chicopee Falls, 

Westfield, 

Barre, 

Barre, 

Ashburnham, 

Ashburnham, 

Templeton, . 

Templeton, 

Sutton, . 

Westminster, . 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 

Winchendon, . 

Grafton, . 

Gardner, . 

Hubbardston, 

West Brookfleld, 

^orth Brookfleld, 

Townsend, 

Lunenburg, 

Northbridge, 

Webster, 

Shirley, . 



500 
500 
500 
500 
500 

1,000 
250 
250 
250 
250 
250 
250 
250 
500 
250 
250 
250 
500 

1,000 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 



228 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Fingerling Brook Trout Plants — Continued. 



ArPLICAST. 



Name of Brook. 



Town. 



Number. 



P.S.Callahan, . 
W. F. Knowlton, 
A. D. Barnes, . 
James A. Holden, 
J. Frank Stone, . 
Geo. W. Boutel et ah, 
Chas. O. Flagg, . 
L. H. Ruggles, . 
Leo Clarke, . 

E. E. Whiting et ah, 
H. C. Capen et ah, 
Geo. E. Whitehead, 
Georsre S. Sayles, 

F. N. Haskins, . 
John Z. Frizzell, 
James M. Burns, 
Frank W. Rice, . 
Frank W. Rice, . 
H. A. Barton, . 
F. N. Groesbeck, 
P. J. Clark, . 
F. H. Pierce et ah, 
L. B. Moore, 
H. O. Hicks et ah, 

C. L. Crafts, 
W. G. Rotherham et ah 

Siffmond Klaiber et ah, 
C.R, Hills, . 
Jas. H. O'Hara et ah, 
A. S. Hunt et ah, 
W. M. Niles et ah, 
James Donoghue, 
Edwin J. Castle, 
Ernest N. Schofleld, 
Clifford Poor, . 
T. L. Jenkins, 
Hiram A. Toung, 
Warren H. Beede, 
Moody Kimball, 
Oliver A. Bailey, 
F. T. Slater, 
Walter H. Edgerly, 
Thomas W. Frost, 

D. W. Wriffht, . 
Arthur J. Wallen, 
Geo. L. Peabody, 

E. A. McMaster, 
S. E. Bisbee et ah, 
Edward X. Ames, 
A. S. Mitchell et ah, 
H. P. Anderson, 
E.C. Far well, . 

F. B. Twitchell, . 
Chas. M. Kimball, 
Lorine X. Fowler et ah 
C. A. Hunter, . 
F. I. Knight, 
X. J. Hardy, 
W. A. Kemp, 
H.E.Hersam, . 
A. Ward Follett, 
Chas. X. Hargraves, 
James Menzies, . 
Geo. F. Pearson, 
C. M. Griffin, 
Joseph Rudolph, 
Murrav J. Bowen, 
H. R. Packard et ah, 
Walter C. Slocum, 
George B. Treen, 
Rev. Jas. J. Brady, 
Seth Damon, 



Highland, . 

Bummit, 

Hobbs, 

Ball, .... 

Great 

Riceville, . 

Great Meadow, . 

Moose, .... 

Fox, .... 

Mill and Mechanic, . 

Howe, .... 

Carter's and McCracken, 

Gulf, .... 

Haskins, 

Tuttle, . . = . 

Yokum and Shaker, . 

Town, .... 

Northrup, . 

Barton, 

Brown, 

Potash, 

Pierce, .... 

Branch of Hop Brook, 

Tophet, right branch, 

Roaring, 

Clesson's, . 



Fall River, .... 
Fall River, .... 

Glen, 

Middle branch Swift River, 

Rice, 

Barker's, .... 
Ward's, .... 
Grindle, .... 

Pearl 

Gallup's, .... 
Mitchell, .... 

Outlet , 

Tanhouse, .... 

Dow, 

Alewife, .... 
Town Stream, . 

Trout 

Holloway, .... 
Ice-house, .... 
Sliver and Plyer, 
Breck's, .... 

Alden, 

Foster's Meadow, 
Monroe's, .... 

Hog, 

Tributary to Ipswich River, 
Noanet, .... 
Nagog, .... 
Second Division, 
Robins, .... 
Woods, .... 

Lock, 

Sucker 

Cemetery, .... 
Ryan's, .... 

Baiting 

Swain's, .... 
Marshall's, .... 

Tine, 

Hunting-house, . 

Branch of Palmer's River, 

Bungy, .... 

Tuxet, 

Lowland 

Herring River, . 

Mill, 



Fiskdale, 

Shrewsbury, . 

Sturbridge, . 

Holden, . 

East Brookfleld, 

Athol, . 

Hardwick, 

Hardwick, 

Millville, 

West Upton, . 

Spencer, . 

Millbury, 

Cheshire, 

Savoy, 

Peru, 

Pittsfield, 

Lanesborough, 

Lanesborough, 

Dalton, . 

Dalton, . 

Hinsdale, 

Windsor, 

Tyringham, . 

Adams, . 

Whately, 

Ashfield and Buck 

land, . 
Gill, . 

Bernardston, . 
Ley den, . 
Orange, . 
Charlemont, . 
Methuen, 
Andover, 
Groveland, 
Box ford, 
Tops field, 
Beverly, . 
Peabody, 
Rowley, . 
Ipswich, . 
Gloucester, 
West Bridgewater 
Brockton, 
Lakeville, 
Campello, 
Hanover, 
Bridgewater, . 
Middleborough, 
Wilmington, . 
Lexington, 
Hudson, . 
Reading, . 
Dover, 

South Acton, . 
Concord Junction, 
Concord, 
Townsend, 
Arlington, 
Pepperell, 
Stoneham, 
North Lexington, 
Framingham, 
North Chelmsford 
Lowell, . 
Westford, 
My ricks, . 
Rehoboth, 
Attleborough, 
Dartmouth, 
Mansfield, 
Rochester, 
Weymouth, 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



229 



Fingerling Brook Trout Plants — Concluded. 



Name of Brook. 



Number. 



George B. Clark, 

John J. Kennedy, 

J. A. Davis et al., 

Edward Miller et al. 

F. M. Smith, 

R. D. Bisbee, 

E. P. Bartlett et al., 

J. W. Jackson, . 

W. S. Gabb, 

J. A. Morrison, . 

Jas. F. Page et al., 



Trap-hole 

Dead Meadow, . . . . 

Flat, 

Parsons and Robert' s Meadow, 

Buttery 

Page 

Cook, . . . . . . 

Pudding Mill, . 

Shaw, 

Factory, 

Plum 



East Walpole, 
Stoughton, 
Ware, 

Northampton, 
South Hadley, 
Chesterfield, . 
Pelham, . 
Belchertown, . 
Cummington, 
Middlefleld, . 
South Amherst, 



500 

500 

500 

1,000 

1,000 

250 

500 

250 

500 

250 

1,000 



45,875 



Ponds stocked and closed in Accordance with Chapter 91, Sec- 
tion 19, Revised Laws, as amended by Chapter 274, Acts of 1903. 







o 


S 


o 

s 






£ 






02 

bo 


"§ 


&£ 






■p 


Name op Pond. 


Town. 


*A 


o . 


1.a 


a' 


03 

bo 


2» 






o'Z 


H be 


mh 




bo 


H bo 






"7. &» 

"3S 


a 


O bo 


P-i 


| 


2 &c 






ti 


M 


Hi 


PM 


m 


m 


Lashaway Lake, 1 


Brookfield, 


500 












Onota Lake, 


Pittsfield, 




500 


_ 


1,000 


_ 


- 


- 


Foster's, 


Andover, . 




500 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


Dennison Lake, 


Winchendon, 




500 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Naukeag Lake, . 


Ashburnham, 




500 


- 


500 


- 


- 


1,000 


Crystal Lake, 


Gardner, . 




500 


- 


1,000 


- 


2,000,000 


- 


Nabnassett, . 


Westford, 




500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


WhalomLake, . 


Lunenburg, 




500 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Rouud, 


Tewksbury, 




500 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


Garfield Lake, . 


Monterey, 




- 


- 


1,000 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Walden, 


Concord, . 




- 


_ 


500 


_ 


2,000,000 


1,000 


Peters, .... 


Dracut, . 




- 


500 


- _ 


_ 


2,000,000 


_ 


Nagog, .... 


Acton and Littleton 


- 


500 


500 


_ 


2,000,000 


_ 


Robins, 


East Bridgewater, . 


- 


500 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Cooper's, 


North Carver, . 


_ 


500 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Whitman's, . 


Weymouth, 




- 


500 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Lead Mine, . 


Sturbridge, 




500 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


_ 


Big Alum, . 


Sturbridge, 




_ 


500 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Winnecunnett, . 


Norton, 




- 


500 


- 


- 


- 


- 








5,000 


3,500 


4,500 


100,000 


8,000,000 


2,000 



1 Stocked upon evidence that in 1794 it was a great pond of the State. Later investiga- 
tions satisfied the commissioners that it is an artificial pond, made by a dam erected in 
1785, and therefore private property. 



230 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Ponds restocked in 1905. 







o 




o 

| 




u 




9 


Name op Pond. 


Town. 


bo 


o . 


z ■- 
XT* 




o 

H 

H 


bo 
bo 


■a 






o <» 




a <u 




W 


« 






<- £f 


d '£ 




Ch 


3 










cefq 


%'i 




6 





o 


^ 






Ph 


W 


hJ 


Ph 


pq 


CO 


«** 


Haggett's, 


Andover, . 


_ 


500 












Baddacook, . 






Groton, 


- 


500 


- 


- 


5,000 


_ 


_ 


Long, . 






Royal ston, 


500 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


- 


- 


Forge, . 






Littleton, . 


500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


Spectacle, 






Littleton, . 


- 


- 


1,000 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Flax, . 






Lynn,. 


500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Queen, . 






Phillipston, 


500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


North, . 






Orange, 


- 


- 


1,000 


- 


- 


2,000,000 


- 


Massapoag, . 






Sharon, 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


4,000,000 


- 


Pleasant, 






Wenham, . 


- 


-, 


- 


100,000 


- 


- 


- 


Long, 






Tewksbury, 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


- 


- 


Long, . 






Freetown, . 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


- 


~ 


Great, . 






North Andover, 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


- 


~ 


Quannapowitt, 
Packard, 






Wakefield, 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


- 


~ 






Orange, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2,000,000 


- 


Greenwater, . 






Becket, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2,000,000 


~ 


Assowompsett, 






Lakeville, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2,000,000 


- 


Forest, . 






Palmer, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


28 


Chaubunagungamaug, 


Webster, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


40 








2,000 


1,000 


2,000 


700,000 


5,000 


12,000,000 


6S 



Brook stocked with Brook Trout and closed in Accordance 
with Section 5, Chapter 91 of the Revised Laws. 



Name of Brook. 


Town. 


Number. 


South Meadow Brook, 


Shrewsbury, .... 


200 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



231 



[C] 
Distribution of Pheasants. 



Pheasants were liberated in the covers in various sections 
of the State, as indicated in the following list, which also 
embraces the names of applicants for birds : — 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Number. 


George H. Haines, 


Sandwich, . 


6 


Arthur J. Wallen, 










Campello, . 




6 


L. D. Baker, . 










Wellfleet, . 




6 


Seth Damon, 










Weymouth, 




6 


Charles S Baker, . 










Falmouth, . 




6 


A. I. Bailey, . 










Middleborough, 




6 


Frank II. Shute, . 










Gloucester, 




6 


Amos A. Phelps, . 










Rockland, . 




6 


Murray D. Lincoln, 










Raynham, . 




6 


James Lehan, 










Stoughton, . 




6 


Charles H. Walker, 










Amesbury, . 




6 


Frank M. Chace, . 










Fall River, . 




6 


James E. Donoghue, 










Lawrence, . 




10 


Fred P. Smith, . 










Dedham, . > 




10 


W. H. Reynolds, . 










Braintree, . 




10 


John N. Cole, 










Andover, 




10 


J. Sidney White, . 










North Acton, 




10 


Wellington K. Henry, 










Pittsfield, . 




8 


H. P. Wookey, . 










Stockbridge, 




8 


Frank Cass, . 










Franklin, . 




8 


John C. Dudley, . 










Wilkinsonville, 




8- 


Edward E. Whiting, 










West Upton, 




8 


S. Frank Stockwell, 










Auburn, 




8 


James Lehan, 










Stoughton, . 




10 


W. C. Woodward, 










Middleborough, 




10 


Charles M. Kimball, 










South Acton, 




10 


Warren H. Beede, 










Lynn, . 




10 


Edward B, Nevin, 










South Weymout' 


h 


10 


Edward F. Woods, 










West Newton, 




10 


Walter H. Edgerly, 










Bridgewater, 




10 


Charles E. Conant, 










Dedham, 




10 


Norman E. Lemaire, 










Taunton, 




10 


Franklin S. Simmons, 










Somerset, . 




10 


Guy C. Wonson, . 










Gloucester, 




10 



232 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Doc, 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Number. 


John Kenrick, ..... 


Orleans, 


10 


Edward G. Clark, 






Westfield, . 




10 


George W. Field, . 






Sharon, 




12 


William II Frost, 






Athol, 




10 


Sanborn G. Tenney, 






Williamstown, 




10 


Dana Malone, 






Green held, . 




10 


Edward Miller, Secretary, 






Northampton, 




10 


George W. Lovell, 






Middleborough, 




10 


A. P. Wright, 








Chesterfield, 




10 


C. M. Pettengill, 








Cum min gton, 




10 


A. C. Stevens, 








Worthington, 




10 


Edward F. Staples 








East Taunton, 




10 


William T. Swain 








Nantucket, 




10 


F. H. Smith, . 








South Hadley, 




10 


C. F. Jacobus, 








Turner's Falls, 




10 


C. H. Morse, . 


, 






Petersham, 




10 


W. H. Walker, 








Greenwich, 




10 


Francis C. Packard, 






Quincy, 




10 


George W. Field, . 






Sharon, 




6 














468 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



233 



[D.] 
Distribution of Belgian Hakes. 



Applicant. 


Town. 


Number. 


Arthur J. Wallen, .... 


Campello, . 


8 


George H. Haines, 










Sandwich, . 






8 


A. I. Bailey, . 










Middleborough, 






8 


C. S. Baker, . 










Falmouth, . 






8 


James Lehan, 










Stoughton, . 






8 


Clifton Fears, 










Rock port, . 






8 


Charles H. Carroll, 










Gloucester, 






8 


Arthur S. Aborn, . 










Wakefield, . 






8 


Charles M. Kimball, 










South Acton, 






8 


Sanborn G. Tenney, 










Williamstown, 






16 


Guy C. Wonson, . 










Gloucester, 






10 


John N. Cole, 












Andover, . 






10 


W. H. Reynolds, 












Braintree, . 






10 


John C. Dudley, 












Sutton, 






10 


J. F Despeaux, 












West Upton, 






10 


C. E. Con ant, 












Dedham, 






15 


Fred Skinner, 












Lynnfield Centre, 




15 


Ernest H. Ives, 












Reading, 




8 




















176 



2;;i 



FISH AM) (JAMK. 



[Dec. 



^ 



x 

c 

H 
> 

o 
O 

- 

X 

H 
x 



- 



o 
o 



c 
o 



^ o 



U 05 

■ST 



oocooooo 



io io in ic f: lt o c 



otjot; — "O ■d 

~ ^ "~ * -t- i- 5k 



» i i o i ;■ ; ^io 
'> *£ > "> > *> '£ '> > "> 

aapcaapsaa 
oooooooooo 



oooooooo 

ouoaoaoo 



'O'O 

a a c ; j o i ;t .-'- 

'£■>'>>'£>> — •§ 

oooococ---r 



I 





uO-u" 








"taO 


c 


O ai a 
_, ©XT 


= 




-Jl 


|# 


© 

X 


T. ,~ CO 


o 


-~- s 


- 


p*fl - 




--H td 


S3 OQ 




:l - 


br. ;z—. ■ 




as e S 








— 


— -^cc 



© o o ©op o^zj£j£ ^r^xTaT— "—"—"— "jz" c — P?p © o ^.~ 

BMMC Q WWWgga £E£SS=££5 Wg|MWMgg 

£££££££-£-£-£ ££*"£"£-£££* £g££££as 

qib©©©©©kcSc3 asrtrr — c;-.-^^ © .i, .„ © © © ci c3 

£££££££003 QQfiPflQfifiP ^Br^ZZi^ 

s" 

<=> r-f >» 

=- - o . • a „ --5 .S 2 s _- 

C DQ . „g © «3 cS « • tToD * _T " «8 d ' C F O • „ 'O • 

-j^>ss^-;^£4 -^£:r<^£<;~ :."i^t<^ 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 235 



S 

© 
■ ■•R ■ 

o o o 3 '-a 2 

pi a a a o a 

03 03 03 03o 03 



• 00_!'*_;OQOOO.JOOQ O O • • O OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOrOOOOO 

'C oo'Cd'Cdooooo^ooo ;ctro OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOTlOOOOO 
03103030303 03 103031 03 

-a oor%i-irHaiaioioioiOi-!ioioia cc--o iaiss)NioioiaooooooooHOioiooo 
Em " EmEhEhEn Em Eq Eh Em "" 



w-liOOO0 0a0^v00Oyy^j00yD.-*a)©©aifflOCiww w^Ui- i O3C303O3O3O3Q3O3 

c S "3 a c i o "5 o tj i o 15 i o IS o o a 13 2 t; _ o o a t3 o3 o _o 13 13 o 13 1 1 o 13 13 13 o _o 13 13 _ o 13 a a 13 13 
"> -9 *> *> > "> > *t> "> "t> '> '> > '> '> "> > H 't> '► '> "> "> •£ > "> "> "> > "> '> '£ "► '£ '£ '£ "> '> '> '► *t> "> '£ > "> 
HmaaaaaaaaaaaaaeaSaaaaaSaaaaaaacaaaaaaaaaaaaa 

O-rOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOvToOOOO-r'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



rt -f pa 

© g ed §) 

SS^G to tO 

w «s a a 

Mi tC - « «-i .;-< 

o a o 2 m m 

Wttw?* Eh Eh 



_r 


© .-? 


_r 




_" 




03 „ 




^h" 




_r 


:. 


01 ,. 


— 












o 




~ 


© 


►4 •©£ 


•J 




03 


A 


03 a 


OS 


ci 


t>> 


-J 


J 


03 J Q 

w M 00 


h4 




-' 


& 




P 
CO 


hi 


P 

00 


-' 


P3 




P3 




- 


CD 

tn 


o S 


"G 


« 


-O 


g 




a cl^c 








3 


o 




o 




BO 


S3 o 03|J 


an 


03 


GO 


03 


C ^^ 


l_^ 


OD 


r-.' 


OS 


s 


•all 
am 
on 


g 


03 

J4 


S 

- 


c3 


"^■S 


a 
o 


B 

oi 


a 
o 


S3 


y 


Catty, 


03 




a. 


CT 1 


fcoja 


to 


03 


bo 


u 


bo 


to to to a 


to 


Q* 


bo 


tn 


.2 to 


a 


to 


a 


;r 


= 


a a as 


a 




a 


a 




a 




a 




S22 c 














a 

a 




M 






w 






& 


W 




S3 ci c3 £ 


- 




- 


si 






a 




H 


EHEHEHEti 


H 


m 


■- 


H 


— 


Eh 


Eh 


— 


H 



■2 . - « " sf _r -" -~ o o o o 

^■oaaa^-i=H*-i=m 



UJ ^ ^ 5i ^ f-I Mti'H'H'H — S-ISH 

o 03 03 a o 03 a3<-c>'3'c^j r'C'O 




OS3sOMicSoSoSQ3a3Q303M0303a3a30303030303j303a;a303Q30cta3Q303cSe3030303Q30303Q3S3o3cSo3 
^EMEMrH^EMEH^^^^^^^Z^^^^^^EM^^^^^^fe^^^rHHH^^^ 



S 1 

— a - ,a a 
-r: «"•.■■• O • *03 • "• • „ o •& 

- <o « £ 3 » --'g S B .2 - -2 a a" g g 




r13 0^;^«|> O O t O • a » ^ Ow^^-" -J.' Jk ¥ n£ °!i o o u o °^ -<i^ o o u c Si « 



236 



FISH AM) GAME. 



[Dec. 



p a o> 03 03 

+* o bo £C be 

-Bis 2 

K c co oo cc 

a QSSS 



DOm 



w • 



7 - 



p a; a> a> 

o aaa 

d p-p.Ph 



o o 



eS c3 
- 9 

a, a 

p. a 



:SS 



oooo oo< 



o oo oo 



oiaes»o 



oooo 



• c o o o • 
"O o o o o"3 



^ r— r— pjj r^J gj 

03 03 03 03 03 bD 

.-, .'- .p s .S - 

*> ■> v ■> ■> . 

O O O O O— i 



'O'O'O '3i r r Z r C r Zr^ 



03 T3 X3 'P 0> - t: - ~ r~ ~ 'Z "Z~ "3 "CCCO T3 T3 "SC'C'C'r 

bC 0) D 0) tCi O !) !) i y i i j 1 03 03 03 03 © 03 03 03 03 03 03 

^ .2 ."^ .2 ^ .'S ~ « "^ "S .P ."§ . 3 .S ."§ ~00 O © O O O C t5 © © 

rt '£">*> P "> '£ '> ■> 2 '£'£'£">*£ '>*>'£'> '£ *> ■>■£'£'>*> 

W (1 r! r (Wr-lr- (*-<*—! .r * r- 1 rl fl n rl rl <-«< r^ *h rH <— ( *-* r- ■■— — — 



0OO^OOOO03OOOOO oooo 



> > ^ 

>' o c o o 
JOOOO 



- 

■- 



fifes" 



P co 

C -M 

co 03 

§to J? % , 

03 — ./S . f-l - - 00 © - 

3ill?IliSJ] 

£ K fr K W 5Bhr 



, 3) 

:-c to 

So 

CO — 

1 03 
■g OS 

o 2 
a © 



3 fl m 



£ © 

o J 



o° 



■~ fl p oc^2 

£ § ^ .H.p| 

bo bO b&£ J bt- 2 S 

a p a p> S ° © Sf"" 
B 53 Soc-g.5 = 



'-'o-S a it 
1~32 5 



J5 O 



.5 aB © •" ■- ^3 ^ 

oa 5o c3« ^ ^ p o 



03 ^ig 

. _„ 03 03 

03"^ - ,p ,p „ © p 7$ 60 on 






'c >^ o 3 



33 ? ■ ■ . 

33 m +a 3 -^ if. fcfiO 



'H§^s £ 



- * 5r 



-r^C^B g£tf£^E 



: cc o; 
> o.= 
IWO 



o© 

> > O 

HHO 



o o 



iS O O; 
— XX. 



« o 

to « 
03 be 



lill 



1 » 

r- > U w TP >,— r rT O O r! CO 

PS fe c c!=h o 

f» CC U CD Z2 ^ OC 



o^ g; 






«o p"2 

'P p? © Pj 
oS-^5 

. ^^ re 



03 M 5 • * 



H P.^S^^^<1 



^<^^^^^ u:,-^^ 



cog 



.P « 
qq-S P 03 



- ^ p © 
a) e3 O aj 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



237 



3 3fl 



© 



(B 



2 8 



-d ©d,3 
©"£ ©G 

^ PT^-2 

o<o£ 



o 

73^ 



ill 

03 S 

8g 
a o 
■£2d 



", © 

a a 



"So 15 



OP €& 

^ © 13 id id id id 

" H * ScOMMM 
fl .- &&&<&=& 
©CO . - .. « - 

2^f3 8 88 8 

-u o m ^rt c3 c3 c3 





-d-d 


d 


dd 


a © 




. © © 


<a*a> 
o o 


«a 
© 
> 
<a. 


d p.a 












a o o 




a 


*rt rt fl 


a a 


.„.„.„ 


o o 


<w 


d^d 


i-i u 


fH 






O 








a a =3 


73 T* 


d 




a a 


© 

a 


<« 


5h!Jh 


f=H 



a 

a =2 
oioS 

^,-Q © 

^2a 



- 



■51 



§§§§ S 



"— '— >oooo— >oo 

I •," f- r r r H rt N 51 J) l! -1 C-I Ci 

fa 5* W W ^ ^ 



- - -d 

ddd adddd 'S'S 

©©©bo©©©© ©© 

j© © © S © _a a _© o o 

"> '> > -a '> ■> *£ '> "> "> 

aaa^aaaa aa 

ooo-~oooo oo 



T373 r ^ r 3t; r C r, 3T? r -! r C! r 3 r 3 
© © a a a^ ^S-SSS-S-S-a 
"*! .© .2 . 2 !2 2 .2 .2 .2 .2 a? .2 .2 



m m © © C£ CO © © © 

a a e3 c3 a a a 



^aaaaaaaaaaaa 
- o o o o o 



OO c3 08, 

'> "> -5 -5 V > t> 



a a 



> >c,a > > > 

a aaaaaaasaaaaa a a co 5 a a a a a d& a a a 

o ooooooocooooo o o •- •-« o © © OO •£ O O © 

O OOOOOQOOOOQOO QOfiflOOO OO Qooo 



> > 

a a 
o o 



©73'CS'O 
00© © © 

d a a a 
a a a 

o o © 







"i-T " 




o 








CQ 








03 




• a • 




1) 








tc 








© 




J 














"© 




M 




© 




■__. * 




bJ 








d 








■^ 


a 




a 


c3 


o 


a a 


.2 


a 


o o . 
























"Sec . 


A 


<H 




© 




if. 


EC 

a 


.a be 

00 a - 


CO 




d 


ii'Sg 


d 



a aa ci 

o.£ ^^ 



d 


CO 


close se 
ng for n 

ng for £ 

idge out 
dge for 
t lobstei 




© "S 

"S-o 

JO 

o rt 


to 

. © 

QQ 


a 
© 
© 


o 

' = 




!h 


©S © £§8 


^ 


52 
© © 


u 

o 
•aa 


aa 




— 


+^T3 -n3 to © or 


© a 




© 


a 


? 


a cS 'C c3 .tla-M© 


33 


sa a 


..a 

bfi 


ri4 


bC 


bo 


bn'cc^ bxr 2 bfiiCM 





bC be 


2? 


fcfi 

a 


- 


(-1 




« 


a a 


"3 


_ 
tn 


£ 


a cjj 


S 



°-S a3 G 



}cq 5 hHS t» SK S 



a - „ «s 

S a" a 2 a ^ ^~ 

= O f r m ^ aJ © © aj 

i-ao«r a o§ 

2t^St^SS.2^ 

ao-"Oo)©aa^ 
D5^SM^P^HO^ 



aaaa a"'** 

oooo. r ~ . , « fe -73 

^aaaao3-|S^j5^"l© 



O aaaa bc_^ x- od co od j-i oj <e t" 

_ Si55cJoOOO©Oaaib, 

aa © o a a*3 ra a a aa;I3 a a 

-g .S.2«.a§§Sc3SS|So-H 



^„.S?W 



o ©ts 

£* be O .^ ^ 

a a a a a- 
o'S ^a a 
a a— i ©©0^" =3 ^ ^ oc 






^" ^r © - 

© ©t>03 


^^35 


© © a© 



© 

^ .2 ^ ^ a a a „ 
_b£tlW^^oSo3 beg 

S.S'SS ao ogo 



^g"*;o © © 



tt'S'S iT© • •> - S -^ 

©§c3.S © g .S 
'Sa:73^ a r- © 

'-'-^ ^>^- o a ^oa C3 .. 



.a «> .a ^ . a o ^ 

© © © P-l S H CZ3 
bO bo be-; o3 \] . 

o o o 2 a^p^ 
© © © a © o . 



„-.2^r 

.2a«© 

2M . O 

g w ^o 

a o S-« 

© © © > 



238 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec, 





o a 


ft 




P 






o > 


CO 




Si 


a 




£ fc <- 


,- CO 




CD 

»4 be 




«& ■ >d 5 






2 ei 


co 

1 

I 

CD 


o -^ a a 
u .'3 ""* 

•S STgS* a 




* S.2 


rt cd 

* o 

CD » 

a 2 




a o a 

CD CJ CO 


fl4s3 j* 




£ -cJ-55 


rrt S 3 




2^ € 

©g CO 


a ei o q cu 
2 cVs So 


r— cy cD-a cd ^j 

.2 ao? ^ •« 




3 S-'rt co p, 


a a-o 


? a = 




EH o 


<!Ah fc 




Q <J 


<5 fe 




ooooooooooo 


oooo 




: OS OOOO 


ooo o 




ooooooooooo 




o 0"U , oo ,oooo 




a 


COOOO^^^fNCICl 


OiOiOO 






ooo o 








\T i-l rH i-l rH cN CO 




ft 


■^ 






fe 




a 
o 












CO 




- - ./G 




,73 > _TS „ „ ^ „ 


^ ^ _ 


o 


'&'&'C r 6'6'6l3 r O'Gi3'G 


■'C'3'O'C g, 


Fg rQ-C OJrQr^; CD-^r^r^r^ 


'O'O'O'S'C 


p 


CDcDCDCDCDcDCDCDCDCDCD 




CD CD 


i a-j u zh s -j s o 


CD CD O CD CD 


_o O © o o o _o _C © O _© j^ ^ ^ o o _© J 


CD O 


.2 rt .2 .2 rt .2 .2 .2 .2 


CD o e ■_ V 


>^t»t>f>f>>>kt> >a^s 


r; > > > >"S 
= a a a a s 


> 0- 


>7j > >••§ > > > > 

asaejaaaa 


> > > > > 


2 


caaaaaaaaaa-q-^ 


a a 


a a a a a 




ooooooooooo^apoooo-r 


o o 


0--00-0000 


o o o o o 


o 


uoo^oooooooOcdoooooQ 


O QUflOOQOOOO 


OOOOO 




V . v /V v 


— • — , 











rJ ' 




• be • 


•*2 






05 




a 


o 




























o • 


• • a • 


• E2 • 


. ^ 








o 


^ 


•;•■•• -i • 






H5 . 

pi 


S3 ft 

CD . r— 

"3 CD 
_- CO 
'O © 

cu . ;=; 

co „ o 




s ►; 




e3 


■ •« •« 


0) 

a 

a 

CD 

! ° 


« a 

o .2 . 
.2 a^-v 


11 of 

7* cd a <d 

bOto o co 

o o K o 

"Go £ © 
tCfeC fcC be 

ansa 


R _ Sh M R CD S- - 

o s o ° ^ o fto o rg a 

be be co it be % be ^ c - be fcD -g 

.2.S>,.5.Sa.2-=S c =aa 


cd Q 

CD M 

. S " ^ 

„-« J^ 'O 

--^ a cd *- 
.w a o-w o 
a o^Sj 

■2 *» £ s3 o 

"S o be ~c be 

OJS = S 
j co •— 'p •— 










aaoa2^aaa> 


m o a § a 

x £ a 2 a 




,0: co 


32 3 -a 


flag 




a ««» 


>; co co co 


aabcaasaacoc=^^ 




a &h 


Cfc fe 5h 


SB 


KS Scop!H^Ocy3 


53 H W oo W 


$* 








rf 


. a . . . 










5 
« 

o 

O 

1 H 




r 


a a 

cc5-/3 
^ O 


o 

; * " ; ; : l 

t: !n r z-a2«2'°o b. 

^^ D^-~rt CD P 


be 
• a • • • 

2*1 

«a^~ co co 


- - .. CD *** 

^2-- r r^aaa2 rtrt>t >> ■agoci 

§§88S**.b£££ggg& ! 5£s8 


1 

H 
H 
■«! 
H 
CO 






a" 
o . 

co 

s . 

o 

2 


O^" ^CO 

cp jo X • • S m ® s 




.a -r 
• o" S a • fl -J5 § cd 2 co" • • „ • a > ■ 
aP* §****«$ «-g agl^ 

Ilia •fi«|sls 5 sllj^».8 

r/^tdcD^oacio^^ !:: 5ea«®2r-£ 

05 rt bc,2Q ss p° £ o rt^ M ffl icS^ atn 








a o ^ oj > cu 


^^ 


i^l-Ssi^Q 


Hi is 




hoo£h£ 


<JW 


g^^^^^go,,- 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



239 



■g-s 

bC bo 



WW 



el 

— 




S 


p 

Oh 


stem 


- 




E 




.« 


m ^ 




43-Wt3 


r 












c 


6 o-2-e 






~ 


aori« 




3-2 




'C'O CO 


u 


© g 


B 


'g" Jg Q£} 


p. 




C 


p*0L,< 


< 



© © 



ooo'o 

o ooo 


o oooooo© 


ooo© 
oo oo 


led. 
00 
00 
led. 


22 


-2© 


© 


oo 

o o 


o 

1 <=> 


oooooo 
oooooo 




2SS £SS 


oooooooo 


oo 


1 o 


oooooo 






































ta 


fc 


NH 


w 


rH 








































„ „ 


„ „ „ 




„ „ 


_ 


„ _ „ ^ - .. .. 


„ .. - 




■o .-s-o 


'S 


iCCCCCS 


"2 'O'O'O 


'T'OrS'O 


rs^TZ'O 


"O"0*O*C 


— — — ~ 


'© r © , C 


rcSTJ 


bO?) 


& && T3 T3 T3 T! T3 « 




- © 






o © o e; 


S 


Z±- 




































© © 


a.p 


i _© .2.22 


© o _© © 


.2 £ .2 .2 


© © o © 


© © © © 


© © © 

"> "> '> 


© © 


ej © 

si- 


^ci©©©©©©oi 

3 ■*">>>>>>■% 


> t> 


p* 


> > > 


> > 


>• > 


p a 


a d 


p a a a 


caps 


P p p c 


p 


P = 3 




p p 


p p p 


P c 




p a a a a s 


o © © o 


O ©0©00©©©0©C 


ooo©o©©© 


© © © 


o c 


■rl ©• 


M .rt o O I 


qooo 


O OOOOOOOOOOO 


oooooooo 


ooo 


ooaoaoooooooQ 




T" 


^ 






© • 






-r" 


© 


^_ 






i 


&o. - 


• ••£ • 














© 






© 








© 






































o ■ 




. . OB • 














© . . 










© 




-U 




£3 


p 








SB 

O h 








































• b\*P • 




«« 




























© • 








"O • © 














fe ^ 
























e3 




f£ 


£ 


CS 


53 


fc^ 






8>>g 






© 


£ 


' 
© 


o 

- 

9 
3Q 

o 

bo 

a 


t^a P ' 
o © 

ao-a P 


B 

P 




.© 

© . 
bO 

S 

s 


03 

o 


O 
O 


© 

3 


^ rt ^ 
p>© 

©~*i 

3 ©J 

— ^ ** 
2 a ?? 




©.rt 


p 
© 

p 
o 

P3 


C3 
B 

o 


s 

pg 

P an 


"E=2r~ B 
B ■§ £ 09 


o 
bo 

P 


be 


boP~ 

s © 

. r 02 

©* © 
W =0 


© 

bO 

B 


B 

bO 


oa 


^•5-S 


o 


^ B 

bO_ 
a e3 


bO 

p' 


© 

bO 


DO 


g£§! 


P 


^) 


3 


£ 


o3 

CO 


> g p 
ISO 


© 


ig 5 


a 


3 


B 


&-! 


r-'r-iO 


1=5 


H 


Q 


~ 


— 


CC 


M ' — j 


— 


K 


















N 










■> 



i?'ri" " " ' ri" ftXI ' •'•'*■ 1 * S ' ' ? : • ' ■ « • • * 

.2.2 2sf =2=2=2=2 P £ ^ 2 m" * - « «6 r^flT 

■S-Slffl^l ISSSS^^a aaa-s'llS I §1 l|Itl§^^|IP 

pSa§e2§ ©i=^^11^^^^p SHa^-H^I ^^© |^^i"i533lEi.§ 

,2 .2 c; * >>£ -2 oa^oo©©©©©©!^ t^^t^^Sci® oso© r cj^oggsg^^ ^^ g 

• • -|| jrf ;• • • -g ■ ■ : rf - • 

S^S'p^ll .|Ssl§i-§|S|S 2S©d>^| h3§ ^ip.&g^l^^So 

^.2©©o© -3- -^ - = = p ©s © © © © .-« .^ .r2 -.2 ©a 3.2^5 -©5p 

i-sBPhMCJi-sPh W<1000co^^Ph<10 PhOOWSH^ K^ t-j'WOpH^O^^oteO^^ 



2-10 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



m 






i = 

<1 



2 o 5 
q 



B3BSB3B3SH 




tr v. be bC ho fcC.S ,£ 

= = .2 .5 .2 .9 "S « 



- # c;ou 



^ 
£ 



xaoyaaop,^.; 



ft s 






CO p^^i CZ5 : 



O 
| to 












- aS 



- 3 



frM^ 



rt-T 



2~ — 

- u ■-> 

a © o 

S o o - 

fh q q q q .— 

OOOO OOO"' 

fc fc o o o w x fc : 



: CQ — -S S ? oTaT 



"5 
©•••■• 

S 

• U ' ' ' § " «r '. ' ' 'B la g § « g" " 1 1 1 1 ' 

si la ;ai •||§^|iis||i|il ii:ii|isi^i 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



241 



03 


03 03 03 

be be bo 
^H J-i U 
o3 c3 o3 
,3,3.3 


,3 
O 
- 
03 


,3.3,3 
© © © 

03 c3 a 
03 03 03 


o 


333 
o © o 


s 


ooo 



P^£EI^IX4^^ 



!<M<Mr 



000.3 



I r-t •-> «* < 



1C lOOOOO 



„ „ „ddd . .. 

ddd f ? ? d d d d 73 d d 
Q30303?C?£t-C©©©©©03© 

.2 .2 .2 ^ 2 ^ .2 2 .2 ° 2 .2 .2 
*£ "> '£ •§ -g •§ ■> > ■> 'p ■£ '> '> 

©©©•d-d-dooooooo 



d d d d d JLd d d d 

03 03 03 © 03 =CC 
OOUOO 03 « © 



- « .. .53 d d 
dddd 9 <° & 



© © © © c3 c3 o3 
© © © 



d .. „ 

d d d d d d <p.d d 

03©03©©© Q *- 1 ©03 

"© © u © © © S © © 



aaaflflsflflfla 3333 

ooooojoooo o o © o "r •« -d ©o©©©©-r©© 

QOQOOfiQOQO OOOOQPS OOOOOOQOQ 



.3 




c3 - 




u u 




©^ 




...d 


>. 


^2 

e3d 


03 

d 


PM 


3 


J»3 


33 


'S.S 


q 




© 


^ 


93 

s 


a-o 


© i-i 

bC© 


bfl 


5* 

53 Q3 


be 


3 PI 




3 £ 


03 


HO B 



>,b£ 

o3 a 
"ft? 



© 

Hi- 



bcS bcS 2 £c© bo 
.5 bo.2 bo H ■« r-i .g 
3 §3 o«§ a 3 

3 an 3 aoS 2 O 3 



i° 


0D P-,3 


•d „ 


d 


*$ 




- 


&Sg> 


■*S 


o 


a a o 

,rt O to 

d h 


03" a .2 
0D ©~ 

a ._•£ 



© 03 OS 

^1 HIS 

CO Q3 

ri © r- © 



3 „ 3 © tCg ^ 

3-2.2.5 2 a 

s g ° 3 S fe § 
©ir-a oB B 
coOco B B 



bf- 



be 



Pi H ar 

3,3 3 1? 

B B 



aT "d" 
d co a 
£ d g 

3 — co 

s g.2 

be ^2 
3 a be 



B co BE 



sssssss 



Is 
Is 

s © 

^02 



- „© 03 
fl fl to ai 

2 ° « OS- 
'S to .a 3 
o o o © 
MfflOO 



-03 



3 3 3 
3 3 3 
«1«M 



C?Cfl 

.2.2© 

acto 

3 3 © 



"rTf^cS e3 if S .^h O.^ 



8 8 J 

©©s©©©s «.3 

dd s aDooaj 2 a a?; 

,«.H 2t»ai»0 Sao 

t> k 5 o3 03 o3d 33^3 

00?333 ^ cocoa 
O © © 



cococo££cuoj;^;.r.=; OOgBflflH cocoa 
0©0 > T^>>o3.Se3 tHrHj:oO©« ©©3 



•a a 

,3hS . 

d^3 

3 OB CO 

3 3 O 

S2WP 



3^ 



© R l-5 

•< o a. 



i - .3 ~2' 

: s^b 3 © 
' opdsa ® 

■ * Q O A & 

! A fe 2B g 



© 

3"S 

©Q 

- - 

a 



3; 

be^s 
i fe a 



1 1 

I 03 © 



3 Hi 



- ■ 1 -r : ~ •© • • -^ -,© 

I- aa£I!-f!! b i lira 111 &|II 



242 



FISH AND GAME, 



[Dec. 





© 6 




r/j<jy 


« 


—~ 




a a 


i 


- 03 




— 









<£r<fy 






~ 


lOiO 






<■!.• 


%?<& 



1 I 

< o 



:o ooooo. 



OlO CiOiOOO 



<& fe 



- - „..^.. ......... „*•© ....... . 

P P P P P ° P "^ ^ "^ "§ ° ~ ^ .2 p P P P ^ ° .2 .° .° .° 

■> *£ '> *> '£ "p '£ > *> "> "> '> '> '£ "> '£ '£ '£ > -g '£ > T> > '£ 

a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aajsaaaaa 

OO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OO-r ooooo 

OO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO ooftooooo 








a ^ft 


t>> 




« 


-C • 


O ft 02 


e3 




a 


-o ^' > 


ft 




o 


2> 


out 1 

ord's 
Lord 


'd 

J-l 
O 


£ 


K 


5 ^ fl ' 


ft 


fn 


q 


02 O 


vggsg 


a 
c 


4= 




a o 


be,0 bebeS 


be 


fl 


B 


be a 
a a 


.s bo.s .2 a 


.9 


be 





23 o 


a O Pi C 63 


a 




3 




sSfssp, 


a 




W KM 


W 



a a a a 

a a a a „ _ - 

O O O O c rt g «.... 

OOOOooo - - * 

<a<a«ta<a > t> > t> £ £ 5 bebe^^ oo,S^2o 

SS ££££££ = S3 S So* £S3« ££§£§88 



43 a h a ?h ' (J 

Is 1 a iff « 



o o 



»® 2 <o 



\A * 



g 03 b 



doPO 



- be 

- .« c 5 a = § 

s|o§>§ 
so ba-^ 5 a 



H" 



°-a h ft -~ ,_: - ^ << ^-a fe s's^ s » a> 
,2 o3 ,a • a , j" • ." «■" o ^ Op ^o 
SH 0<1^0^KW<KlSH^OOfe2H 



ills"! "I 

^ a 



PH 9^ a; 



Siofe«o 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 243 



[F.] 
Legislation. 



Acts of 1905. 
[Chapter 73.] 

An Act to extend the close season on pheasants. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section sixteen of chapter ninety-two of the Revised 
Laws is hereby amended by striking out in the first and second lines 
the words " thirteenth day of February in the year nineteen hundred 
and five ", and inserting in place thereof the words : — open season for 
partridge and quail in the year nineteen hundred and seven, — so as to 
read as follows : — Section 16. Whoever, prior to the open season for 
partridge and quail in the year nineteen hundred and seven, takes, kills 
or has in possession, except for the purpose of propagation, a Mon- 
golian, English or golden pheasant shall be punished by a fine of twenty 
dollars for each bird. 

Section 2. This act shall*take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
February 14, 1905. 

[Chapter 81.] 

An Act relative to taking shiners for bait in certain waters. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section eighty-one of chapter ninety-one of the Revised 
Laws, as amended by section one of chapter one hundred and sixteen 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, is hereby further 
amended by inserting after the word " during ", in the first line, the 
words : — October and, — by striking out the words " and December ", 
in the first and second lines ; and by inserting after the word " rivers ", 
in the fourth line, the words : — and their tributaries, - — so as to read 
as follows : — Section 81. During October and November any person 
may, for the purpose of taking shiners for bait, draw a net or seine at 
any point in the Merrimac and Connecticut rivers and their tributaries, 
except within four hundred yards of any fishway; and if any other fish 
so caught are immediately returned alive to the waters from which they 
were taken, the penalties prescribed in sections forty-six, forty-seven, 
forty-nine, seventy-eight and seventy-nine shall not apply to the taking 
of such fish. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
February 17, 1905. 



244 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[Chapter 122.] 

An Act to provide further for the protection of quail on the 
island of nantucket. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful to take, kill or have in possession 
any quail on the island of Nantucket at any time within three years 
after the first day of March in the year nineteen hundred and five. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of twenty dollars for every quail taken, killed or had in 
possession contrary to the provisions hereof. [Approved, March 2, 1905. 



[Chapter 190.] 
An Act relative to the taking and sale of small trout. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section sixty-four of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws, as 
amended by section eleven of chapter five hundred .and forty-four of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and two, is hereby further 
amended by striking out the words " the county of Berkshire nor to ", 
in the eighth line, so as to read as follows : — Section 64. Whoever at 
any time takes, catches or has in possession, or whoever sells or offers 
or exposes for sale in this Commonwealth, trout less than six inches in 
length shall forfeit ten dollars for each s^uch trout taken, caught, held 
in possession, sold or offered or exposed for sale; but the provisions of 
this section shall not affect the provisions of section twenty-eight, nor 
shall they apply to a person who is engaged in breeding or rearing trout 
or to any person who, upon taking such trout, immediately returns it 
alive to the water from which it was taken. [Approved March 17, 1905. 



[Chapter 245.] 
An Act relative to the protection of deer from dogs. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws, as amended by section one 
of chapter one hundred and fifty-four of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and two, is hereby further amended by striking out section 
eighteen and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 18. The 
owner or keeper of a dog found chasing or hunting deer at any time 
may be punished by a fine of not more than twenty dollars. Any of the 
commissioners on fisheries and game, or their deputies, or any member 
of the district police, or any officer qualified to serve criminal process, 
may kill a dog found chasing or hunting deer at any time if the dog is 
used for such purpose with the knowledge and consent of such owner 
or keeper, and the owner or keeper of such dog shall be punished by a 
fine of fifty dollars. If a dog has twice been found chasing or hunting 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 245 

deer, and if the owner or keeper of the dog has so been notified on each 
occasion by the commissioners on fisheries and .game, it shall be a pre- 
sumption of law, if the same dog is thereafter found chasing or hunting 
deer, that such chasing or hunting was with the knowledge and consent 
of the said owner or keeper, unless the contrary is shown by evidence. 
[Approved March 30, 1905. 



[Chapter 273.] 

An Act to regulate the shooting of wild ducks and geese in 
certain waters of the county of dukes county. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful in the county of Dukes County for 
any person to shoot or kill wild ducks or geese in any fresh water pond 
from a boat, raft or other device located at a greater distance than fifty 
yards from the shore. 

Section 2. Any person violating any provision of this act shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than five nor more than two hundred and 
fifty dollars. [Approved April 7, 1905. 



[Chapter 281.] 

An Act relative to the taking of menhaden for bait in the waters 
of edgartown and cottage city. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one hundred and twenty-seven of chapter ninety- 
one of the Revised Laws is hereby amended by adding at the end thereof 
the words : — nor shall they prevent the inhabitants of said towns from 
taking menhaden for bait for their own use in the waters of their 
respective towns in the months of July, August, September and October, 
— so as to read as follows : — Section 127. Whoever sets or uses or 
aids in setting or using any seine, mesh net or gill net for the purpose 
of catching any other fish than mackerel, or by such means catches 
and retains any other fish than mackerel, in the waters of the towns 
of Edgartown and Cottage City within three miles from the shores 
thereof, may, upon view of the offence by any of the commissioners 
on fisheries and game or their deputies, or any officer qualified to serve 
criminal process or member of the district police, be arrested without 
warrant and prosecuted by him; and on conviction thereof shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars, and, in the 
discretion of the court, shall forfeit to the Commonwealth all fish taken 
in said nets. The provisions of this section shall not affect the rights 
of any persons mentioned in section twenty-three or the corporate rights 
of any fishing company; nor shall they prevent the inhabitants of said 
towns from taking menhaden for bait for their own use in the waters of 
their respective towns in the months of July, August, September and 
October. 



246 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Section - 2. This act shall not restrict or affect the authority granted 
by chapter three hundred and one of the acts of the year nineteen hun- 
dred and four to the selectmen of the town of Edgartown to issue certain 
permits for the taking of bait. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 13, 1905. 



[Chapter 317.] 



An Act to provide for granting to unnaturalized, foreign born 
persons licenses to hunt. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any unnaturalized, foreign born 
person to hunt anywhere within the limits of the Commonwealth, unless 
he is licensed so to do as hereinafter provided. 

Section 2. City and town clerks shall, upon the application of any 
unnaturalized, foreign born person who is a resident of the city or town 
in which the application is made, and upon the payment of a fee of 
fifteen dollars, issue to such person a license, upon a form to be supplied 
by the commissioners on fisheries and game, bearing the name, age and 
place of residence of the licensee, with a description of him, as near as 
may be, and authorizing the said licensee to hunt and to kill game on 
any lands in which such hunting or killing is not forbidden by law or 
by written or printed notices posted thereon by the owner, lessee or 
occupant thereof. Such license shall be good only for that period of 
the year when game may lawfully be killed, and shall authorize the 
hunting or killing of game only under such restrictions and for such 
purposes as are imposed or authorized by law. The said license shall 
not be transferable, and shall be exhibited upon demand to any of the 
commissioners on fisheries and game or their deputies, and to any game 
warden or deputy game warden, and to any sheriff, constable, police 
officer or other officer qualified to serve process. The fees received for 
the said licenses shall annually be paid into the treasury of the Common- 
wealth. 

Section 3. A license granted hereunder shall be revoked by the city 
or town clerk issuing the same in case the licensee is convicted of a 
violation of the fish and game laws, or of hunting upon Sunday in viola- 
tion of law. 

Section 4. It shall be the duty of the commissioners on fisheries and 
game, upon request by any city or town clerk, to supply such clerk with 
license forms prepared in accordance with the provisions of this act. 

Section 5. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars. 
[Approved April 21, 1905. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 247 



[Chapter 406.] 
An Act relative to the close season for quail. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section three of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter one hundred and sixty-five of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and two, is hereby further amended by striking out the word 
" October ", in the third line, and inserting in place thereof the word : 
— November, — and by adding at the end of the section the words : — 
provided, however, that any person, firm or corporation holding a per- 
mit from the commissioners on fisheries and game may sell or have in 
possession live quail for purposes of propagation within the Common- 
wealth, — so as to read as follows : — Section 3. Whoever takes, kills 
or has in possession, or buys, sells or offers for sale a quail, between the 
first day of December and the first day of November following, or, in 
the county of Bristol, between the fifteenth day of December and the 
first day of November following, whenever or wherever such bird may 
have been taken or killed, shall be punished by a fine of twenty dollars 
for each bird; but a person, firm or corporation dealing in game or 
engaged in the cold storage business may buy, sell or have in possession, 
and a person may buy from such person, firm or corporation, and have 
in possession if so bought, quail from the first day of December to the 
first day of May, except that, in the county of Bristol, this period shall 
be from the fifteenth day of December to the first day of May, if such 
quail were not taken or killed in this Commonwealth contrary to the 
provisions of this chapter; and a person, firm or corporation dealing in 
game or engaged in the cold storage business may have quail in posses- 
sion on cold storage at any season, if such quail were not taken or killed 
in this Commonwealth contrary to the provisions of this chapter: pro- 
vided, hoivever, that any person, firm or corporation holding a permit 
from the commissioners on fisheries and game may sell or have in 
possession live quail for purposes of propagation within the Common- 
wealth. [Approved May 17, 1905. 



[Chapter 407.] 

An Act relative to the authority of the commissioners on fish- 
eries AND GAME. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section three of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by inserting before the word " Each ", in the first line, the 
words : — The commissioners are empowered to appoint deputies, and, 
— so as to read as follows : — Section 3. The commissioners are 
empowered to appoint deputies, and each of the commissioners, the 
deputies of the commissioners or members of the district police may 
enforce the laws regulating fisheries; and may seize and remove, sum- 
marily if need be, all illegal obstructions to the passage of migratory 
fish except dams, mills or machinery, at the expense of the persons 
using or maintaining the same. [Approved May 17, 1905. 



248 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 



[Chapter 414.] 

An Act relative to shore, marsh and beach birds. 
Be it enacted, etc., as folloios: 

Section five of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter one hundred and sixty-two of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and three, is hereby further amended by striking out the word 
" or ", in the fourth line, and inserting in place thereof the words : — 
a Bartramian sandpiper, also called upland plover, before the fifteenth 
day of July in the year nineteen hundred and ten, — and by inserting 
after the word " pigeon ", in the fifth line, the words : — a Carolina or 
mourning dove, — so as to read as follows : — Section 5. Whoever takes 
or kills a plover, snipe, sandpiper, rail or any of the so-called shore, 
marsh or beach birds between the first day of March and the fifteenth 
day of July, a Bartramian sandpiper, also called upland plover, before 
the fifteenth day of July in the year nineteen hundred and ten, a wild 
or passenger pigeon, a Carolina or mourning dove, a gull or tern at any 
time, shall be punished by a fine of ten dollars for every bird so taken 
or killed; but the provisions of this section shall not apply to the great 
American herring gull nor to the great black-backed gull between the 
first day of November and the first day of May following. [Approved 
May 17, 1905. 

[Chapter 417.] 
An Act relative to the taking and catching of pickerel. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. A town may by a by-law duly enacted and approved as 
required by law forbid the taking or catching of pickerel in any river, 
stream or pond therein in any other manner than by naturally or arti- 
ficially baited hook and hand line, and may provide a suitable penalty 
for the violation of such by-law. 

Section 2. Section sixty-eight of chapter ninety-one of the Revised 
Laws, and chapter three hundred and sixty-four of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and four, are hereby repealed. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
May 18, 1905. 

[Chapter 419.] 
An Act to provide for the protection of deer. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section seventeen of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws, as 
amended by chapter two hundred and forty-five of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and three, is hereby further amended by striking out 
the section and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 17. 
Whoever, before the first day of November in the year nineteen hun- 
dred and eight, hunts, chases, wounds, injures or kills a deer, or sells 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 249 

or offers for sale or has in his possession for the purpose of sale, a deer 
captured or killed in Massachusetts, except his own tame deer kept on 
his own grounds, shall forfeit one hundred dollars for each offence : 
provided, however, that nothing contained herein shall prevent the 
owner or occupant of cultivated land from driving a deer therefrom; 
but dogs shall not be used for this purpose, nor shall the deer be 
wounded or injured. The possession of a deer killed in Massachusetts 
shall be prima facie evidence that the person having possession has vio- 
lated some of the provisions of this section. [Approved May 18, 1905. 



[Chapter 429.] 



An Act relative to fishing for pickerel in lake quinsigamond and 

its tributaries. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and fifty-eight of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and one is hereby amended by 
inserting after the word " fish ", in the second line, the words : — except 
for pickerel, — and by inserting after the word " fish ", in the eleventh 
line, the words : — except pickerel, — so as to read as follows : — Section 
1. For a period of five years after the passage of this act no person 
shall fish, except for pickerel, in any manner whatsoever between the 
first day of September and the first day of April in each year in Lake 
Quinsigamond hi the county of Worcester, or in its tributaries, above 
what is known as the Stringer dam, including Full Moon cove, Jordan 
pond and Newton pond commonly called Mud pond; and between the 
first day of April and the first day of September in each year during 
said period no person shall take from said lake or its tributaries as 
aforesaid any fish, except pickerel, in any manner except with a single 
hook and either a hand line or a line attached to a rod or pole held by 
hand, with bait, artificial fly or spoon. 

Section 2. Section two of said chapter is hereby amended by insert- 
ing after the word " fish ", in the first line, the words : — except pick- 
erel, — so as to read as follows : — Section 2. No person shall take 
any fish, except pickerel, from said lake or its tributaries as aforesaid 
during said period of five years for the purpose of sale, trade or barter. 
[Approved May 22, 1905. 



Resolves of 1905. 

[Chapter 12.] 

Resolve to authorize the collection of statistics in regard to 
damage caused to food fish by predatory fish. 

Whereas, there is pending in congress a bill to provide for the exter- 
mination of the dog-fish and other predatory fish; and 

Whereas, to secure favorable action upon said bill, it is necessary that 
evidence of the damage caused by these fish be prepared and presented 
in proper form; 



250 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That there be allowed and paid out of 
the treasury of the Commonwealth a sum not exceeding two thousand 
dollars, to be expended under the direction of the commissioners on 
fisheries and game, for the purpose of collecting, preparing and printing 
evidence and statistics in regard to the damage caused to the fishing 
industry of this state by dog-fish, so-called, and by other fish which 
prey upon food fish. [Approved February 27, 1905. 



[Chapter 49.] 

Resolve to provide for an investigation and report by the com- 
missioners ON FISHERIES AND GAME AS TO SCALLOPS. 
Resolved, That the commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized and directed to investigate and report as to the time or times 
during each year when scallops propagate and as to the natural limit 
of their life, together with any other facts regarding scallops which the 
commissioners may think desirable to include in their investigation and 
report. Said commissioners may expend for the purposes of this resolve 
a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars. [Approved April 13, 1905. 



[Chapter 54.] 

Resolve to authorize and direct the commissioners on fisheries 
and game to take control of the powder hole, so-called, at 
monomoy point, in the town of chatham, for the propagation 
of lobsters. 

Resolved, That the commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized to take full control of the Powder Hole, so-called, at Mon- 
omoy Point, in the town of Chatham, for the purpose of propagating 
lobsters, to clean out and screen said Powder Hole, and to prohibit fish- 
ing or the taking of fish therein, and to impound egg-bearing lobsters 
therein and to rear lobster fry. The manner of the taking of said 
Powder Hole and the determination of the damages sustained thereby, 
or by any of the doings of the commissioners under the provisions of 
this resolve, shall be the same as is provided by sections seven and eight 
of chapter four hundred and seven of the acts of the year eighteen hun- 
dred and ninety-three relative to the taking of land by the metropolitan 
park commission; and said commissioners shall, for the purposes of this 
resolve, have all the powers conferred upon the metropolitan park com- 
mission by said sections. The damages when finally determined shall 
be paid from the treasury of the Commonwealth to the person or per- 
sons entitled thereto. A sum not exceeding one thousand dollars may 
be expended in carrying out the provisions of this resolve. [Approved 
April 21, 1905. 



1905.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 251 



[Chapter 73.] 

Resolve to provide for an investigation and report by the commis- 
sioners ON FISHERIES AND GAME AS TO THE PROPAGATION OF OYSTERS. 

Resolved, That the commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized and directed to make a biological investigation and report as 
to the best methods, conditions and localities for the propagation of 
oysters under the conditions found in Massachusetts waters. The com- 
missioners may expend for the purposes of this resolve a sum not exceed- 
ing five hundred dollars a year for a period of three years. [Approved 
May 12, 1905. 



[Chapter 78.] 

Resolve to provide for an investigation and report by the com- 
missioners ON FISHERIES and game as to the propagation of 

QUAHAUGS. 

Resolved, That the commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized and directed to make a biological investigation and report 
as to the best methods, conditions and localities for the propagation of 
quahaugs. The commissioners may expend for the purposes of this 
resolve a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars a year for a period of 
three years. [Approved May 17, 1905. 



[Chapter 93.] 

Resolve to provide for a survey by the commissioners on fisheries 
and game of areas available for the propagation of clams. 
Resolved, That the commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized and directed to investigate and determine what areas or 
localities are, in their opinion, suitable and available for the propagation 
of clams, and to make a biological survey of such areas. Said commis- 
sioners may expend for the purposes of this resolve a sum not exceeding 
five hundred dollars a year for a period of three years. [Approved 
May 24, 1905. 






252 



FISH AM) GAMK. 



[Dec. 



[G.] 
Statistics. 



The following tables show the statistics of the shore, net 
and lobster fisheries of Massachusetts as reported to the com- 
mission for the year ending Oct. 1, 1905. 

The statistics are divided into three tables, specifying: (1) 
the number of men employed; (2) the number and value of 
boats, pound and trap nets, seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 
lobster pots and shore property; and (3) the number in pounds 
and value of the different species of fish. As compared with 
the year 1904, there is a falling off of 30 men, principally in 
Essex, Barnstable and Suffolk counties. The number of boats, 
seines, gill nets, and particularly lobster pots, show a falling 
off in number but a total increased value of over $8,000 ; and 
the total of 17,600,574 pounds of the different species of fish 
shows a decrease over 1904 of 750,639 pounds, with a de- 
crease in value of $7,479.86. 



Table No. 1. — Showing, by Counties, the Number of Men employed in the 
Shore, Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1905. 



Counties. 


Number. 


Counties. 


Number. 


Essex, 

Suffolk, 

Norfolk 


106 

18 

16 

114 

316 


Nantucket 

Dukes 

Bristol, 

Total, 


30 
96 

78 


Plymouth, 

Barnstable, 


774 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



253 



Table No. 2. — Showing, by Counties, the Apparatus employed in the 
Shore, Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1905. 



DESIGNATION. 


Essex. 


Suffolk. 


Norfolk. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Boats, 


140 


$20,814 00 


34 


$3,034 00 


24 


$3,571 00 


Pound nets and trap nets, 


5 


7,800 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 


172 


5,119 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lobster pots, .... 


2,700 


2,895 75 


1,960 


2,362 50 


1,713 


2,114 00 


Shore property and accessory 
apparatus 


- 


2,030 30 


- 


160 00 


- 


298 75 


Totals, .... 


- 


$38,659 05 


- 


$5,556 50 


- 


$5,983 75 



DESIGNATION. 


Plymouth. 


Barnstable. 


Nantucket. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Boats 

Pound nets and trap nets, 

Seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 

Lobster pots, .... 

Shore property and accessory 
apparatus 


163 

3 

4 

4,705 


$11,907 50 

3,300 00 

35 00 

6,924 00 

2,511 00 

$24,677 50 


173 

92 

1,135 

1,383 


$52,368 00 

82,085 00 

8,122 00 

1,376 25 

15,463 25 


35 
3 

276 
230 


$8,574 50 

3,000 00 

4,580 00 

230 00 

830 00 


Totals, 


- 


$159,414 50 


- 


$17,214 50 



DESIGNATION. 



Boats 

Pound nets and trap nets, 

Seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 

Lobster pots, . 

Shore property and accessory 
apparatus, . . . . 

Totals 



Dukes. 



Number. Value 



123 

44 

3 



$12,895 00 

20,200 00 

68 00 

1,144 50 

1,471 25 
$35,778 75 



Bristol. 



Number. Value. 



33 

1 

16 

200 



$2,110 00 

40 00 

1,380 00 

225 00 

1,687 50 



$5,442 50 



Totals. 



Number. Value 



725 

148 

1,606 

13,829 



$115,274 00 
116,425 00 
19,304 00 
17,272 00 

24,452 05 



$292,727 05 



254 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Table No. 3. — Showing, by Counties and Species, the Yield of the Shore 
Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1905. 







Essex. 


Suffolk. 


Norfolk. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alewives, 


70,165 


$919 30 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Bluefish, . 




468 


31 30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Flounders anc 


flatfish, 


100 


3 00 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mackerel, 




56,344 


3,455 03 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Menhaden, 




48,105 


387 86 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Pollock, . 




410,349 


3,720 07 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Salmon, . 




240 


17 28 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Scup, 




1,647 


69 76 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Sea bass, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Sea herring, 




1,167,689 


12,866 93 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Shad, 




15,637 


356 46 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Squeteague, 




59,708 


1,916 65 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Striped bass, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Squid, 




40,355 


429 30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Tautog, . 




305 


15 15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Other edible 


5 r bait 














species, . 




911,873 


9,443 66 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Refuse fish, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Oil, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lobsters, . 




128,757 


17,264 99 


76,785 


$9,191 90 


64,413 


$9,136 28 


Totals, 


2,911,742 


$50,896 74 


76,785 


$9,191 90 


64,413 


$9,136 28 







Plymouth. 


Barnstable. 


Nantucket. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alewives, 




_ 


351,240 


$5,724 67 


4,000 


$40 00 


Bluefish, . 




- 


- 


8,860 


539 90 


22,135 


1,906 94 


Flounders anc 


I flatfish, 


- 


- 


1,015,548 


23,061 06 


1,900 


57 00 


Mackerel, 




4,011 


$248 45 


451,643 


24,007 23 


35,365 


4,171 00 


Menhaden, 




- 


- 


92,900 


909 46 


- 


- 


Pollock, . 




- 


- 


2,867,210 


21,811 04 


246,890 


4,937 80 


Salmon, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Scup, 




- 


- 


33,325 


641 34 


53,612 


1,394 00 


Sea bass, . 




- 


- 


592 


40 42 


- 


- 


Sea herring, 




35,400 


360 00 


743,012 


7,861 49 


- 


- 


Shad, 




- 


- 


63,753 


1,926 57 


5,950 


41S 00 


Squeteague, 




32,387 


346 87 


2,152,873 


30,254 42 


107,474 


3,229 48 


Striped bass, 




- 


- 


3,497 


479 86 


- 


- 


Squid, 




- 


- 


456,326 


4,179 00 


240 


2 50 


Tautog, . 




1,965 


27 65 


15,257 


347 77 


- 


- 


Other edible 


or bait 














species, 




10,220 


102 00 


2,584,900 


17,640 44 


17,450 


853 00 


Refuse fish, 




- 


- 


708,104 


229 35 


700 


2 00 


Oil, . . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lobsters, 


• 


280,629 


32,352 43 


40,884 


5,932 86 


5,462 


823 25 


Totals, 


364,612 


$33,437 40 


11,589,924 


$145,5S6 88 


501,178 


$17,834 97 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



255 



Table 3. — Yield of the Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries — Concluded. 







Dukes. 


Bristol. 


Total for State. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alewives, 


18,200 


$172 00 


433,450 


$4,925 17 


877,055 


$11,781 14 


Blueflsh, . 




485 


42 95 


- 


- 


31,948 


2,521 09 


Flounders and 


flatfish, 


106,193 


3,260 96 


455 


19 64 


1,124,196 


26,401 66 


Mackerel, 




13,087 


999 10 


- 


- 


560,450 


32,880 81 


Menhaden, 




11,075 


182 25 


- 


- 


152,080 


1,479 57 


Pollock, . 




45,760 


920 20 


- 


- 


3,570,209 


31,389 11 


Salmon, . 




1,000 


30 00 


- 


- 


1,240 


47 28 


Scup, 




622,159 


12,918 62 


216 


6 48 


710,959 


15,030 20 


Sea bass, . 




8,358 


497 19 


- 


- 


8,950 


537 61 


Sea herring, 




100 


1 00 


5,000 


50 00 


1,951,201 


21,139 42 


Shad, 




631 


55 15 


29,800 


1,940 80 


115,771 


4,696 98 


Squeteague, 




1,221,993 


38,676 22 


200 


10 00 


3,574,635 


74,433 64 


Striped bass, 




- 


- 


- 


- 


3,497 


479 86 


Squid, 




17,100 


223 00 


- 


- 


514,021 


4,833 80 


Tautog, . 




7,970 


253 26 


2,560 


101 20 


28,057 


745 03 


Other edible 


or bait 














species, 




130,354 


656 32 


6,504 


381 76 


3,661,301 


29,077 18 


Refuse fish, 




6,200 


4 00 


- 


- 


715,004 


235 35 


Oil, . 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lobsters, . 




32,459 


4,750 80 


5,319 


836 45 


639,708 


80,288 96 


Totals, 


2,243,124 


$63,643 02 


483,504 


$8,271 50 


18,240,282 


$337,998 69 



256 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 









^ 




»— 


o 








X 








s 










»ft 


i-O 


eo 








•>* 




m 


o 








o 








cc 




C- 




o< 


H 


CO 




ai 




r. 




i - 


OS 








X 




1 


1 


gj 


_. 


1 


co 


' 


,_( 


C7 


EJJ 








<N 




J5 










/. 


























3 








- 


35 








X 








EC 










so 


m 
















































►> 








-r 


-r 


















ec 




C5 






CO 


l~ 






■7. 


































CO 












































e» 




m 












































en 
O 
























































































EC 


•n 


i . 


— 


£ 








= 








, . 


/. 









— 


X 


CO 






•^ 


o 


$ 


= 








-r 














7 l 






CO 


CO 






1. 


•-: 


_ 










00 








'.' 


/- 




X 




(M 
























































00 


ti 












SJEt 














CO 




m 


1.7 


EO 






m 


-I 






= 






















o 






o 








<N 


























71 




1 - 
























































Ah 






































C7 








«* 




— 






OS 


SO 
















eo 




^ 




33 








O 




-7 






— 1 


~ 


71 




i - 


i - 


C7 






iO 








OJ 






ai 


oo 




1 






X 


J7 


i 




£. 


iO 


^ 






71 




'7 




CO 








co 




'O 










— 




1 - 














71 




•-2 






75 


OI 




"O 






X_^ 




~ 




"1 


ED 


S 






'^ : 




CM 




i 






s> 


en" 




SO 


















o" 














CD" 






€6- 




































71 












































•x- 




£ 
























































































< 
- 










































! 














r. 


7> 


71 




X 


S 


— 






— 




^ 




m 


















: 


r. 




I - 


1 - 








71 




= 






















ct 


"i. 


s 




E3 


7^ 


X 










71_ 






































































~r 








— ' 






71 




I " 




CO 


















:-. 




t- 




EC 




iO 










~ 




X 






o 












cc 












i-7 










EO 




t- 






Ph 






































oT 








<* 




EC 




t - 


H 


X 


= 




7. 


CO 






r 


C7 


X 


^ 




co 








H 


— 


EC 


X 


i- 


i-H 


71 


71 


3 


"* 




X 


X 


X 






SO 










cb 


i 


_ 


— 


c 


35 


— 


1 , 


5 


t^ 


35 


EC 


SO 


— 


C7 


IC 


o 


IC 




OS 








X 


-1 


= 


/ 




X 


"* 


H 


Ct 


:r 


35 


re 


1 - 


C7 




i~ 


ct 




c 






"3 




1.7 


— 


/. 




EO 




'" 




EC ^ 






30 


c- 


£5 


7' 




t-t. 
















































> 




7J 


— 


-i 








i- 
































-i 


C7 




SO 








7i 




l- 








71 






m 








^ 




































71 




i» 








































&* 




e 






















































































Ci 
















































IC 


X 


•-i 


= 


S 


- 




35 














r- 
















1-7 




— 


1.- 


X 


C 




i-7 


■ 






C7 




71 


..-. 


c: 






o 






n 


o 








s 


71 


71 


35 


— 


71 


1- 


--J: 








C7 


c 




m 


















































c~ 




— 


3 


71 


s 




© 


X 




IC 


— 


C7 




X 




12 




o 








t~ 


CO 


1! 


in 


t- 








lO 










71 


-_r 






s 








ac 






IC 




in 




I- 








ia 




i-7 




•^ 


t- 




















































- 












so 




















so 






t- 








c 


c 


71 


X 


t- 


SI 


IC 


s 


35 


SO 


I - 


~ 


35 




s 


X 


t! 


m 


C75 








— 


1-7 


-1 


C7 


IC 


50 


EC 


— 


71 


71 


50 


— 


X 


71 


m 






£ 


00 


c 


e 


X 


X 


c 


SO 


CO 


ic 


_ 


_ 


35 


35 


CC 


71 


= 


o 


_ 


05 


" 








• ~ 


'- 


t> 


74 






c-r 


-i 


w 


i~ 






1^ 




71 






CO 






3 


ITS 


© 




» 


-* 


iq 




eo 




X 


^ 


— 






C7 


= 




so 


















































f> 


C5 




71 


«jf 


■* 


os 




■* 




IC 


BO 


s 




t- 




~. 






m 








■^ 




71 






7i 


















SO 






§5 




« 








































¥? 




s 






















































































Ci 


















































^ 


B! 




o 


c 


EC 




s 


so 










X 


71 


<=. 


— 


tr- 








71 




iO 




s 




•^ 


7j 


o 


X 


7. 


'/. 


71 


71 


~ 


3 


ies 








OS 


i- 


EC 


— 


7^ 




X 






l7 








X 


71 


O 




















































| 


8 


— 




s 










— 


71 


t - 


X 


50 




IC 


I_2 


i-7 


t~ 








£ 


■o 






s 


-M 


X 






























t> 


X 








X 




s 




X 










CM 


















































Ph 












71 












C7 














co 




CO 










































s 
































aT 










o 
































OJ 










K 
































o 










fl- 






EC 
- 


























5- 

X 

- 
Z 














of 

41 

© 

< 


00 


= 
S3 

3D 
- 
39 

= 
= 


« ,2 

o a 

es <u 


o 

— 


S3 



E 

el 
QQ 


X 


to 

00 

08 
-2 
cS 
39 
X 


=■ 

'E 

m 

sa 

S3 
X 


i: 
X 


= 

es 

E 

r- 

X 


X 

- 
© 

X 


s 

r- 

X 


if. 

3 


© 

39 
39 


© 

39 

- 





i ^ 5 

"o © "© 

H » iz: 



"8 





03 



* 5 

o o 



It 
II 

ce © 

^ 7= 



8 



1905.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



257 



I 

e 



« 



CO 
CO 

O 




© 
ill*. 

© 




cc 

S 


1 88 3 S ' 






CD 

'3 

> 


$11,190 50 

10,280 00 

1,281 55 




1 
3 


<M 1 1 1 1 




© 
a 


CD 


$77,594 50 
116,425 00 
19,304 00 
20,012 25 




CD 

a 

3 


490 

310 

148 

1,606 




O 

cs 

H 


CD 


$66,404 00 
106,145 00 
24,401 00 

18,730 70 




CD 

a 

3 


478 

398 

161 

1,897 








Men, 

Pounds and traps, 

Shore property and accessory apparatus, . . . . 





8 

6 



CO 

CO 

3 


CD 


> 


$ 

si 

CM 


u 

CD 
02 

,0. 

o 

hH 


OS 
00 
lO 
<M 


CO 

o 

Ph 


o 
in 




< 


CD 
IS 


i 


CO 

CD 
CO 

■§ 

1-3 


■ 


co 

O 

Ph 


■ 




© 
© 


CD 

IS 


CO 

C5 

00 
00 
CM 

©~ 

oo 


co 
u 

CD 

-u 

CO 

,fi 

o 

h3 


CO 
CM 


CO 

O 

Ph 


oo 

co" 




© 
© 


2 


s 

m 

CO 

CM 

o 


CO 

CD 

CO 

■§ 

hH 


s 

CM 

m 
m 


CO 

1 


C5 

eo 
in 

of 



258 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 1905, 



5 



o 

05 

N 


U 
CO 

ft 

2ft 


00 

o 
eo 


DO 

J-l 

h3 


5 

§ 


09 

O 

ft 


i 

co" 




i 

05 


ft 

* ai 

Cv> 

< 


co 

00 
CM 


S-c 
1 

i-5 


8 

<m" 


OQ 
O 
ft 


OS 

s 



05 

I 

s 

s 

OS 

s 
e 

05 






.oo 

I 
a 



i 

CO 
09 

o 


cd 


' 


$3,S93 50 

6,376 00 

478 35 


cu 

1 


fN CD O 

-* >o t-i 




C5 


CD 

"3 

> 


I I i I 


93 

1 


I i i i 


© 

o> 


S3 


$37,679 50 

17,272 00 

4,439 80 


0) 

g 


284 

415 

13,829 


05 

H 


6 

15 
> 


$41,573 00 

23,648 00 

4,918 15 


u 

1 

pi 


326 

471 

19,539 






- 
a 


a 

a 

2 
- 


- 


> 

c 
- 

= 

. a, 

c 

DC 


1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 25. 



REPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



FlSHEBIES AND GAME 



Year ending December 31, 1906. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO ., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1907. 



\ 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



CONTENTS 



Report. 

PAGE 

General considerations, 1 

Appropriations, .1 

The dogfish problem 2 

The lobster, 3 

Shellfisheries, 3 

Pinnated grouse, 3 

Pheasants, 4 

Sale of game, 4 

Deer, 4 

Trout, 5 

Marine fisheries, 5 

Protecting food fish, 5 

" Fisheries trust," 7 

Steam trawling 8 

Damage by seals, 8 

Statistics upon Boston and Gloucester fisheries, 9 

Cod 12 

Salt bank fleet stocks, 1906, 16 

Halibut, 17 

Mackerel, 17 

Haddock, . 18 

Whiting 18 

Herring, 18 

Dogfish, 19 

Dogfish eggs, 24 

Winter herring, 24 

Smelts, 27 

Squid 27 

Whaling, 27 

Shore fisheries 28 

Inspection of fish, 29 

Seaweed, 29 

Mollusk fisheries, 31 

Pollution of harbors and estuaries, and the effects upon the public health 

through the shellfisheries, 43 

Report on the shellfisheries of Massachusetts, by D. L. Belding, . . 46 
Long-necked or soft-shelled clam (Mya arenaria) , . . .47 

Methods of work, . . . . 48 

Growth experiments, 48 

Distribution, 49 

Cause of decrease, . 49 

Remedy, 49 

Natural growth per year, 49 



iv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Marine fisheries — Con. 

Mollusk fisheries— Con. 
Report on the shellfisheries of Massachusetts— Con. 
Long-necked or soft-shelled clam — Con. 

Maximum production per square foot, 50 

Results of planting on barren flats, 50 

Size of clams best for planting, 51 

Physical conditions influencing growth of clams, .... 51 

Food of clam, 51 

Spawning season, 51 

Natural enemies, . 52 

Outline of early life history, 52 

Destruction of clam larvae, ........ 53 

Scallop (Peeten irradians) , 53 

Methods of work, 54 

Growth experiments, 54 

Normal length of scallop's life, 55 

Age at spawning, 56 

Does the scallop spawn more than once ? 56 

Bearing on legislation, 56 

Spawning season in Massachusetts, 56 

Average size of scallop, 56 

Food . . 57 

Maximum size, ........... 57 

Growth, time of, . 57 

Growth line, -58 

Average size of seed scallops, 58 

Growth of seed scallops, • .58 

Range, 58 

Center of scallop industry in Massachusetts, .----. . . .59 

Natural enemies, • • .59 

Other destructive agents, 59 

Outline of early life history 59 

Spat collecting, 61 

Quahaug (Venus ?nercenaria), . . . •• 61 

Methods of work, 62 

Growth experiments, . • • .62 

Age, 63 

Conditions influencing growth, 63 

Spawning season, 64 

Natural enemies, 64 

Do quahaugs migrate ? 65 

Early life history 65 

Spat collecting, ,. .65 

Artificial culture .65 

Oyster (Ostrea virginica) , 65 

Report of J. R. Stevenson upon observations and experiments on mol- 

lusks in Essex County during 1906, 68 

Spawning season of clam, 68 

Practical methods of clam culture, 70 

Cause of enormous set upon Rowley reef, 74 

Localities where abundant set is found, 74 

Are all the flats set at same time ? . . . . • .76 

Set below low-water mark, 76 

Such areas should be reserved as "brood grounds," .... 77 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Marine fisheries — Con. 

Mollusk fisheries — Con. 
Report of J. R. Stevenson upon observations, etc. — Con. 

Observations and experiments at Plymouth during 1906, ... 78 
Localities where clams are found, . . . . . .79 

Results of planting, 80 

Abundance of clam larvae, 82 

Conditions prejudicial to clam life, ....... 83 

Rotation of life upon the tidal fiats, 87 

Suggestive methods for reclaiming unproductive flats, ... 89 

Methods of work, chronological, 90 

Summary, 94 

The lobster (Homarus Americanus) , . .96 

Supply annually decreasing, 96 

Present law responsible, 98 

Commercial value, .99 

Artificial value, 99 

Close season, 101 

Suggestion for modified close season 102 

Summary, 109 

Reports of work done in Massachusetts for maintenance of the lobster 

fishery, Ill 

Lobster meat, 114 

Inland fisheries, 116 

Stocking State waters with food fish, 116 

Number necessary for stocking, 118 

Report of the Sutton hatchery, 121 

Effect of fish upon purity of water, 124 

Brook trout fishing, 127 

Change of regulations of fishing in stocked ponds, 128 

Destruction of inland food and game fisheries by pollution of the brooks 

and rivers, 128 

The sawdust law, 130 

Decision of Supreme Court, 131 

Shad 138 

Game, 141 

Pinnated grouse or " heath hen," 141 

Rearing game birds in confinement, 145 

Pheasants, 145 

Quail, 149 

Ruffed grouse, 162 

Legislation and enforcement of laws, 167 

Registration of hunters, . 169 

Classification of arrests, 173 

Summary of arrests, 174 

Use of birds for millinery, 175 

New legislation, 177 

Courtesies, 178 

Permits for keeping egg-bearing lobsters, . 178 

Permits for taking birds and eggs 179 

Permits for taking ruffed grouse eggs, 179 

Permits for use of seine for scientific purposes, 179 

Permits for taking sand eels for bait, 179 

Permits for taking lamprey eels for scientific purposes, .... 179 

Permits to operate fyke net, 179 



vi CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Courtesies — Con. 

Permits to hold quail for purposes of propagation, 179 

Permits to hold short hass, trout and pickerel for study, .... 180 
Permits to hold quail, partridge and prairie hen for purposes of propaga- 
tion, 180 



Appendices. 

A. List of commissioners, 183 

B. Distribution of food fish, 190 

C. Distribution of pheasants 196 

D. Distribution of Belgian hares, 197 

E. Arrests and convictions, 198 

F. Legislation 207 

G. Returns from shore pound and net fisheries, 218 



Comwtmfomltlj of Utassatljitsetts. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit this their forty-first annual report. 

General Considerations. 

Appropriations. — The amounts appropriated and expended 
during eleven months of the year 1906 for the various branches 
of the work covered by your commissioners were, approximately : 
$8,500 for the benefit of the sea and shore fisheries; $6,400 for 
maintaining the inland fisheries and game, through the pur- 
chase, rearing and distribution of food fish, for the rearing and 
distribution of game birds (pheasants) and rearing ruffed grouse 
and quail; $21,000 was expended in enforcement of the fish 
and game laws, both on land and on the sea coast; $5,620 for 
salaries of the commissioners ; and $3,400 for printing, postage,, 
travelling expenses of the commissioners and for clerical and 
office expenses. The complete and exact details of all expendi- 
tures can be found in the report of the Auditor of the Common- 
wealth. 

Since last July we have occupied commodious and adequate 
quarters in room 158, State House. We have here been able 
to adjust and distribute the routine work so that more attention 
can be given to important problems which come to us for con- 
sideration. This commission has constantly before it the ideal 
that it exists not alone for the intelligent and impartial enforce- 
ment of law, but that it also has large responsibilities as the 
accredited official advisers of citizens, corporations, towns and 
cities, State legislative and executive officials who seek to main- 
tain and develop the natural resources of Massachusetts. It is 
our single purpose to so use our special training and opportuni- 
ties as to furnish thoroughly reliable, authoritative and unbiased 
opinions upon questions of past and proposed legislation, and 



2 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of State, municipal or private practices in dealing with fish, 
mollusks, birds and mammals. 

It is greatly to the credit of our State that our legislators in 
a very large degree examine proposed legislation, not solely 
from the point of view of their own constituents, hut take the 
broader view that in case of serious conflict of opinions and 
interests the well-being of the State should be the criterion, 
rather than of their particular section. Laws extending local 
exceptions are disappearing. The interest of the State as a 
whole is paramount in the correct solution of such questions as 
the lobster and the shellfisheries on the one hand, and the in- 
land fisheries and the game birds and the mammals on the 
other. The selfish desires or obstructive tactics of local politi- 
cians are giving way to a genuine appreciation of a wider civic 
duty. It is now no longer possible for a legislator to represent 
his constituents solely; he is compelled by a righteous public 
sentiment to consider also the claims of other sections than his 
own. 

If the commissioners understand their duty, it is to secure 
and furnish information and to point out advantageous methods 
and practices for dealing with fish and game problems ; to ex- 
tend the facilities and enlarge the possibilities of economic gain 
through a better understanding of nature's laws ; to advise, 
formulate and enforce statutes which promise to yield the great- 
est good to the greatest number; to act as a clearing house for 
ideas, a board of conciliation and arbitration in cases of con- 
flicting interests between fishermen, farmers, sportsmen and 
recreationists upon questions of fisheries and game ; and to guard 
against any untoward attempt of one class of the community 
to appropriate benefits to itself at the expense of any other sec- 
tion or class. It is not our purpose to seek to curtail liberties, 
but to point out additional opportunities for profit and recrea- 
tion. 

The Dogfish Problem. — This is one of the most far-reaching 
questions, involving as it does staggeringly enormous annual 
damage to our sea fisheries, even to such an extent as to dis- 
courage able seamen from following their natural vocation, and 
thereby impairing the best training school of our great navy. 
By proper exploiting, the dogfish may be so utilized as to yield 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 3 

a high-grade fertilizer for the farmers, a valuable oil for manu- 
facturers and possibly additional valuable substances. (A fur- 
ther discussion is given on p. 19.) The bill now before Con- 
gress, " to reduce the ravages of the dogfish and to create a 
market for such fish/' should be actively supported by every 
farmer and every fisherman in the United States, through their 
Congressmen. 

The Lobster. — It is the opinion of this commission that the 
lobster law should be so modified as to protect all the adults 
above the breeding age, and permit the capture of those best 
adapted for marketing without directly impairing the source of 
supply; e.g. } permit the catching only of those between 9 and 
11 inches long. This opinion is sustained by the judgment of 
eminent scientific students of biology, as well as by the experi- 
ence and common sense of practical fishermen. By so doing we 
would be applying to the lobster the same principle of action — 
viz., protection of the breeding adults — which has been proved 
by experience to be necessary in securing an adequate market 
supply of cattle and poultry, and, indeed, of all domesticated 
animals and plants. Is there any likelihood that the same prin- 
ciples may not be equally effective in preventing the commer- 
cial extinction of the lobster? Massachusetts, Rhode Island 
and New York, the great lobster markets of the United States, 
should initiate the measure. (For further details, see p. 96, 
and also our special lobster report for 1905.) 

Shell fisheries. — The work upon the problems involved in 
the solution of the question of restoring and maintaining the 
yield of scallops, clams, quahaugs and oysters has made satis- 
factory progress this year. The problems are intricate and dif- 
ficult. Their economic importance may be judged from the 
fact that our experimental beds have demonstrated that by cer- 
tain inexpensive methods a mud flat which is at present abso- 
lutely barren of clams can be made to yield 500 to 1,000 bushels 
per acre, and that we have in Massachusetts at least 50,000 
acres which are to-day producing nothing, but which, if culti- 
vated, might be reasonably expected to yield 500 bushels per 
acre, giving a probable net profit of $500 per acre. 

Pinnated Grouse. — A disastrous forest fire, coming just at 
hatching time, prevented any considerable increase in the num.- 



4 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

bers of the Martha's Vineyard colony, which are now the only 
survivors in the world of this interesting bird. We have main- 
tained a warden on the breeding grounds. We hope to devise 
some adequate method of preventing a similar disaster in the 
future. Our personal observations indicate that forest fires and 
cats have destroyed more of these birds than have the hunters. 
(For details, see p. 141.) 

Pheasants. — During the month of November, under chapter 
482, Acts of 1906, upwards of 3,000 male pheasants were killed 
by sportsmen in the State. This number is exclusive of the 
number of birds raised in private grounds to be shot by the 
owners and their friends. Sportsmen report that pheasant 
shooting is very satisfactory. 

Sale of Game. — ■ Massachusetts during the past year felt the 
wave which is sweeping over the country, and which is destined 
ultimately to entirely preclude the sale of game birds until cer- 
tain s}3ecies can become increased in numbers. The inroads 
made upon the numbers of game birds by market hunters in 
this State are still very considerable. Many persons still buy 
and sell ruffed grouse, quail and woodcock, in direct violation 
of the law, trusting to the chances of escaping detection, or 
confident that the large profits will be likely to compensate for 
the relatively small fine which the lenient court so frequently 
imposes. The fines in Massachusetts courts for violation of 
the fish and game laws appear almost insignificant when com- 
pared with those imposed for similar offences in other States. 
(See p. 175.) 

Deer. — The forecast which we made last year concerning 
the number of deer in Massachusetts aroused much interest. 
The rapid increase of deer has surpassed popular expectations. 
The damage to crops has been considerable. We know of many 
persons who have not made their claims for reimbursement, as 
the law permits, for damages done to growing crops. Some 
fictitious claims have been detected. The amount paid from 
the treasury of the Commonwealth from Nov. 30, 1905, to Nov. 
30, 1906, was $2,007. Farm and garden crops, young peach 
and apple orchards, have in some instances been totally ruined. 
Simple justice to the farmer should determine that the damage 
assessed should be based upon the probable market value of the 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 5 

mature crop. The farmer would thus receive the additional 
benefit accruing from the elimination of the risk of crop failure 
and of the cost of marketing. Correspondingly, fictitious rep- 
resentations and fraudulent claims of damage should receive 
severe treatment. 

Trout. — The actual market value of wild trout caught by 
single hook and line from State waters is not less than $66,000 
annually. Since 1869 this commission has stocked the public 
waters in all sections of the State. In many instances the 
effects have been conspicuous; in other streams and ponds the 
results have not equalled anticipations. It is not too much to 
say, however, that had no fry and fingerlings been introduced 
into these waters the fishing to-day would be greatly inferior 
to what it actually is, and the decline would be conspicuously 
felt. Even in these days, when every well-known stream is 
whipped by several fishermen on every holiday, evidences of 
good strings of trout are frequent. 

Nevertheless, it is a fact that under present conditions this 
Commonwealth is not properly stocking its brooks and ponds. 
The number of fish put out is not adequate, and the system of 
distribution to which these conditions constrain this commis- 
sion is far from economical. (A full discussion may be found 
on p. 116.) 

Marine Fisheries. 

Protecting Food Fish. — One of the most serious, and withal 
one of the most complicated and widely permeating, problems 
is that involved in the question of the degree and kind of pro- 
tection which must be extended to the marine food fishes, e.g., 
the mackerel, menhaden, herring, alewife, striped bass, bluefish 
and other important species, which are not, like the shad, known 
with certainty to be rapidly approaching commercial extinction, 
but which nevertheless appear to be in danger on account of 
the tremendous inroads made by man upon the stock of adult 
fish. 

Man has not yet ceased to regard the ocean as an inex- 
haustible mine, whence may be taken out frequently, by un- 
restrained, reckless, wasteful methods, a variety of natural 
products which can be exploited for gain. The nonmigratory 
animals and those which appear in definite closely circum- 



6 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

scribed regions at the same season each year are the first to 
show the effects. The native oyster has practically been ex- 
terminated on the northeast coast. These conditions stimulated 
men to devise plans for artificial propagation, so that now the 
oyster industries of Connecticut and Ehode Island far surpass 
the original fisheries in extent and as a source of wealth. The 
shad fishery on the Atlantic coast would also have been prob- 
ably well-nigh entirely blotted out years ago, were it not for 
the intelligent and successful efforts of the United States Bu- 
reau of Fisheries. The lobster, in the immediate regions of 
the great markets, as a result of ill-advised legislation, is prac- 
tically gone. Similarly the scallop and the clam require less 
destructive methods of marketing, and conditions so modified 
as to attract commercial exploitation. 

But most difficult of satisfactory solution are those instances 
of the migratory fish whose former abundance mislead us in 
regard to the permanence of the supply, e.g., the bluefish and 
striped sea bass. From Florida northward these fish are beset 
with a continuous series of all manner of destructive devices. 
The southern markets eagerly take the young bluefish under 
the name of " Tailors," and the young striped bass or " rock," 
so that in these cases relatively few individuals are nowadays 
left for the drailers of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, or 
for the rod and reel fishermen in the mouths of the rivers or 
on the rocks of Cuttyhunk. 

It is, too, a grave question whether we are not using the 
wrong fish for fertilizer and oil. The menhaden is one of the 
fishes best adapted to serve as food for the larger and more 
valuable food fishes, and without doubt the presence of men- 
haden attracts the larger fish. The menhaden schools seek the 
shores, particularly the bays and estuaries, to spawn and to 
feed; consequently the larger game and food fish follow, and 
there is a chance for sport, and for profit for the traps and the 
fishermen. The menhaden, therefore, must be classed as a use- 
ful fish when alive. The vast bulk of those caught are turned 
into fertilizer and oil. The fertilizer made from menhaden is 
probably of no greater value than fertilizer made from less 
valuable fish, such as the dogfish, or from fish waste. The oil 
is without question better than dogfish oil for certain special 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 7 

purposes; but dogfish oil can be substituted for many of the 
purposes for which menhaden oil is now used. If, therefore, 
the menhaden fishery could in any degree be diverted to rend- 
ering the dogfish into oil and fertilizer, there would be a tre- 
mendous benefit to the commercial fisheries, notably that for 
the mackerel, cod and other bottom fish; for the dogfish drive 
and destroy other fish, instead of attracting them as do men- 
haden. (For an opinion upon the damage done by dogfish, 
see p. 19, and also the special report of this commission for 
1905.) 

If it were jDOSsible to devise some workable scheme by which 
the menhaden steamers could collect on the fishing grounds 
the dogfish taken on the trawls, and transport them directly to 
the factories, there to be rendered into oil and fertilizer, a great 
benefit would result to all who follow the sea as fishermen, as 
well as to those whose only interest in the fisheries is as the 
consumer who pays the price. 

''Fisheries Trust." — All sorts of rumors concerning a pro- 
posed fisheries trust have been current during the autumn 
months. A similar project failed a feAv years ago. There can 
be little question that the fishing industry is to-day in a rather 
unsatisfactory condition, — unsatisfactory to the public, on ac- 
count of high prices and often unsanitary methods of handling 
the fish between the water and the consumer ; unsatisfactory to 
the fishermen, because all species of fish which come to hook 
cannot be profitably disposed of in the market; unsatisfactory 
to the owners of vessels, because vessel property is frequently 
not a paying investment, as compared with other properties, 
in these days of prosperity on land; unsatisfactory to the whole- 
salers, for the reason that expenses multiply. Even the most 
casual observer of conditions at T wharf could not fail to ob- 
serve that the facilities for handling fresh fish are grossly in- 
adequate for rapid, economical and even sanitary handling of 
the enormous quantities which may come to market. That the 
work is as well done as it is to-day speaks volumes for the 
ability, knowledge and energy of the ivholesalers at T wharf. 
A heavy catch at the present day causes low prices only on 
account of lack of proper facilities for distributing the product. 
A combination mi^ht secure better organization, wherebv better 



8 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

prices could be paid to the fishermen, with better goods and 
lower prices to the consumer and greater profits to the dealer. 
There should follow a more scientific handling of the catch, 
and thus a more careful husbanding of nature's bounty, par- 
ticularly through the more even distribution of the demands 
upon certain species of food fishes. It is suicidal to relent- 
lessly pursue certain species, such as the mackerel, both as 
young and as mature fish, and at the same time neglect to assist 
the mackerel by reducing by every known device the enemies 
(dogfish and other sharks) which specially prey upon the 
schools of fish, as well as causing great damage to the gear of 
the fishermen. Increased attention should be given also to the 
relative economic values of fish. Too frequently we commit 
the biologic blunder of using the wrong fish for fertilizer, thus 
destroying fish which naturally serve as food for more valuable 
species, and neglecting the predatory species, which prey upon 
those fish which bring the best prices in the markets. 

Steam Trawling. — As bearing upon the still unsettled ques- 
tion as to the value of the steam otter trawl method in Xorth 
American waters, the following news item, from the " Fishing 
Gazette" for Dec. 15, 1906, is of interest: — 

So far from being a flat failure, the dried-fish merchants of north- 
ern France believe that steam trawling will yet save the decaying in- 
dustry at St. Pierre, Miquelon. They are gomg to send over forty 
steam trawlers this next year to engage in the bank fishing, and 
naturally the St. Malo amateurs and the St. Pierre fishermen are 
making common cause with the Nova Scotian and Gloucester fraternity 
against the innovation, alleging disaster, etc. It is, however, very sig- 
nificant to note that in the face of so much discouragement a number 
of hard-headed practical business men think enough of the venture to 
engage in so large an expenditure. Of course the French fishermen 
get a bounty on their fish, hut that alone would not justify any such 
investment as that now contemplated. The outcome will settle the fate 
of trawling for all time hi North Atlantic waters. 

Damage by Seals. — Very little is known concerning the 
damage to our fisheries by seals. The contents of the stomachs 
of five seals, taken on Fawn Bar in the night of July 9, were 
examined by Frank Serrilla on the morning of July 10, with 
the following results : — 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

Seal No. 1. — Had 9 eels; 4 measured about 2 feet each in length, 
the other 7 measured about 20 inches each. Also had about 2 quarts 
of small herring; half of this was semi-digested into a mash. Seal 
weighed 275 pounds. 

Seal No. 2. — Had nothing but smelts, about y 2 peck, one-third of 
smelts measuring from 3 to 6 inches hi length; rest were very small, 
and, being semi-digested, impossible to count. 

Seal No. 3. — This seal weighed about 475 pounds. Had 4 large 
flounders and about V2 peck of very small herring; about two-thirds 
of it was so far digested that it was impossible to count. 

Seal No. 4. — Weighed about 300 pounds. Had large and full 
stomach of small mackerel; about two-thirds of these mackerel were 
semi-digested into a mash; each mackerel measured from 5 to 6 inches 
in length. 

Seal No. 5. — This seal was very small, weighing about 120 pounds. 
Had something in its stomach that looked like milk. 

Statistics upon Boston and, Gloucester Fisheries. — Shack 
fishing still develops, hut unfavorable weather and dogfish 
have this season been serious handicaps. 

The total weight of fish of all kinds landed at Gloucester 
was 93,816,284 pounds, as compared with 112,459,818 pounds 
in 1905. It is estimated that Gloucester vessels at other ports 
landed 34,271,000 pounds, as compared with 44,560,000 pounds 
in 1905. 

The total number of fishing craft coming to Boston in 1906 
was 385. Of this number, 270 were vessels and 115 boats of 
various kinds, — gasolene boats, launches, etc. The number of 
trips made in 1906 was 4,505, compared with 3,832 in 1905 
and 4,056 in 1904. There were 89,693,370 pounds of fresh fish 
landed in Boston during 1906, — 4,555,560 pounds less than 
during the record year of 1905. Though the largest decrease 
was in the pollock catch, a decline also appeared in the case of 
haddock, hake and cusk. There was a gain of about 2,500,000 
pounds in the cod and of about 23,000 pounds in the halibut 
catch. Pollock shows a remarkable falling off; the catch was 
less than one-half of that of 1905. This is more conspicuous, 
since it follows the year of the greatest pollock catch on record. 

The catch of Gloucester vessels is given in the following 
table : — 



10 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 







O 


© 


o 


o 


o 


© 


o 


© 


© 


© 


o 


CO 









O 


© 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 






CO 


o 


o 


o 


-r 


CM 


~r 


© 


~ 


CO 


© 


r— l 


o_ 


































in 


-f 


-f 


o 


T* 


CM 


co 


~r 


CM 


GO 


© 


t^r 


■f 


iO 




"tj 


~H 


c© 


1^ 


r-- 


-r> 


CM 


co 


"+ 1 


-r< 


1— 1 


-f 


as 


CO 






*o 


iO 


o 


CM 


CO 




C5 




CO 




h» 


oo 


o 


































o 


cm 


»— ( 


1— t 


1 - 


1 — 1 


-f 


co 






>o 


f— 1 


CO 


'* 




cm 


1 — 1 






1 — 














r-t 




«* 






























© 






























© 



















































































CO 


»o 


t^ 


>o 






















-r 


o 


CO 


as 


CM 




iS 


l 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


CM 


© 


t^ 


©. 


co, 


































i_ 


















CO 


iO 


CO 


-f" 


CM 




03 




















CM 




!>• 


CM 




n 
































o 


o 


o 


© 


^o 


o 


o 


GO 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© 






o 


to 


© 


— 




co 


CO 


!>• 


© 


© 


o 


o 


© 






o 


©„ 


[ - 


1 — 


CO 


GO 


"C 


iO 


00 


© 


~*i 


CO 


"<* 




































OS 


T— 1 


~v 




t> 


iO 




CO 


co" 


© 




co" 


© 




T3 


co 


GO 


CM 


OS 




o 


co 


»o 


»c 




«o 


~v 


■o 




3 


T— 1 


CM 


co 


CO 


iO 


CO 


CO 


-cH 


^ 


CM 


"^ 


l> 


o 


































£ 


GO 

J— 1 


T-H 


CM 


CO 


CO 


CO 


r^ 






iO 


1-1 


GO 


o" 


w 






























© 






























© 
















































































GO 


© 


t^ 

o 


© 


CM 




5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


CM 


©„ 


CM 


CO 


t^ 


































H 


















CM 


CO" 


t^ 


GO 


t>r 




c3 




















CM 




CO 


CM 




pq 
































o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


*o 


o 


© 


© 


CO 


© 






o 


o 


o 


o 




© 


© 


CO 


© 


o 


o 


GO 


© 






GO 


l> 


f 




OS 


as 


■-en 


OS 


CO 


00 


GO 


t>^ 


CO 


































CO 


t^r 


© 


CM 


o 


r^ 




Tf 


CM 


co" 


as" 


CO 




r- 




•a 


GO 


iO 


"ST 


OS 


CO 


CM 




GO 


GO 


as 




uO 


«>. 




c 

3 


CO 


o 


-f 


© 


-f 


©. 


CO 


o 


CO 




">* 


■^ 


©. 
































O 

Pi 


GO 


CO 


CO 


■*r 


•o 


"di" 


t> 






CM 


CM 


o 


o 




1— t 






»— 1 
















^H 




& 






























© 






























© 






























** 
















































OS 


as 


T* 


^J 


as 






















cO 


as 


CO 


!>• 


00 






1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


°s. 


°l 


©, 


r>^ 


CO 




O) 
















































r— I 


© 


oq 


t^r 


o 




s 






















1— 1 


CO 


CM 




pq 




























































oo 






























>-9 






























H 






























CO 






























eo 






























a 






























> 






























M 












• 


















Ed 






























s 






























a 






























o 






























p 






























o 






























J 






























O 






























Fq 





























































S3 






























u 






























H 






























< 
















3 


13 


„ 


„ 




bib 


















_D 


3 


*p 


be 


„ 


a 






• 


^ 






■ 




• 


15 






"E 


bD 

c 


CO 






r> 


o 


„ 


M 






^ 


. 


i) 


CD 


fn 


-a 






73 

o 
o 

"c8 


o 

en 

CO 


C3 
Is 


o 

o 

o3 


o 
^J 


S3 


ri4 

o 
o 


03 

o 

■4-3 


s 

CO 

p 


r e3 


CO 

p 


*3 


d 

CO 

ISJ 

p 






co 


fa 


— 


— 


s 


o 


P4 


fa 


fa 


CO 


fa 


co 


fa 



1906.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



11 



o 


GO 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


O 


o 


^ 


o 


** 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


CM 


o 


CM 


© 


5D_ 


1 o^ 


t£ 


o 


o 


o. 


o 


o 


o 


»o 


o 


<o 




























_ 


«© 


t>r 


o 


o" 


CO 


©" 


co" 


o 


o 


1-H 


CO 


t> 


CM 


CO 


0? 


o 


o 


CO 


o 


t> 


o 


o 


-*l 


t^ 






co" 


CO 




CO 




CM 




CO 


CO 


CO 

co" 
o 


CO 


o" 

CO 






co 


CM 


o 


o 




















CO 


«o 


o 


QO 
















1 


1 


1 SO 


CM 


o 


CO 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 










co" 


















© 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


CO 


o 


GO 


•<# 


r^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 




o 




CM 


CO 


I CM 


TP 


o 


o 


1 


1 


o 


o 


CO 


q 


CO 




























CO 


T* 


12 


co" 


o 


CO 






o" 


o" 


OS 


o" 


os" 


CM 


>o 




•>*■ 


rr< 








o 


o 


CO 


kO 






t>^ 


CM 




CO 








OS 


T*i 


o 


CO 


CM 






























«* 


















CM 

l— 1 










CO 


t^ 


o 


o 




















CM 




© 


tH 
















1 


1 


1 CN 


CM 


CM 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 










-rH 


















i—i 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 






o 


o 


"■* 


o 


tH 


o 


iO 


o 


o 


o 


o 






o 


o 


GO 


© 


CO 


o 


OS 


1 <o 


o. 


© 


CM 


1 


1 


©. 


o 


CM 


o 


CM 




























CO 


CO 


kO 


rri 


o 


CO 






o" 


co" 


CO 


1—1 


oT 




OS 


-* 


»o 


o 


QO 






o 


CO 


T-H 


t^ 


CO 




** 






CM 








©„ 


T* 


GO 


CM 


o 






























CO" 


















co" 
as 


CO 


CO 
CM 






o 


o 


© 


,_, 




















CM 


r» 


o 


CO 
















I 


1 


1 CM 


CM 


o 


os 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
























S-. • 


t- - 
























CD 


o 
























A 

-l-> 




















• 




• 


o . 

03 


cu 

o 
















• 


• 




3 

co 

CD 


co . 

co 

CO 
CD . 

t> 

J-l 

<a> „ 

o ^ 
o G> 

11 


S3 
03 






















o 


o ^ 






















E3 


3 O 






















o 


s ^ 
























w 4-3 




















to 




o 




3 ^ 


















~o3 






rO W 


-* a -G 


















o 




o3 




J!o 






















CO 

03 

"o3 
-fcj 

o 
H 


0J o 


1^ 

G co 
°3 a; 
"" ' co 

— CO 

03 O 
t > 


*a5 

ca 

© 


'ed fish, 
zen squid, 
gies, . 


co" 
S3 

3 


bD 
a 


t£ 


to" 

CO 

> 

% 

o 

Is 

0Q 


co 

> 
_G 

CO 


s 

p 

^H 
CO 

CO 

-a 

co 


co 

o 
o 


I s3 

i — i CO 

13 o 


3 2 g 

O fe dn 


13 


£ 


si 


CD 

PR 


p 


to 

3 









12 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Market Fishermen, Shore Boats. — The high liner this year, 
as last, is the schooner " Mary C. Santos," Capt. Manuel C. 
Santos, which stocked $36,000. 

Schooner " Mary E. Conney," Capt. Frank Conney : stock, 
twelve months, $32,389.80; crew, 14 men, share each $1,138.07. 

Schooner "Walter P. Goulart,'' Capt, Antone P. Goulart: 
stock, twelve months, $30,875.35; crew, 14 men, share - each 
$1,109.45. 

Schooner "Maud F. Silva," Capt. Manuel Silva : stock, 
twelve months, $29,867.35; crew, 14 men, share each $879.65. 

Schooner "Sadie M. Nunan," Capt, Frank Nunan: stock, 
$26,955. 

Schooner " Belbina P. Domingoes," Capt, E. Domingoes : 
stock, $25,600. 

Schooner " Benj. F. Phillips," Capt, Michael Powers: stock, 
$21,000. 

Cod. — In general, the successful cod fishery of last year 
has been maintained this season, though there was a decrease 
of about 2,500,000 pounds in fresh cod taken by the Gloucester 
fleet, and a small increase of about 260,000 pounds of salt cod, 
making a total decrease of less than 7 per cent. The high 
prices, however, made " a fair year " for the fishermen. 

The winter shore cod, haddock and pollock fisheries have 
been remarkably good for the past two years, daily catches often 
averaging 400 to 500 fish per boat. This remarkable abund- 
ance of cod on the Massachusetts shores is ascribed to the 
beneficent work of the Woods Hole and Gloucester hatcheries 
of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 

Reliable data upon the average catch per vessel is of con- 
siderable value for indicating the condition of the fisheries, 
though it is by no means a sure indication of the abundance 
or scarcity of fish, for beside this factor it includes the results 
of improved methods of catching, better-equipped vessels, time 
consumed in securing bait, etc. The average trip of the Glouces- 
ter salt bankers was 189,618 pounds for this year, as compared 
with 186,693 in 1905 and 162,000 in 1904. This is the fleet 
which it was claimed would be greatly handicapped by the 
restriction to the treaty coast of the baiting privilege in New- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

foundland. The actual results do not seem to indicate this, 
but rather that to be compelled to provide bait elsewhere has 
proved a decided advantage to the vessel owners, on account of 
the diminished risk connected with navigating the rocky shores 
of Newfoundland in search of bait, the money saved by secur- 
ing cheaper baitings, and the economy of time through the 
necessity of more careful preparations for securing bait, Of 
more serious import to the Newfoundland fishermen is the loss 
of opportunity to change Newfoundland herring and caplin into 
United States money. 

The uncertainties connected with the pure food laws has 
militated somewhat against the marketing of the usual quanti- 
ties of prepared fish; but now, with uniform legislation, the 
outlook is most satisfactory for even greater demand for these 
products. One of the leading fish merchants of Gloucester says, 
in this connection : — 

As compared, with the records of the fleets of 1904 and 1905, there 
is a falling off of over a million pounds, the cause of this being the 
smaller number of vessels making one trip instead of two in the sea- 
son. The average catch per vessel shows a large increase over 1904 
and a perceptible increase over 1905. 

No vessels were lost hi this fishery the present season, but several 
fatalities resulted from going astray from the vessels in dories and 
being capsized while hauling trawls. In the latter list several were 
lost in one day, a very rough one, while fishing off Cape North, early 
in the season. A few accidents were recorded to the vessels of the 
fleet, caused principally by going ashore in entering or leaving port 
and hi riding out heavy gales of wind on the fishing grounds. One 
vessel, the schooner " American," lost her whole string of cable, and 
had a very close call from being lost with all hands on Sable Island, 
but was saved by good seamanship and the windward-clawing abilities 
of this old-style craft. 

This is the second season since Newfoundland withdrew the license 
and bait privileges of her coast to the American fleet, the action affect- 
ing all her water front excepting the treaty coast. At the time the 
island colony took this step, Newfoundland government officials and 
many newspapers there, as well as some in this country, loudly blaz- 
oned the prophecy that this meant the downfall of and finishing blow 
to the New England salt bank codfishing industry, for the reason that 
all the American bankers, debarred from securing bait at their ports, 
would be helpless the larger part of the season to secure any elsewhere, 
and thus be obliged to give up the business. Many reciprocity shouters 



14 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and journals in this country took up the cry, and said it was another 
reason why the Bond-Hay treaty should have been enacted. All this 
was before the fleet of 1905 had fairly got started from home. 

"When the 1905 season was completed, it was found that the fleet had 
landed only 548,000 pounds less than in 1904, when the New England 
fleet had the free run of Newfoundland ports for the securing of bait. 
Not only this, but the statistics of the season showed that, from an 
average catch per trip in 1904 of 162,000 pounds, there had been an 
increase in 1905 to 186,693 pounds per vessel, it being borne in mind, 
with this fact and the amount of fish landed, that the size of the fleets 
of 1904 and 1905 were the same, thus affording a fine chance for com- 
parison. 

At the close of the 1905 season, many of the prominent and well- 
posted captains of the salt bank fleet were interviewed regarding what 
effect the closing of their ports to us for bait for our vessels had upon 
the fleet for the season then just closed. Many of them affirmed that 
it had helped rather than hindered, and others said that they were just 
as well off as ever they were before the bait-buying privilege was taken 
away. These statements they backed with facts and figures, all of 
which appeared in the " Times " at the time. 

They contended that they did not waste as much time at harbors 
and ports of Newfoundland seeking for bait, when, had they stayed 
in the fishing grounds, they might have grubbed up enough to have done 
some fishing all the time. They instanced, in contradiction to the New- 
foundland claim that she had all the bait all the time, case after case 
of vessels being from three to six weeks at her harbors and ports in 
search of bait, without being able to secure any; while vessels that had 
stayed out had picked up some, and kept on fishing. 

They claimed, also, that they were better off financially, as their 
baitings taken elsewhere had not cost nearly as much as when taken 
at Newfoundland in 1904 and previous years; and that besides this 
they had caught much of their own bait with little difficulty, up off 
newly discovered spots near Greenly Island and other places on the 
coast of Labrador on the Gulf of St. Lawrence side. Also, they claimed, 
there had been less accidents to vessels in the fleet, as they were not 
obliged to keep going from harbor to harbor in search of bait, and that 
consequently there was less liability of danger of stranding and strik- 
ing rocks, and thus perhaps losing a whole trip. 

After the season closed and the facts were given out, the supporters 
of Newfoundland's action both at home and in this country claimed 
that one year proved nothing, and said, " Wait another year." That 
other year has been finished, and its results justify the skippers of the 
fleet, it not changing their minds regarding anything they said at the 
close of the 1905 season. Many of them reaffirmed, and said they were 
now more sure they were right than ever before. They pointed to the 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

fact that they had not been bothered for bait throughout the season, 
and had even increased the average catch per trip. 

The falling off in the total catch from 1905 they ascribed to the 
almost unprecedented scarcity of fish and smaller number of vessels 
engaged. This, of course, is known to all interested in the fisheries in 
general, for the scarcity was not confined to the New England fleet, 
but extended to the fleets of the French and Nova Scotia, and even to 
the Newfoundland fleet, with its much-boasted exclusive bait advantage. 
As is well known, bad weather at the start of the season had much to 
do with the falling off of the catch. 

Bad weather and an unusually poor fishing on the Peak gave many 
of the vessels a poor start; and after fresh bait in plenty was taken at 
the Magdalene Islands, the fleet ran up against another snag in the 
shape of the hardest kind of fish weather, and absence of the usually 
big codfish schools off Cape North. These things, of themselves, account 
for the falling off in the catch of the local fleet, which afterwards did 
well in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, off the Labrador coast, near Greenly 
Island and on the Flemish Cap, but at the end of the season struck 
poor fishing again. 

Two seasons, then, have passed and figured up since Newfoundland 
deprived our vessels of the privilege of buying bait at her ports; and 
it would seem by this time that it had conclusively been proved that the 
action has in no way handicapped the American salt bank fleet, let 
alone given it the finishing blow or caused its downfall. The fleet has 
gone along about its business, and has done as well as ever and at 
smaller cost. All of which goes to show the truth of the oft-repeated 
expression, that no country or no one set of men can control the deep- 
sea fisheries. 

As far as prices go, the season did not open extra big, but gradually 
rose so that it was one of the best for a gTeat many years. The first 
fares home brought $3.25 per hundredweight for large and $2.25 for 
medium, the highest for first or spring trips being $3.30 for large and 
$3. 37% for medium. Early in September, when the single-trip ves- 
sels began to come along, the price started at $3.50 and $2.62 1 /2? but 
was soon at $4 and $3, and finally sold as high as $4.35 and $3.50. 
The vessels on second trip began to come home in the latter part of 
October, the first and most of them selling for $4.50 and $3.50, some 
of the last ones getting $4.75 and $3.75, — the highest price of the sea- 
son for salt trawl bank cod. 

The early dory handliners sold for $3.90 and $2.90 about the middle 
of September; but those coming along in November got $4.75 and $3.75 
for their trips ; and schooner " Lizzie Griffin," which was the last dory 
handliner, as well as the last vessel of the whole salt bank fleet to ar- 
rive, coming in December 3, sold to Cunningham & Thompson at the 
unprecedented price of $5.25 and $4.25 for large and medium, — the 



16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

top-notch price of the season for any kind of salt fish, and also be- 
lieved to be the highest price ever paid for a fare of salt bank codfish. 
This year we do not face such an uncertainty, and a more regular 
business is anticipated throughout the- year. It is found that fish food 
products are pure, healthy, and packed with the utmost care and neat- 
ness. Fish have been the staple food of people since the world began. 
There will always be a business in catching fish and in selling them. 
Old Jerusalem had its fish gate, and Gloucester for years to come will 
have its fish receipts gate in a beautiful harbor to receive the ocean 
catch, and its outlet by its water and iron gate in sending the products 
away. 

Salt Bank Fleet Stocks, 1906. — Schooner " Tattler/' Capt 
Alden Geel: started in April; last trip landed November 7. 
First trip, pollock, seining, $5,241.83; second trip, dory hand- 
lining, $13,168.47; total, $18,410.30. Share: first trip, $118; 
second trip, $226; for season, $344. On the second trip, the 
high-line man shared $339.26. Catch of fish: first trip, salt 
pollock, 344,000 pounds; second trip, salt cod, 315,800 pounds; 
total catch of fish for season, 659,800 pounds. This was the 
high liner, and on her second trip made the biggest stock ever 
got on a dory handline trip. 

Schooner " Aloha," Capt. John Mclnnis. First trip : stock, 
$5,264.54; share, $80.10; fish, 215,000 pounds. Second trip: 
stock, $11,665.67; share, $236.02; fish, 287,000 pounds. Sea- 
son's stock, $16,930.21. The first trip was trawling; the sec- 
ond was dory handlining. Started in February ; last fare landed 
November 17. 

The last vessel of the salt bank fleet to arrive was the schooner 
" Lizzie Griffin," of Orland, Me., a dory handliner. She came 
here from her second trip December 2, with 80,000 pounds of 
salt cod. The fare sold to Cunningham & Thompson at $5.25 
and $4.25 per hundredweight for large and medium, believed 
to be the highest price ever paid for salt cod. 

Schooner " Independence II.," Capt. Joseph V. Cusick: 
started in March; landed last fare October 24. First trip, 
261,000 pounds; second trip, 228,000 pounds; total, 489,000 
pounds. The stock was almost $16,000. Both these trips were 
salt trawling trips, and this was the best stock of the season 
for a vessel making two salt trawl hauls codfishing trips. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

Halibut. — Notably, in the case of halibut a large fleet is 
of advantage in locating the fish; and consequently the catch 
of a large fleet is proportionately greater, for the reason that 
the fish are followed more closely. From a catch of 6,000,000 
to 8,000,000 pounds of Atlantic fresh halibut the catch sank 
to less than 2,000,000 pounds ; but during the past two seasons, 
with an increased number of vessels, the average catch has 
nearly doubled this year, showing a gain of more than 1,000,000 
pounds over 1905. There are indications of a still larger fleet 
for the season of 1907. 

Mackerel. — Despite the fact that the early April rush for 
mackerel on the southern fishing grounds was the largest fleet 
ever known on this coast, comprising, as it did, over 100 sail, 
including 50 Gloucester vessels, 22 from Boston and the re- 
mainder from other ports, the catch of mackerel with one ex- 
ception is the smallest on record since the fishery began in 1814, 
when but 1,339 barrels were taken. In the palmy days of 
genuine mackerel catching, the early 80's, it exceeded 200,000 
barrels. From 1839 to 1854 mackerel were scarce, for some 
unexplained reason, but probably from natural causes, as man 
and his seine did not then, as now, figure so prominently in all 
parts of the world. The mackerel netting by the small boats 
from shore was almost a total failure. 

The first mackerel catch was landed by Capt. Sol Jacobs, at 
Norfolk, Va., on April 2. Though small, they brought a fancy 
figure in the New York market. 

The " Fishing Gazette" for May 19, 1906, says: — 

What few barrels of salt mackerel the seiners brought in from the 
south were cleaned up on this market at $9 per barrel; the fish count 
about 400 to the barrel. 

The southern seining business has been a disappointment this sea- 
son. Out of a large fleet of vessels, probably not over a dozen have 
paid expenses. In fact, taken as a whole through a term of years, 
spring seining out south has been a losing venture; and yet every 
season finds captains and crews eager to take chances of being a high- 
liner. It is the occasional vessel that shows a large stock, and there 
are some whose catch is big enough in a few weeks to insure expenses 
for the entire season; but the great majority return with a balance of 
loss against them. 



18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In June last a series of special fish trains was inaugurated, 
bringing mackerel, lobsters, etc., from Canso and other ports 
of the Provinces to Boston, via the Dominion Atlantic Railway 
and the Yarmouth steamer. The first train consisted of 9 car- 
loads of fish. 

Haddock. — The favorable weather last winter permitted the 
catching of unheard-of quantities of haddock. Early in the 
year the market was frequently glutted with fresh haddock and 
other fish; consequently, the total for the year at Gloucester 
again sets a record mark, rising 14,000,000 pounds, — a small 
increase over last year, and practically twice that of 1904. Of. 
fresh haddock at Boston about 5,000,000 pounds less were used 
in 1906 than in the year preceding. 

Whiting. — The utilization of this fish at Gloucester is 
rapidly increasing, this year amounting to 6,000 barrels, as 
compared with 4,200 barrels in 1905 and 3,000 barrels in 1904. 
Mr. Atkins Hughes of North Truro reports : — 

The catch of whiting the past year was more than 1,000,000 pounds, 
at a value of $5,000; 500,000 pounds of these have been frozen and 
sold to be delivered in the winter months. Not more than five or six 
years ago we should have had to turn them out of the weirs as worth- 
less. 

Herring. — The herring business is rapidly developing, mak- 
ing a profitable industry during the season when other fish are 
in light demand. Gloucester now handles 50,000 to 70,000 
barrels of salt herring alone. 

As indicating the close interrelation between fisheries of dif- 
ferent species, the following is quoted from " Lloyd's Weekly 
News " (London) : — 

Herring fishing at Shetland is now drawing to a close for the sea- 
son, and except at Lerwick the results, as compared with last year, 
have been very disappointing. 

The cause of the failure is generally attributed to the prosecution 
of whale fishing on the Shetland coast by Norwegian companies. The 
government are to be petitioned to stop or regulate the fishing of whales 
from Shetland, in the interests of the thousands of fishermen, work- 
men and curers; and a successful meeting of protest has taken place 
at Lerwick. As showing the extensive operation of whaling at Shet- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

land, it may be pointed out that no less than 598 whales have been 
captured this season, while the total for the four years during which 
the companies have been whaling is 1,553. 

A writer in the London " Globe " says : — 

France claims to have at last solved the problem of the Breton sar- 
dine fishery. The crisis which has spread such misery in the province 
was not caused by the disappearance of the shoals, but by their non- 
appearance from the lower depths, simply because the fishermen had 
not the only really effective bait for attracting them. This consists in 
the spawn or " eggs," of codfish, which are prepared only in Norway, 
and sold at the monopoly price of nearly £6 per barrel. As the Breton 
fisher folk could not afford such a price, they have used inferior sub- 
stitutes, which have reduced them almost to famine. But at last M. 
Fabre Domerque, inspector-general of French fisheries, has come bril- 
liantly to the rescue by devising an artificial production of cod's " eggs." 
This artificial product is identical in size, color and odor with the 
natural " eggs," from which it is quite indistinguishable. Thrown into 
the water, it is ravenously sought by fish in shoals. M. Domerque has 
taken out a patent, but he has placed it in the hands of the Minister 
of Marine, so that French fishermen may now have their bait at about 
a quarter the price asked in Norway. 

A Berlin paper tells of a new device that makes herring 
fishing easy. A microphone, which magnifies sounds, is plunged 
into the sea, to ascertain if fish are passing in that vicinity. A 
wire connects the submerged microphone with an ordinary re- 
ceiver, with which one listens to what is going on in the depths 
of the sea. Excellent results are said to have heen obtained in 
the North Sea by this invention for signalling the passing of 
the herring schools. Wireless telegraphy has already been put 
to practical use in marketing the catch. 

Dogfish. — The dogfish question is one which concerns not 
alone the fishermen, but effects of the damage done by these 
and other sharks extend directly or indirectly to every State in 
the Union and to every nation on the globe. Briefly stated, 
the situation is this. It has been a well-nigh universal prac- 
tice, either as a matter of custom or as conforming to local 
market preferences, to confine the fisheries to a relatively few 
species, notably the mackerel, cod, salmon, bluefish, striped bass, 
etc., and to throw overboard, either alive or dead, such fish as 



20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

did not readily and without exploitation meet the market de- 
mands. Thus we have gone on for generations killing both the 
adults and the young food fish of the fashionable species, and 
without question we are beginning to see evidences of a decline 
in certain instances. In some cases the decrease is local, but in 
others it is general. Thus, although we have impaired the re- 
productive capacity of certain species by killing a stupendous 
quantity of both old and young individuals, e.g., the mackerel, 
we have done nothing to check the increase of the natural 
enemies of these fish, such as the dogfish and other sharks. 
Thus the dogfish has come to be proportionately more numer- 
ous, and the relative number of food fish destroyed by dogfish 
is correspondingly greater. As a result of our investigations 
Jast year, we found that apparently at least 50 per cent, of the 
total weight of fish caught were dogfish, as nearly as we could 
determine. In addition to the time lost in hauling up and 
liberating these dogfish, and the loss of opportunity to catch 
marketable fish on the hooks occupied by dogfish, the total actual 
annual cost of catching them amounts to at least $160,000; 
besides this, the damage to fish on the hooks and in nets 
eaten by dogfish is at least $250,000. Further than this, at a 
fair estimation every dogfish which reaches mature size, say 
5 to 7 pounds, will have eaten at least 20 pounds (and undoubt- 
edly more) of marketable fish. Massachusetts fishermen catch 
annually at least 2.7,000,000 dogfish, which must have eaten 
540,000,000 pounds of marketable fish, which, even at 1 cent 
per pound, figure up an annual damage in Massachusetts waters 
alone of between $5,000,000 and $6,000,000. A corresponding 
tribute is laid by the dogfish upon the fisheries of Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and Florida, as well as upon the 
Pacific coast. But even worse does this burden press upon the 
fisher folk of the British Maritime Provinces. The people of 
Massachusetts have felt this burden. The Legislature appro- 
priated $2,000 for investigating the damage done to the Massa- 
chusetts fisheries by dogfish and other sharks. The results were 
embodied in our fortieth annual report (1905). 

The people of Massachusetts believe that this question is 
worthy of the most earnest consideration by Congress. A bill 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

was introduced in Congress, which, though in general appear- 
ing to meet the conditions, yet embodied certain impracticable 
features, viz., extermination, etc. 

On February 8 His Excellency Governor Guild appointed a 
committee to advocate national legislation upon the dogfish ques- 
tion, for the benefit of the fishing interests and of the fish- 
purchasing public. The Hon. Heman A. Harding, chairman 
of the legislative committee on fisheries and game, represented 
Cape Cod, Bristol and Plymouth counties; and Ex-Representa- 
tive Edward C. Mclntire represented the interests of Suffolk 
and Essex counties. The chairman of the Massachusetts Com- 
mission on Fisheries and Game was designated as the chairman 
of the delegation. 

The hearing was held before a sub-committee of the com- 
mittee on the merchant marine and fisheries, with Hon. W. S. 
Green of Massachusetts as chairman. The special delegation 
from Massachusetts called attention to the actual damage done 
not only to the Massachusetts fisheries, but also to those of the 
British Maritime Provinces, of Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Mary- 
land, Virginia, the Carolinas and Florida. In their opinion, 
the increasing dogfish pest was one of the most prominent fac- 
tors in the decline of the fishing interests, and the withdrawal 
of capable men to other pursuits. Such a condition is not alone 
deplorable on economic grounds, but is an actual menace to the 
efficiency of our navy, through the increasing difficulty of secur- 
ing trained seamen. The nursery of the navy is threatened. 
The question was supported by officials of the Department of 
Agriculture, who testified that the farmers needed the additional 
source of nitrogenous fertilizer, which can be secured from utili- 
zation of the dogfish, and therefore the bill deserved support 
from the farming interests of the entire country, as well as 
from the fishermen on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Dr. 
H. M. Smith, of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, de- 
tailed the work of the Bureau upon the dogfish problem, and 
expressed the opinion that : — 

The ravages of the various species of dogfish on our coasts have be- 
come very serious, and in some sections are a distinct menace to the 



22 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

welfare of the fishing population. The direct damage done to our 
fisheries by these fish amounts to many hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars annually, while the indirect injury to the industry, due to the de- 
stroying, harassing and driving away by dogfish of valuable food 
fishes and other products, is many times greater. Owing to the entire 
absence of a market for dogfish, the fishermen are placed at a decided 
disadvantage, and will probably never be able, unaided, to ameliorate 
the condition; but if the dogfish can be shown to have an economic 
value, and a way of utilizing them can be made known, the fishermen 
will be able to hold them in check, the regular fishing will be improved, 
and new products of value will be placed on the market. 

The question was ably supported by Representative C. Q. 
Tirrill, who introduced the original dogfish bill ; and by Repre- 
sentatives A. P. Gardner and Wm. S. McXary. As a result, 
the following bill was prepared, upon which all interests appear 
to be agreed : — 



A Bill to reduce the Ravages of the Dogfish, and to create a 
Market for Such Fish. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Bureau of 
Fisheries be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to conduct investi- 
gations and experiments having for their object the mitigation of the 
damage done the fishing industry on the coasts of the United States 
by dog-fish. 

Section 2. That the procedures under the foregoing section shall 
consist: (1) in determining the most effective methods of reducing the 
numbers of dogfish and of capturing them in wholesale quantities; (2) 
in demonstrating the economic value of dogfish as a source of ferti- 
lizer, oil and leather, and the most suitable methods of utilizing them 
for such purposes; (3) in testing the usefulness of the dogfish as food 
when used fresh, or prepared by salting, smoking and canning, and in 
developing the domestic and foreign markets for such preparations; 
and (4) in such other inquiries, investigations and experiments as the 
commissioner of fisheries may deem desirable for the purposes of keep- 
ing the dogfish in check, of providing a ready and profitable market 
for the dog-fish now incidentally caught, of inducing fishermen to en- 
gage in the dogfish fishery, and of converting a now worthless and 
destructive animal into a valuable commodity. 

Section 3. That the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, or as 
much thereof as may be necessary, be, and the same is hereby, appro- 
priated for enabling the bureau of fisheries to carry out the foregoing 
provisions. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

Section 4. That as soon as practicable after the passage of this act 
the commissioner of fisheries shall cause the necessary investigations 
and experiments to begin and be actively prosecuted, and that he shall 
on conclusion thereof make a full report to congress. 

In addition to the statements above made as to the damage 
to the fisheries, more specific cases of the damage to other allied 
industries can be shown : — 

As a result of the investigations carried on by the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries, it was found that " the smooth dog- 
fish feeds principally on large crustaceans, nearly all of which 
are of direct economic value, conspicuous among which is the 
lobster. Estimating the number of smooth dogfish in Buzzards 
Bay as 100,000, which is conservative, and allowing each dog- 
fish one lobster in three days, there would be represented a 
destruction of 150,000 lobsters in one month, or 750,000 during 
the live months of the presence of the dogfish in the region." 

The Dominion government, in addition to the establishment 
of three rendering plants for converting dogfish into oil and 
fertilizer, is actively urging the possibilities of using dogfish 
as food. The " Fishing Gazette," editorially, says : — 

The Ocean Fish Company of Halifax are meeting with success in 
introducing canned dogfish, under the name of " ocean whitefish." The 
stock has been subscribed for in many cases by fishermen who have 
severely felt the depredations of these pests. The fish are put up in 
attractive packages, and meet with a ready sale in Canada and Eng- 
land. The high duty on canned fish in the States makes it prohibitory 
for the company to sell the fish here. Although there is a market for 
them, the duty, etc., of $1 per case prevents the dealers from handling 
them. The United States government should encourage in some way 
the canning of these fish, for it would help to exterminate them. We 
feel sure they could be sold hi large quantities here if placed on the 
market at a price to compete with other canned fish. They are very 
palatable, and would soon become popular. An attempt to can them 
was made in Canada some years ago. When everything was ready to 
place them on the market, they disappeared for sixteen years. They 
made their appearance about ten years ago. Perhaps with the advent 
of a factory in this country, with that of Canada, it would be a signal 
for them to migrate again. If such proved the case, it would be well 
to experiment again, even at the expense of building factories, in 
which case both governments could well afford to reimburse the com- 
panies for their losses, etc. 



24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Consul Stephens, at Plymouth, Eng., says: — 

The Cornwall sea fisheries committee have recently indorsed the fa- 
vorable verdict previously given at Plymouth as to the edible qualities 
of dog-fish, and no doubt their approval will give a further stimulus to 
the consumption of this once despised fish. The committee also ap- 
proved of the new name given to the fish, namely, " flake," the general 
acceptance of which, indeed, may now be said to be assured. Whereas 
only a few months ago complaints were made of the ravages com- 
mitted by apparently inexhaustible shoals of dogfish, the fishermen 
now complain that they cannot get enough " flake " for the market. 
They hope for their speedy return. Preparations are being made for 
better equipment in the way of nets and gear for the next season. The 
railway charges for " flake " have already been reduced from Plymouth 
to the great centers of population. 

Dogfish Eggs. — One of the most conspicuous features when 
dogfish are " livered " are the considerable quantities of eggs 
which drop out when the body is split. (See article on dogfish, 
in the fortieth annual report of this commission.) These, 
except for the color, which is a pale yellow, even straw color, 
have the appearance of the yolks of hens' eggs. The government 
analyst to the English Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has 
made a report upon the nutritive and commercial value of dog- 
fish eggs. He says that " the appearance when boiled is similar 
to that of an ordinary hard-boiled egg" though the yolk is of a 
cream color. It has a pronounced fishy flavor and odor. In cases 
where such are not objectionable, " the eggs would undoubt- 
edly prove a wholesome and highly nutritive food." It is pos- 
sible that treatment with superheated steam might modify this 
flavor and odor. In addition to their use as an article of food, 
he suggests the use of the egg for certain branches of the calico- 
printing trade and in the dressing of certain fine leathers. The 
oil may be extracted and used for currying and leather dressing. 
" It could be used for making soft soap, and in a refined and 
purified form it might possibly prove as useful medicinally as 
cod-liver oil." 

Winter Herring. — This annual venture to Newfoundland 
waters means much to the herring market of the United States, 
but more to the fishermen of the treaty coast. The past season 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

has been especially hazardous, not alone from the conflicting 
interests involved, but also from ice and severe storms. It is 
a matter of most cordial congratulation that local friction re- 
sulted in no untoward actions, and that justice and common 
sense prevailed. The returning fishermen report that the pres- 
ence of Hon. A. B. Alexander of the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries and of Lieutenant Hinds with the United States tug 
boat " Potomac " were of extreme value to them. Capt. C. C. 
Young well voices the opinion of alb when he says that Mr. 
Alexander, " with his great knowledge of the state of affairs, 
and the cool-headed, dauntless Lieutenant Hinds, with his dash 
and ability, were the means of turning what looked to be one 
of the hardest herring seasons on record into one where the 
vessels had a chance to fish and to take advantage of the 
greatest run of herring Bay of Islands ever saw." The good 
offices of the " Potomac " and those with her were extended in 
every possible direction for the well-being of all, not alone for 
the " Yankees," but also for the Nova Scotians and Newfound- 
landers. " All were treated alike," and all vessels, of whatever 
nationality, were cut out of the imprisoning ice without dis- 
crimination. Captain O'Keilley of the Newfoundland cutter 
" Fiona " performed his official duties with extreme considera- 
tion and good judgment, and in addition rendered notable ser- 
vice to all the fishermen, whether Newfoundlanders, Canadians 
or Americans. Captain Young, speaking of the " Fiona " and 
her commander, Captain O'Reilley, says : — 

They worked, bucking the ice, until the copper was cut through, and 
then were sorry they had to stop. More than this, Captain O'Reilley 
seemed to put himself out to do all the favors he could. He carried, 
as did the " Potomac," dispatches back and forth, and, like the " Po- 
tomac/' never left the fleet without first inquiring for messages, letters 
and sick men, etc., to be sent to Birchy Cove. 

St. John's " Trade Review " says : — 

The Gloucester fishing interests claim that they have no idea of 
violating our laws, but that they propose to send vessels to the Straits 
of Belle Isle to seek herring cargoes, as the mackerel fishery bids fair 
to be a failure, and they intend to withdraw schooners from that pur- 



26 FISH AM) GAME. [Dec. 

suit and put them into the herring business. This, though, must prob- 
ably mean one of two things, — either that they are making this an 
excuse for the securing of these fish for bait purposes, or else that 
they are planning to obtain cargoes of herring by this means, and 
probably with the aid of our people, before our new exclusion act 
receives the royal assent, so that thereby they may avert the threat- 
ened destruction of their herring fishery at Bay of Islands next fall 
by laying in a stock of herring in the mean time. The Straits of Belle 
Isle is a remote section of our seaboard, and they could, unless we 
strongly reinforced our patrol there, obtain herring rights in our bays 
in disregard of our laws; because the treaty of 1888 gives them -the 
right to take fish there in common with our own people, and we can 
only forbid them to hire our people to help them in fishing, to employ 
fishing engines forbidden by our laws, or to buy fish from our coast folk. 
Granted, however, that they were to resort to that coast in any num- 
bers, as now seems likely, and to prosecute the herring fishery inside 
and outside of our waters, a very serious condition of things would be 
created for us, unless we have our new enactment assented to. The 
Gloucester men assert that they have notified Secretary Root of their 
intention to embark in this new herring venture in the Straits of Belle 
Isle, and presumably he is satisfied; and they consequently assume that 
they are under no obligation to consider us in the matter at all. But 
it is very clear that this may be but the thin end of the wedge in- 
serted to create a complication far more serious than any that has yet 
arisen in this question, and fraught with the gravest possibilities. 

An interesting venture this year has been the chartering of 
Nova Scotian vessels and crews by Gloucester skippers for the 
winter herring fishery ; thereby herring could be purchased with- 
out fear of interference by the Newfoundland authorities, colo- 
nial export and light dues would be avoided, as well as the 
heavy item of insurance and the risk of seizure. It was ex- 
pected that these advantages would more than meet the cost of 
the import duty at Gloucester. 

Capt. Wallace Parsons of the schooner " Ingomar " says that, 
from the experience this year at the Bay of Islands, the taking 
of herring by means of seines is a thoroughly feasible and 
profitable method of securing a cargo : — 

This was proven conclusively; but for the sake of courtesy, and in 
order not to make any trouble at all, the American captains gave up 
using them after they had tried them long enough to prove their worth. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

Smelts. — The " Fishing Gazette " for Feb. 3, 1906, says : — 

From Summer side, P. E. I., comes the information that large num- 
bers of smelts are being shipped from that place to the United States 
markets. Owing to the continuation of mild weather, many of them 
arrive in a tainted condition, involving loss to the shippers. The catch 
is growing less every year, presumably owing to the enormous quan- 
tity of mother fish taken full of spawn at this season of the year. This 
theory is disputed by those interested in the slaughter, who claim that 
the supply is so great that the limited number caught have no per- 
ceptible effect on the quantity of spawn. They attribute the falling 
off to the number of gill nets that obstruct the rivers and frighten the 
fish out to sea. The greater quantity are taken in what are known as 
bag nets. Most of the catch is sent forward in small lots fresh as they 
are taken, about $100 each. Occasionally a car load goes, about 
ten tons, which should net the shipper $1,000 if they arrive in good 
order and are of the best quality. A searching inquiry should be made 
as to the probability of exhausting this profitable industry and source 
of employment to a large class of laborers at a season of the year 
when there is little else doing. 

Squid. — This important bait mollusk has been unusually 
scarce during the past two years, appearing only in small schools. 
In comparison with former conditions, the catch is more fully 
utilized. In present periods of abundance many thousands of 
crates of squid are frozen to be used for bait purposes during 
times of scarcity. A considerable demand also is developing 
for squid as food. Among fisher folk and others the squid and 
octopus (or " devil fish ") are still regarded as true fishes. The 
demand for these mollusks as food will develop rapidly, when 
the popular mind more generally grasps the fact that these 
animals are much more closely related to the clams, oysters and 
scallops than to the fishes, and that in personal appearance they 
are at least quite as presentable as the " opened oyster " of the 
city markets ; while as a gastronomic tidbit, cut into small cubes, 
fried in olive oil and served with lemon juice, they are as 
delicious as fried scallops, which they somewhat resemble in 
taste. 

Whaling. — It is reported that the New Bedford fleet has 
this year been reduced by 735 tons by the withdrawal of ves- 
sels from the fleet. 



28 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

For the first time in a century not a single American whaler 
is at present in Hudson Bay. The methods of whaling have 
completely changed. The profits in the business depend upon 
the utilization of the carcass after the removal of the blubber 
and baleen. This can best be done at factories located ashore 
at points most frequented by whales. On the coasts of Scot- 
land, Norway, Newfoundland and Japan successively the busi- 
ness has been much exploited; but a few years of activity re- 
duces the number of whales in the region profitably accessible 
for the factories, and lean years ensue for the stockholders. 

The "Fishing Gazette," Vol. XXIIL, No. 42, says: — 

Whale fishing along the coast of South America is a new industry, 
which is being slowly built up, according to steamship reports. They 
state that the whales come to the South American coast near the reefs 
of Abrolhos and Mere Caravellos (about 18 and 19 south latitude) to 
feed on the animalcule which abound in these waters. The whales 
are described as being of the cackelot or spermaceti variety, which are 
considered the best for whaling. They state that the fishermen are 
natives, who go out in boats, using the old-time harpoons, and kill the 
whale in the manner which was in vogue more than a hundred years 
ago. After killing, the whales are towed to Itparico Island, where they 
are cut in strips, the blubber boiled, the bone removed, and in many 
cases the carcass, or parts of it, eaten. The whales are reported to be 
becoming more plentiful hi the South Seas, and many whalers are 
sighted by ships coming here from Cape Horn. Formerly practically 
all the whaling was done in northern waters; but the fact that the big 
animals are becoming scarce in Arctic waters has driven the fleet of 
whalers to the South Seas, where more of the big fish are found than 
formerly. 

Shore Fisheries. — As our coast develops as a summer re- 
sort, the fishermen find more remunerative and satisfactory occu- 
pation as boatmen for sailing and fishing parties, fishing for 
sport rather than for market. When such conditions arise, 
there quickly follows a local demand for the restriction in cer- 
tain sections of the shore of all methods of fishing other than 
hand lines. In such cases it is necessary to consider very care- 
fully the respective rights of all the various interests involved. 
TYnile in general it is not always wise to legislate sharply in 
such a manner as to limit the market demand rather than to 
increase the supply, we believe that the principle of prohibit- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

ing seining on the breeding grounds of valuable fish is appro- 
priate and necessary. This in effect makes a reservation for 
fish similar in purpose to that for game mammals, birds, trees, 
wild flowers, etc. In a similar way, local option should be per- 
mitted to throw considerable weight in the decision. On the 
other hand, we must avoid the economic loss through neglect to 
take the annual and proper tribute of wealth from the ocean, 
in the form of food fish or bait. Our bait resources and neces- 
sities especially should be most carefully considered. 
The " Fishing Gazette" of Feb. 3, 1906, says: — 

Reports from Provincetown advise that the fleet of dory and sloop 
trawlers have conducted a lucrative fishery the past fortnight. On 
Sunday last 10 carloads of fish were shipped from the port to various 
points. Over 200,000 pounds of fish went out by that day's freight; 
17,000 pounds of the lot, however, were from the schooner " G-eorgiana." 
Only a small portion of the immense local trawl dory fleet fished that 
day. For the fortnight ending Saturday last the men of the sloop 
" Golden Eagle " shared $70 each ; and the men of the sloop " Crescent " 
shared $62 per man during the same period, $40 being each man's 
share for the last seven days. 

Inspection of Fish. — During this year there have been no 
requests for the inspection of fish, under chapter 138, Acts of 
1902, and no fees have been received. 

Seaweed. — The "Fishing Gazette" of June 23, 1906, 
says : — 

Attention has recently been drawn to the profits derived from the 
burning of seaweed or kelp on the coasts of various countries. One 
of the most prolific fields for the growth of seaweed is at Joderen, on 
the southwest coast of Norway, where it appears as veritable forests 
of trees from five to six feet in height, with' stems as thick as ropes 
and as tough as leather. The weed sprouts in summer, and gradually 
covers the ocean bed with a dense brush. In the fall the roots release 
their suction-like grip on the rock bottom, and great quantities float 
ashore, forming a sea wall many miles long on the beach. The fall 
crop is good only for fertilizer, and is used as such by the natives; but 
in spring what drifts in is successfully gathered, dried and burned, 
and during this season thousands of the farmers who own strips of the 
coast line make thousands of bonfires, some burning as much as 3,000 
kilos a year. This is one of the natural resources of Norway, about 
which little was known twenty years ago. During the summer many 



30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

train loads are sent to Stavenger, whence two or three cargoes a week 
are shipped to Great Britain. Subsequent use and treatment are to 
some extent scientific secrets, although the kelp ash is known to be 
largely used in the making of iodine. The fact that the industry is 
profitable is shown by the willingness of the English agents to pay a 
good price; and many of the Norwegian farmers have become rich by 
selling it. Modern machinery, in the shape of mowers, hay rakes and 
harrows, have replaced the primitive farm implements in use a few 
years ago. 

In order to keep their Glasgow, Scot., plant fully occupied, the 
British Chemical Company of Clydebank are encouraging the revival of 
the kelp industry in the outer Hebrides. Encouraged by the success 
which has attended their efforts in Tiree, North and South Uist, Ben- 
becula and Barre during the past three years, the company has extended 
its operations to Lewis and Harris. Nearly £3,000 were distributed in 
the Island of Tiree alone last season, and considerably more to kelp 
makers in the other islands mentioned. 

The amount of exertion involved in gathering and burning the tangles 
is light, and the average family can earn £1 per day. If a sufficient 
quantity can be obtained from the Hebrides, the company will not con- 
tinue to get an additional supply from Norway and Ireland. A recent 
Nova Scotian exchange suggests that some of the inhabitants along the 
coasts of that province might make money from seaweed by shipping it 
to furniture factories all over Canada. 

An interesting attempt to exploit the wealth of seaweed in 
this country is being made at Seattle, Wash., under the name 
of " seatron." This new food is obtained from kelp, the long, 
slimy sea plant which rises from the depths, and renders navi- 
gation along those shores at times very difficult. A man falling 
overboard into a " forest " of kelp would meet with almost cer- 
tain death. Well, these men of Seattle have produced from 
kelp, by a process unknown except to themselves, a preparation 
which may be made into many kinds of confections, jams, pre- 
serves, marmalades, sweet and sour pickles and citron, and 
known as " seatron." Orders have been received from all of 
the places to which samples were sent for inspection, including 
New York City, Chicago, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Omaha and 
Seattle. Until the company occupies larger quarters, no at- 
tempt will be made to manufacture anything except " seatron." 

This country imports a very considerable quantity of manu- 
factured seaweed products from Japan, which might equally 
well be produced here. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

At Chatham one firm gathers considerable quantities of eel 
grass, which, when dried and quilted between papers, is used 
in buildings for deadening walls, excluding heat and cold, etc. 
Its advantages consist in resistance to fire, unattractiveness to 
rats, mice and other vermin. 

Mollush Fisheries. — In this connection it is entirely un- 
necessary to call further attention to the obvious rapid deple- 
tion of the shellfish supply within this State. The waters south 
of Boston have yielded to the results of increased demand and 
unsystematic digging, to such an extent that the clam in many 
regions is already commercially extinct, and the quahaug and 
scallop are rapidly approaching the same condition. The nat- 
ural supply of oysters has long since disappeared, and the entire 
yield is now derived from artificial cultivation. On the north 
shore in Massachusetts there still remains a commercial clam 
fishery, but by no means sufficient to supply the demand even 
within the State; and much of our supply is derived from 
Maine, Nova Scotia or Long Island. Yet, if proper and ade- 
quate measures are promptly taken to restore to the fiats, estu- 
aries and bays of Massachusetts their normal productive ca- 
pacity, clam, quahaug and scallop fisheries could be developed, 
in these days of rapid transit and marketing facilities, which 
would furnish steady employment for thousands of men and 
women, resulting in a product valued at a minimum of 
$3,000,000 annually, with possibilities of almost indefinite ex- 
pansion. 

The parallelism between the shellfisheries and agricultural 
conditions, both historical and biological, is very close. In 
each the original inhabitants depended entirely upon the nat- 
ural products, and public ownership of land and all natural 
utilities was universal. Later there developed the advantage, 
and even necessity, of private ownership of land and its prod- 
ucts, if prosperity in its widest sense, or even the actual sub- 
sistence of the increasing population, was to be maintained. 
The acquisition of titles to land areas was the first logical step. 
The fixing of permanent bounds was simple. The land then 
furnished a more readily accessible and certain source of food, 
which not only could be produced with relatively little labor 
and capital, but which from its very nature could be readily 



32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and compactly stored in barns, cellars and granaries, where its 
quality did not deteriorate, and where it was quickly available 
in stress and storm. The chance which brought the first settlers 
to Plymouth rather than to another section of our coast was 
responsible for the present law, that the owners of land border- 
ing tide water own the tidal flats for a distance of 100 rods 
(approximately the conditions at Plymouth), or to mean low- 
water mark if less than 100 rods from the high-water mark. 
In accordance with the early English law, the " fisheries," 
which the courts have since decided included the mollusk fish- 
eries, were declared to be forever the property of the whole 
people, i.e. , the State ; and these fisheries were for a long period 
open to any inhabitant of the State who might need to dig the 
shellfish for food for his family or for bait. Erom time to time, 
however, special grants have been made to certain towns, car- 
rying control of the shellfisheries; special acts of the General 
Court of Massachusetts delegating to certain towns practically 
all the rights of the State in the shellfisheries within the limits 
of that town. 

The present laws have essentially in a marked degree con- 
verted the shellfisheries, the undivided property of all the in- 
habitants of the State, into private holdings of the shore towns 
and cities. In many instances there has resulted up to the 
present time merely legalized plundering of the fiats, local 
jealousies prohibiting the digging of clams, etc., by " outsiders," 
and little or no care given to maintaining the normal yield of 
the flats. The regulations made by the selectmen or the mayor 
and aldermen are usually but distinct attempts at checking the 
demand, i.e., prohibiting of digging for certain periods, limit 
upon the number to be legally dug by any one person, etc. It 
would be quite as logical for a town or city to prohibit by by- 
laws the use or digging of potatoes or any other food crop, 
when the supply was short, rather than to attempt to increase 
the supply. As a result, the unsystematic methods of market- 
ing have led to the premature destruction of far more clams 
than ever go to market; a similar condition would exist if the 
farmer should dig over his growing potato field before the crop 
matured, either in the hope of finding a few marketable tubers, 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

or to prevent the possibility of his neighbor digging up the 
potatoes at that time or later. 

Further, the increasing demand leads not alone to the market- 
ing of the breeding clams, and thus to a curtailment of the 
number of eggs laid annually, but also of the small clams, which 
would yield far greater profits to the diggers if allowed to in- 
crease to an optimum market size. As a result of all this, the 
clam has disappeared over very extensive areas, and the ground 
once occupied by clams has been preempted by profitless worms 
and worm-like animals to such a degree that the young clams 
apparently can no longer secure lodgment. The worm tribes 
catch sediment, and the flat is rapidly built up, and is likely 
to remain for decades of little or no economic value, perhaps 
becoming a constantly increasing impediment to navigation. 
Over other extensive areas the slimy ooze of impalpable silt 
and sewage have made this a graveyard for the millions upon 
millions of microscopic spat of the clam, quahaug, oyster and 
scallop, so that the area over which these animals formerly 
" set " is becoming restricted, with a corresponding decline in 
these fisheries. 

The closing of areas in certain towns has in some cases driven 
an unusual number of fishermen to other flats, thus still fur- 
ther increasing the abnormal demand, with the. expected result. 

There are at least four distinct classes within our Common- 
wealth, each of which either derive direct benefits from the 
mollusk fisheries of our coast, or are indirectly benefited by the 
products of the flats : — 

(1) The general public, — the consumers, who ultimately 
pay the cost, who may either buy the joint product of the 
labor and capital invested in taking and distributing the shell- 
fish from either natural or artificial beds, or who may dig 
shellfish for food or bait purposes for their own or family use. 

(2) The capitalist, who seeks a productive investment for 
money or brains, or both. Under present laws, such are prac- 
tically restricted to distribution of shellfish, except in the case 
of the oyster, where capital may be employed for production 
as well, — an obvious advantage both to capital and to the 
public. 



34 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

(3) The fishermen, who, either as a permanent or temporary 
vocation, market the natural yield of the waters ; or, as in the 
case of the shellfisheries, may with a little capital increase the 
natural yield and availability by cultivating an area of the tidal 
flats after the manner of a garden. 

(4) The owners of the land adjacent to the flats, who are 
under the present laws often subjected to loss or annoyance, or 
even positive discomfort, by inability to safeguard their proper 
rights to a certain degree of freedom from intruders and from 
damage to bathing or boating facilities, which constitute a defi- 
nite portion of the value of shore property. 

All of these classes would be directly benefited by just laws, 
which would encourage and safeguard all well-advised projects 
for artificial cultivation of the tidal flats, and would deal justly 
and intelligently with the various coincident and conflicting 
rights of the fishermen, owners of shore property, bathers and 
other seekers of pleasure, recreation or profit, boatmen, and all 
others who hold public and private rights and concessions. 

That any one class should claim exclusive " natural valid 
rights," over any other class, to the shellfish products of the 
shores, which the law states expressly are the property of " the 
people," is as absurd as to claim that any class had exclusive 
natural rights to wild strawberries, raspberries, cranberries or 
other wild fruits, and that therefore the land upon which these 
grew could not be used for the purpose of increasing the yield 
of these fruits. This becomes the more absurd from the fact 
that the wild fruits pass to the owner of the title of the land, 
while the shellfish are specifically exempted, and remain the 
property of the public. 

The class most benefited by improved laws would be the fish- 
ermen, who would profit by better wages through the increased 
quantity of shellfish they could dig per hour, by a better mar- 
ket and by better prices, for the reason that the control of the 
output would secure regularity of supply. Moreover, when the 
market was unfavorable the shellfish could be kept in the beds 
with a reasonable certainty of finding them there when wanted, 
and with the added advantage of an increased volume by growth 
during the interval, together with the avoidance of cold-storage 
charges. Thus the diggers could be certain of securing a supply 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 

at almost any stage of the tide and in all but the most inclement 
weather, through a knowledge of " where to dig ; " moreover, 
there would be a complete elimination of the reasoning which 
is now so prolific of ill feelings and so wasteful of the shellfish, 
viz., the incentive of " getting there ahead of the other fellow." 

Excellent shellfish cultivation can be begun with little or no 
capital beyond capacity for accurate observation, sound common 
sense, intelligent patience and energy. Yet corporations or per- 
sons with large financial resources can rapidly develop safe and 
remunerative enterprises based upon the artificial propagation 
of clams and quahaugs, as has been done with the oyster, notably 
in Connecticut and Rhode Island, Virginia, Louisiana, and 
which has just been started in Maryland. Massachusetts has 
advantages equal to the advantages of any of these States, but 
has thus far made little use of them. 

There are certain obvious advantages in shellfish cultivation; 
e.g., the soil is not exhausted, as is the case in ordinary farming, 
and therefore no .fertilizer is required. The unpublished results 
of some experiments made at Point Judith Pond, R. I., by the 
writer, indicate that a slightly increased quantity of nitrates 
and of potash in solution in the water may cause an increased 
growth of microscopic plants upon which the shellfish feed, and 
thereby cause a more rapid growth of the shellfish. The or- 
dinary shellfish bed is an excellent illustration of the many 
remarkable natural adaptations to conditions which demonstrate 
the consummate economy of nature's work; and a knowledge 
of the biologic conditions involved indicates how man may best 
secure results by assisting nature. Previous to the settling of 
the country, the dead and decaying animal and vegetable mat- 
ter, sometimes as such, but more often through decomposition 
on land changed into soluble nitrates, were washed from the 
land into the streams and thence to the estuaries and bays. In 
this warm and shallow water this material became quickly avail- 
able as plant food. Thus the growth of algae, both large and 
small, was enormously accelerated. The larger forms serve as 
pasture for marine creatures of various sorts ; and the smaller, 
even the microscopic forms, deriving some portion of their 
nourishment from the decay of the larger, serve as a rich food 
for myriad schools of young fish which resort there for that 



36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

purpose, and for the shellfish, which thus increase wonderfully 
in numbers and in rapidity of growth. With the coming of 
civilization, the cutting of the forest and the agricultural op- 
erations, wash of nitrogenous material from the land is enor- 
mously increased; but if man makes no effort to increase the 
fish and shellfish this nitrogenous material is inevitably wasted, 
and an excellent opportunity to increase the wealth of the State 
is lost. 

Because of a rapidly increasing population, there is made 
the economic and biologic error of turning sewage and other 
wastes into the streams and tidal waters in such quantities and 
under such conditions that this material is not speedily altered 
into soluble plant food. The rivers become no longer habitable 
for fish, and the estuaries and tidal flats are soon transformed 
into a stinking desert, a menace to the public health and a dis- 
creditable mark of civic indifference. Shellfish literally sub- 
sist upon the crumbs which fall from the rich man's table ; but 
it is not well for the crumbs to reach the shellfish with undue 
and unnatural immediateness, e.g., through the agency of sew- 
age or garbage dumping. 

In view of these conditions, it is the duty of the citizens to 
demand laws which shall effect a proper economic balance be- 
tween the money " saved " (?) by individuals, corporations and 
municipalities, which dump sewage, garbage, manufacturing 
wastes, etc., into the public waters of our streams and harbors, 
and the (1) damage resulting to the public by the loss of ma- 
terial, which, upon biologic grounds, should be again returned to 
the land for irrigating and fertilizing purposes, together with ( 2 ) 
the destruction of millions of pounds of fish annually, and (3) of 
thousands of acres of tidal flats formerly producing many thou- 
sands of dollars' worth of shellfish annually. If these condi- 
tions can be ameliorated gradually, enormous benefits will 
ensue. 

At present, however, there are in the State thousands of acres 
which are now relatively unproductive, for no other cause than 
unsystematic digging. To these flats should be applied vari- 
ously modified schemes for artificially increasing the produc- 
tion of shellfish, through — 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

(1) Systematic handling of the young animals, such as thin- 
ning out and replanting them in cases where the " set " is ex- 
cessive, as well as preparing suitable ground or special devices 
for catching the spat in economic quantities, would avert in a 
degree the enormous natural " infant mortality," thereby taking 
advantage of the natural phenomena for increasing the yield 
per acre. 

(2) By such a degree of protection to the breeders as shall 
permit the production of the greatest number of eggs, yet not 
to cause a loss of income by retaining animals until senile 
decline ensues. 

(3) Observations upon the size and age which yield the best 
profit. The scientific farmer has learned from observation that 
he can obtain a certain weight of meat at the least relative cost 
per pound by keeping a chicken, pig or steer until it reaches 
a certain age. By marketing the animal as nearly as possible 
at that age, when the cost of food for each pound of meat gained 
begins to increase unduly, he secures his greatest profit. In a 
similar way it is possible to determine at what size and age it 
is most profitable to the fisherman to market the clam and 
quahaug. (The complete results of our investigation of this 
question will be published later.) 

(4) Much improvement of physical conditions of the soil 
can be economically made. 

(5) Destructive enemies may be controlled through co-opera- 
tive efforts, applied at the time which scientific knowledge of 
the life history and habits of the animal indicates as most likely 
to prove most effective and least expensive. 

What oyster planting under suitable laws has done for many 
communities in Rhode Island, Connecticut and Virginia, culti- 
vation of clams, quahaugs, scallops and oysters will do in Mas- 
sachusetts. Clams and quahaugs can be cultivated at less ex- 
pense and with more certainty of remunerative results than 
oysters. What the oyster is to Maryland, Virginia and North 
Carolina, the clam is to Massachusetts and to Maine. The con- 
ditions in Maryland and Virginia are well indicated by the 
following editorial from the Baltimore " Sun " of February, 
1906: — 



38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

If oyster planting were some new thing, which had never been tried 
before, one could understand the fear of it by thoughtless and unin- 
formed people. A recent writer told how the people along the first 
telegraph line between Baltimore and Washing-ton became alarmed, and 
protested against it as a dangerous device. History tells us of the protest 
made by English farmers against the building of railroads, as dangerous 
to poultry and cattle. It has been the common experience that every 
great advance has been opposed by prejudice and ignorance. But it 
is impossible to understand the bitter and determined opposition to 
oyster culture by a number of people on the eastern shore and southern 
Maryland who will be the chief beneficiaries from it. It is no new 
thing; it requires no arguments to prove the advantages of it. All 
they have to do is to open their eyes and see for themselves what is 
going on all around them. Chincoteague Island is a small body of land 
lying on the ocean side of Accomac County, Virginia, and separated 
from the mainland by a broad but shallow bay. The soil is poor, and 
the people are mainly engaged in the oyster industry. Before oyster 
planting was begun, the population of the island was something like 
80 or 100 families of poor, neglected people, and the whole island 
and all it contained was valued at $50,000. The oyster-planting in- 
dustry began, and in consequence of that industry the population has 
increased sevenfold, and the property valuation of the island is more 
than $1,000,000. From a wild settlement the oyster industry has made 
Chincoteague Island a highly civilized community. There are good 
schools, attended by' 500 pupils; free delivery of the mails; water 
works ; a bank and many handsome residences, — giving evidences of 
great prosperity. Oyster planting in Maryland, it is argued by the 
eastern shore politician and tonger, will take the bread out of the 
mouths of the poor people. But, strangely enough, it puts bread 
in the mouths of poor people just across the Maryland and Virginia 
boundary; for in Chincoteague the entire population is prosperous and 
contented, with good earnings and excellent homes. There is no com- 
plaint about the planting system, and if any one on the island should 
propose its abolition, and the return to dependence on the natural 
beds, he would be laughed to scorn. 

When Chincoteague Island depended upon natural beds, the people 
were poverty-stricken and led a precarious existence. Now from the 
small and poor island during the last thirty days 2,000 barrels of 
oysters have been shipped every day, and that quantity will be shipped 
every day for the next thirty days. One hundred and twenty thousand 
barrels of oysters in sixty days, worth $200,000, from bottoms which 
had produced nothing ! Ah ! but we cannot have this in Maryland, — 
the politician and the tonger forbid it. It is as if the State of Mary- 
land owned gold mines more valuable than those discovered in California 
in 1849, and the people around them refused to take the gold out, and 
forbade all others to enter them. Such fatuity passes all under- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

standing. We can understand how the small-bore politician can oppose 
public prosperity in order that he may be elected by the votes of the 
tongers to the -State Senate or House of Delegates or sheriff; we can 
understand how unlearned oystermen can be fooled by the politician; 
we can understand how a short-sighted man who keeps a store on the 
bank and makes money out of tongers will cater to their prejudices 
in order to get their cash; but how the people of the inland counties 
are willing to stand off and permit the tongers and the small-bore 
politicians to deprive them of all benefits, of all part and parcel in 
their richest heritage, passes all understanding. 

The " Fishing Gazette" of April 14, 1906, says: — 

We publish the full text of the Haman oyster bill, which has become 
a *law, having been signed by the Governor. Maryland should be 
congratulated, for it is the end of a bitter fight of over fifteen years' 
standing against the passage of a measure permitting' the planting 
and leasing of oyster beds. Instead of confining the industry to the 
production of the natural rocks, which are practically barren, it will 
be several years before the State receives any substantial benefit, al- 
though the addition of millions of dollars to the revenue of the State 
is in sight, as the result of the passage of the bill. Had it been 
killed (as a number of politicians wished), it would have meant 
extinction to the oyster industry of the State. 

The following statements indicate the condition of the de- 
mand on the Atlantic coast, its effect upon the natural supply 
of clams, and the opinions elsewhere as to how these conditions 
must be met : — 

The "Fishing Gazette" of Dec. 22, 1906, says: — 

The shipment of clams to New York is a comparatively new industry. 
It is quite remunerative, and during the present season has reached 
large proportions, says the " Maritime Merchant." From Digby alone 
about 1,000 barrels per week have been shipped, and large quantities 
were also forwarded from St. John, Shediac, Prince Edward Island and 
several other points. As these clams are worth at wholesale in New 
York from $6 to $7 per thousand count, the business must bring in 
a considerable income to those localities engaged in it. According to a 
Prince Edward Island paper, in the neighborhood of $2,000 a day for 
some weeks have been received at Summerside from the sale of clams. 
There is a phase of this question that demands the immediate attention 
of public men, and that is the preservation of the supply by the cultiva- 
tion of the clam. With the continual shipment of large quantities the 



40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

depletion of the beds is a matter of a very short time only. Clam bait 
is a necessity to our handline shore fishermen; and, if the commercial 
trade be allowed to deplete the flats, the older fishery will sadly 
suffer. There is no need of this, as clams are easily propagated 
by artificial aid, little more science being required in raising a crop of 
clams than is demanded of the farmer who raises a crop of potatoes. 
The cultivation of clams is peculiarly the work of the government, 
inasmuch as the product is the property of the public. The matter 
should be taken up now, and not delayed until the industry begins 
to die out and prove unremunerative. The status of private owner- 
ship also requires to be more clearly defined, as some doubtless would 
engage in private culture were they certain the reward of their labors 
would not be reaped by their neighbors rather than by themselves. 

The " Fishing Gazette " of Dec. 29, 1906, says: — 

The clam question is getting to be a serious one in this section of 
Maine, says a despatch from Saco of the 24th instant. The clam flats 
are fast becoming depleted, and, unless some steps are taken to seed 
down the beds, the shellfish will soon become a luxury, if not extinct. 
With miles of clam flats along this coast, some of the local fishmongers 
are unable to get enough bivalves to supply their customers in this 
vicinity, and are obliged to send to the eastern part of the State each 
week for enough to make up the deficit. A few years ago, the diggers 
who live at the mouth of the river shipped many barrels of clams to 
the Boston and New York markets each week; now there have been 
days at a time the present season when they did not get enough to 
supply a few customers in Saco and Biddeford. One of the reasons 
given for the scarcity is, that in the past thousands of bushels have 
been dug every winter to keep the clam factories running; and another 
is, that during the summer hundreds of bushels are dug by the people 
who occupy cottages along the coast. The steady drain on the flats has 
exhausted the supply, the clams not being given time to grow. William 
0. Freeman, who has kept a fish market here for years, succeeding his 
father, Oliver Freeman, the pioneer fish dealer of York County, said 
to-day that something would have to be done, or there would be no clams 
in the flats along the western Maine coast, where formerly the sand was 
alive with them. He suggests, as a remedy, to seed the flats. He 
explained that this had to be done in the oyster beds, and there was 
no reason why it should not be done on the clam flats. He does not 
believe there is any other solution of the problem. 

The " Fishing Gazette" of March 3, 1906, says: — 

The Suffolk, L. I., supervisors have enacted a law forbidding the 
catching of hard clams in Peconic and Gardner's bays of a less thick- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

ness than three-quarters of an inch. This is to prevent the wholesale 
catch and shipment to other waters of the seed clams. This business 
was indulged in to a large extent last year. Previously the supervisors 
had enacted laws forbidding the catching of these clams with a rake 
with openings between the teeth larger than a specified size; but the 
baymen got around this by drawing up a rakeful of mud, in which was 
imbedded hundreds of little clams. The law passed makes it a misde- 
meanor even to possess the clams. 

The following is taken from the eleventh annual report of 
the NTew York Forest, Fish and Game Commission, p. 84 : — 

New York State clams are unsurpassed, the " little necks " being far- 
famed. They are especially in demand during the summer season, 
when the supply of oysters is scarce. Greatly increased quantities of 
clams are annually demanded, causing the stock during the past season 
to bring phenomenal prices. The clammers during the summer of 1905 
received $2.50 per bushel for small clams, such as they had formerly 
sold for $1.25; and $5 per thousand for large clams, which within 
two years they had been glad to sell at $2.50 per thousand. Little- 
neck clams take to cultivation, and crops may be raised by the planter 
with less risk than attends oyster culture. 

The following is taken from " The Oysterman " of Jan. 18, 
1906: — 

Prof. W. C. Stubbs, in the annual report of the Louisiana Shellfish 
Commission for 1906, says that the law " is working well, and under it 
the oyster industry has developed by leaps and bounds, not only paying 
all expenses, but turning over yearly increased surplus to the State 
treasury." This achievement is the more notable inasmuch as the 
Louisiana Oyster Commission, in addition to supervising the leasing of 
barren bottoms, is charged with the duty of protecting and extending 
the natural reefs, and makes annual expenditures for that purpose. 

Originally, Louisiana modeled its legislation upon that of Maryland, 
upon the assumption that, as this was a great oyster State, the laws 
would be adapted to the needs of the industry. In 1886 the then 
oyster law of Maryland was adopted bodily, except that the areas 
which might be taken up as private bedding grounds in one holding 
was limited to 3 acres, instead of 5 acres, as in Maryland. In 1892 
the area was increased to 10 acres, and in 1902 to 20 acres. These laws 
proved as ineffectual in building up the oyster industry as they have 
been in Maryland; and under scientific advice the Legislature in 1902 
provided for the establishment of an Oyster Commission, to take charge 
of the matter. In 1904 that commission made an elaborate report, 



42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

accompanied by the draft of a bill, which, with some modifications, was 
enacted by the Legislature the same year, and under it the oyster 
industry is now thriving. 

The report of the Louisiana Commission gives special consideration 
to the fear that under a leasing system an oyster trust, or monopoly, 
may be developed. The report says : — 

Another of the illogical restrictions of our present oyster law is the 
limitation to 20 acres as being the maximum amount of barren water 
bottom that any one person, firm or corporation may lease for the purpose 
of cultivation. In any other locality and in any other industry the resi- 
dents of the locality and the citizens of the State would hail with gratifica- 
tion and delight the development of bringing into cultivation a large tract 
of unreclaimed and barren lands. 

We have more territory available for oyster production than is now used 
in the whole State in any one agricultural crop, either cotton, sugar cane 
or rice, and yet we have less than 6,000 acres — less than .1 of 1 per cent, 
of the total area — under lease. Twenty years of experience has proved 
conclusively that on the basis of maximum units of 3, 10 or 20 acre oyster 
farms no development will result; and it would appear to the commission, 
from the studies it has made as to this limitation, that it has been repeated 
in the previous oyster laws for the purpose of preventing any oyster de- 
velopment, with the result that the State is deprived of her just revenues 
from her large holdings of barren oyster bottoms. It is true that the ex- 
cuse has been given that such legislation was enacted for the purpose of 
preventing the formation of an oyster trust. Experience shows that trusts 
never control the raw product, and consequently we have no cotton trust 
producing cotton; we have no sugar trust producing sugar; we have no 
rice trust producing rice. Where a trust is formed, when it is formed, it 
is for the purpose of handling the crop produced by some one else; and 
no restriction on acreage will have any effect upon the handling of the 
product, except as it may absolutely prevent the raw material from coming 
into existence and being. 

The practical result of this, therefore, is that the fear of an oyster 
trust has heretofore paralyzed any possible development of the oyster in- 
dustry. The fear is unquestionably and absolutely unfounded. If we 
should judge by the experience of the other States, where no limitation 
is placed upon the acreage that may be leased, we find that in the State of 
Connecticut, for instance, the oyster farmer with 3 acres successfully does 
business aloug with the oyster farming company controlling over 10,000 
acres; and in no State where extensive areas are subject to leases has the 
complaint arisen that an oyster trust has been formed. 

An accompanying report from the attorney of the Louisiana Com- 
mission goes into this matter in detail. 

Statistics are given from Connecticut and Rhode Island, showing 
that, with no restrictions upon the size of holdings, and although the 
available bottoms are a limited area, there are numerous tenants and 
small as well as large holdings. Maryland figures as a horrible ex- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

ample. Statistics are given showing the decline of the annual yield 
of oysters, and the remark is made : ■ — 

In its time Maryland has produced more oysters than any other oyster 
center in the world, yet, depending on her natural reefs, and not encourag- 
ing the production of oysters on barren bottoms by private enterprise, they 
have been killing the goose that lays the golden eggs. A recent visit to 
Baltimore shows a general feeling of depression and despair in regards to 
the future of the Maryland oyster industry. 

Influenced by these recommendations, the law passed in 1904 raised 
to 1,000 acres the area which might be leased in one holding. The 
privilege of leasing bottoms is confined to residents of Louisiana, firms 
composed of residents of Louisiana and Louisiana corporations, and 
none others may hold these leases. Non-residents acquiring such leases 
by inheritance or transfer have twelve months in which to dispose of 
them, but no longer, under penalty of forfeiture. Shipping oysters 
for canning or packing outside of the State is prohibited, and no 
oysters in the shell can be shipped out of the State without a permit 
from the commission. The intention of the law is that, so far as 
possible, the shells can be used for planting upon barren bottoms. 
The commission is authorized to expend $5,000 a year " in improving 
and enlarging the natural oyster reefs, by depositing and spreading 
shells, breaking up bunched oysters, and by the use of such other means 
as the commission shall determine." 

Leases are for the term of fifteen years, at the rate of $1 an acre, 
renewable for ten years longer, at the rate of $2 an acre. The lessees 
may work their grounds in any way they please, and take oysters from 
them at any time they please; but oj 7 sters cannot be taken from the 
natural reefs between May 1 and September 1, except as seed to be 
used upon leased bedding grounds, and then only by special permit by 
the Oyster Commission. The act, which is a long one, is stringent in 
its requirements. Vessels in which violations of the law have been 
committed are liable to forfeiture; and individual persons found guilty 
may be fined from $50 to $1,000, or be imprisoned from thirty days 
to two years, or both. As the law went into operation only last year, 
no official report of results is as yet obtainable; but Professor Stubbs 
states that the number of acres already leased and under cultivation 
amount to over 50,000. The oyster yield is rapidly increasing, and the 
future of the industry is regarded as assured. The law provided that 
the surplus shall go one-half to the public school fund and one-half to 
road improvement. 

Pollution of Harbors and Estuaries, and the Effects upon 
the Public Health through the Shell fisheries. — The ill effects 
of unscientific disposal of sewage and of factory wastes are 



44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

becoming increasingly evident. (1) Not alone are the streams 
and rivers made impossible to salmon, trout, shad, herring and 
other food and game fish, but also (2) in many instances the 
vile flood completely kills the microscopic plants which are the 
natural agents for purifying the water, and which by their 
growth furnish food for the schools of young fish, either in the 
fresh water or in the estuaries and bays where these rivers enter 
the sea. Further, this polluting material in certain instances 
is of such a nature and in such a quantity that it not alone de- 
stroys these microscopic plants, thereby driving from their 
nursery the milliards of young fish which formerly resorted 
here for food, but (3) also drives away the larger fish, which 
depend upon the smaller fish for food. In addition to this, 
(4) the slimy, precipitated sludge kills the young of the edible 
shellfish. This sludge oxidizes and nitrifies slowly in salt or 
brackish water, and persists for so long a period that (5) the 
accumulated slimy ooze rapidly changes the nature of the bot- 
tom, so that it becomes no longer favorable for the growth of 
shellfish. (6) Moreover, the sewage sludge is a positive menace 
to the health of the community which uses the shellfish. This 
danger is due to the fact that oysters, clams, quahaugs ("little 
necks") and mussels act as living filters, removing from the 
water not alone the microscopic plants which are their normal 
food, but also gathering in from the sewage the disease-produc- 
ing bacteria (of which perhaps the typhoid .germ is most to be 
feared). These remain entangled in the gills or within the 
stomach and intestine of the shellfish. If the shellfish is eaten 
raw or only imperfectly cooked, the bacteria are likely to again 
be the direct cause of typhoid fever. All these facts have been 
convincingly shown in the journals of sanitary research by com- 
petent investigators in this and other countries. Investigations 
upon the conditions on the shores of Massachusetts have been 
published in the report of the State Board of Health for 1905. 
In addition to the positive danger arising from eating shell- 
fish from polluted shores, there is a more remote danger of 
bringing living typhoid and other harmful bacteria upon the 
hands, baskets and implements from the mud and polluted water 
of these areas, and thus infecting directly or indirectly the 
drinking water or the food materials either in the market or 
the home. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

We cannot therefore commend too strongly the action of the 
State Board of Health in investigating as promptly as possible 
the sanitary condition of the shellfish in the waters and flats so 
obviously polluted, and in wisely using the power properly in- 
trusted to that Board by the Legislature by prohibiting the 
taking of shellfish from certain definite regions which are found 
to be polluted to a degree which endangers the public health. 
The waters and flats of Xew Bedford and of Boston harbors 
have already been proscribed. Unless active means are taken 
in the immediate future to improve the polluted conditions of 
the Merrimac River, and to purify the sewage which enters the 
river itself and also the estuary, one of the most valuable shell- 
fisheries of the State, the Joppa flats, is in grave danger. 

Action was taken upon Xew Bedford harbor in August, 
1904. On Jan. 1, 1907, a similar prohibition upon the taking of 
clams, oysters and quahaugs in Boston harbor went into effect. 

The following is a copy of the public notice given in the daily 
and weekly newspapers : — 

The State Board of Health, acting according to section 113 of 
chapter 91 of the Revised Laws, on Dec. 6, 1906, requested the 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game to prohibit the taking of any 
oysters, clams or quahaugs from the waters or flats of Boston harbor, 
including the tributaries of the Charles. Mystic and Xeponset rivers and 
Chelsea River and Dorchester and Quiney bays, inside or west of a 
line drawn from Nut Island to Prince's Head; thence along the bar 
from Prince's Head to Peddoeks Island and through Peddocks Island 
to the northeasterly end thereof; thence to the southeasterly point of 
Deer Island and through Deer Island and across Shirley Gut to Point 
Shirley, excepting along the "Winthrop shore inside or northeast of a 
fine drawn from the outer end of the steamboat landing of the Point 
Shirley Club at Point Shirley to the outer end of the Cottage Park 
Yacht Club wharf on the southerly shore of Winthrop, between Orlando 
and Woodside avenues; also about the shores of Lovells, Gallups and 
Georges islands. 

All persons are hereby notified that the taking of clams, quahaugs 
and oysters within the above-described boundaries is prohibited on and 
after Jan. 1. 1907, and that all persons violating this order are subject 
to a fine of not less than $5 or more than $100 for each offence. 

George W. Field. 
E. A. Bracxett, 
J. W. Delaxo. 
Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 



46 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The baleful effects of pollution upon the river fisheries 
(notably the shad) and the shellfisheries have become so ob- 
vious that this year the mayor of New York approved a bill 
requiring the appointment of a special commission of five ex- 
perts, to report on an effective method of protecting the waters 
of New York bay from pollution. This measure has been urged 
for several years by the Chamber of Commerce, the Maritime 
Association and the Board of Trade and Transportation. This 
bill directs the secretary of New York State to communicate 
with the Governor of New Jersey, inviting him to co-operate 
with the new commission. 

During this year the biologist of the commission, D. L. 
Belding, A.B., under our general direction, has continued the 
biological study of the shellfish. Some of the results are given 
in his report, together with that of J. R. Stevenson, A.B., 
assistant biologist, both of which follow : — 

Report on the Shellfisheries of Massachusetts. 

Dr. George W. Field, Chairman, Massachusetts Commission on Fish- 
eries and Game, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I beg herewith to submit the following report of the 
investigations conducted bj?" the commission upon the shellfisheries of 
Massachusetts. 

According as the appropriations permitted, a three years' plan of 
work, ending next year, has been outlined. At the end of this time a 
report containing all the results of the three years' investigations upon 
the economic shellfish will be issued, as it is impossible, owing to the 
work mapped out, to give any complete report before all experimental 
results are obtained. The following is a brief summary and outline of 
the shellfish work of the past year, for the purpose of indicating its 
general trend, and is therefore by no means to be considered as a com- 
plete report. 

The work of the past year has been confined chiefly to the investiga- 
tion of the life and habits of the clam, scallop, quahaug and oyster. 

Work has been conducted chiefly at the commission's laboratory at 
the Powder Hole, Monomoy Point, at Plymouth and at Ipswich. At 
the same time, the work of planting experimental beds and of the 
biological survey of the areas capable of producing shellfish has been 
under way along the whole coast. 

During the summer four assistants werje provided by the commission. 
Two of these were stationed on the north shore and two at Monomoy 
Point. The work on the north shore was in charge of Mr. Stevenson, 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

whose report on certain phases of the clam problem follows. He was 
ably assisted during part of the summer by C. B. Coulter of Williams 
College, and later in the fall by F. C. Lane of Boston University. At 
Monomoy Point the assistants were W. H. Gates of Williams College 
and C. L. Savery of Marion. 

I wish to express my sincere thanks to my assistants, without whose 
help and intelligent work the results of the past year could never have 
been obtained. 

I also wish to express my appreciation of the many favors and help- 
ful suggestions given by Capt. George W. Bloomer and Capt. James 
P. Smith, as well as of the courteous treatment extended by the surfmen 
and fishermen at Monomoy Point. 

It was found absolutely necessary to have at least a temporary labora- 
tory. Such was equipped at Monomoy Point, which offered the best 
situation then known for work upon all four shellfish. The body of 
water, here known as the Powder Hole, furnishes a variety of condi- 
tions favorable for unmolested experimental work. 

The laboratory consists of a two-room cottage, one room 10 by 12 
feet, the laboratory proper, the other 10 by 11 feet, the living room. 
The laboratory was fitted with work bench, aquaria, sink, shelves, etc. 
While not elaborate, it answered its purpose, providing accommodation 
and working facilities for three men. 

In connection with the shore laboratory, a raft 10 by 20 feet, with 
trap wells, was of great use. A large number of exact shellfish experi- 
ments were conducted from this, especially along the line of spat col- 
lecting and rearing of the young larvas. Besides the work at these 
two stations on the north and south shores, a third line of work, which 
might be called " work along shore," has been started. This includes the 
completion of a survey of the clam and shellfish area of the State, and 
the further study of the numerous clam, scallop and quahaug beds 
which have been put out at various places along the entire coast. 

Long-necked or Soft-shelled Clam (Mya arenaria). — The tide flats 
of the entire coast of Massachusetts in former years were exceptionally 
productive of the soft-shelled or long-necked clams. To-day Massa- 
chusetts still possesses these same flats, but the clams have disappeared ; 
yet not entirely gone, though only a remnant of a former abundant 
supply remains. Only in the northern part of the State is there any 
suggestion of the former abundance. The clam flats of Essex, Ipswich 
and Newburyport furnish the bulk of clams dug within this State for 
the market; yet even at these places, with their enormous flats, the 
present yield can not compare with that of the past. At Essex, for 
example, the flats which once offered employment to 100 clammers now 
barely furnish enough for 15. Slowly but surely this valuable industry 
is passing away. A comparison of the yields of various years shows 
that since 1888 the clam production of this State has been steadily on 
the decrease. 



48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The cause of this decrease has primarily been over-digging, as the 
clam area is definitely restricted, and the clam, fast in the soil, cannot 
escape like a migratory fish; thus total areas have been swept clean. 
An increasing demand, especially in summer, has worked havoc. 

However, the outlook for the future is not so hopeless as it may seem, 
if proper measures are used. It is not the demand that must be cheeked 
by closed season or other means, but the supply must be increased to 
meet the increasing demand; in other words, nature must be assisted. 
There are hundreds of acres of flats to-day practically barren, which 
can be made productive at a comparatively slight expense if put under 
proper cultural methods. 

Methods of Work. — Cape Cod marks the division between the flora 
and fauna of northern and southern New England. For this reason, 
owing to the diversity of conditions of clam life north and south of 
Cape Cod, it was found necessary to run parallel experiments. Work 
on the south shore was conducted at the commission's laboratory at 
Monomoy Point, in connection with the scallop and quahaug work. 
AVork on the north shore was conducted chiefly at Ipswich and Plym- 
outh, under J. R. Stevenson, assistant biologist of the commission, with 
the help of C. B. Coulter of ■ Williams College during the summer 
months. 

Mr. Stevenson in his report, which follows, has considered with 
much success such important points as: (1) spawning season on the 
north shore; (2) study of clam set in the various harbors of the coast, 
to ascertain the physical conditions influencing the same, rapidity 
of growth and relative abundance; (3) summer growth on north shore; 

(4) methods of clam culture; (5) practical methods of reclaiming 
flats now unproductive; (6) survey of present clam area on north 
shore. 

At Monomoy Point work on the clam consisted chiefly of: (1) com- 
parative growth experiments; (2) study of embryology and early life 
history; (3) artificial methods of raising larvae; (4) spat collecting; 

(5) enemies; (6) survey of clam area on south shore. 

Growth Experiments. — Growth experiments have been conducted at 
available points along the entire Massachusetts coast. Between 200 and 
300 artificial beds of various sizes have been laid out during the sum- 
mers of 1905 and 1906. These beds are situated at Dartmouth, Marion, 
Monument Beach, Onset, Woods Hole, Edgartown, Nantucket, Harwich- 
port, Chatham, Monomoy Point, Provincetown, Plymouth, Lynn, Annis- 
quam, Essex River, Ipswich River, Plum Island, Newburyport. 

Each bed is set out to illustrate a particular point in regard to con- 
ditions, favorable or unfavorable, which influence the growth of the 
clam, and for this reason are situated in every conceivable location. A 
record of each bed is kept on file, giving all facts about its natural 
location, records of clam growth, etc. By a comparison of these beds 
the favorable and unfavorable conditions for clam culture may be 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

ascertained. The majority of the beds are in unfavorable locations. 
The idea is, not to plant a large number of beds where we know 
clams will grow well, but to find out why they do not do as well in 
other places, where there are few clams. Therefore beds are put in 
these poor places, as often through the failure of a bed the cause is 
discovered and a remedy suggested. 

Mr. Stevenson in his report will outline the methods used on the 
north shore. 

The methods followed at Monomoy consisted in monthly records of 
the growth of a large number of clams, comparing the various con- 
ditions. General work of the past year upon the habits and enemies 
was continued. A study of the early life history of the clam along the 
same lines as that used with the scallop was followed. Records of the 
spawning season were made by daily count of the relative number of 
larva? in the water, using a plankton net of silk bolting cloth. 

A succinct statement may perhaps best be made by briefly answering 
certain questions which have been placed before us for solution. The 
evidence upon which these answers are based must in general be re- 
served for the complete report. 

Soft-shelled Clam (Mya arenaria). 

I. Distribution. What is the extent? 

The soft-shelled clam is found on the Atlantic coast, principally 
north of New Jersey. It is found in varying quantities on all the 
tidal flats of Massachusetts, especially abounding in estuaries. 

II. What places in Massachusetts produce the bulk of marketed 
clams ? 

Essex, Ipswich and Newburyport. 

III. What have been the causes of the alarming decrease in our 
clam supply in the last twenty-five years? 

The chief cause has been over-digging, resulting in a total destruction 
of certain clam areas, due to the unintelligent methods of taking this 
shellfish. An increasing demand has established a constant drain upon 
the flats. Pollution of river water and other natural or artificial changes 
have worked toward the same end. 

IV. What is the remedy? 

Do not stop the demand, but increase the supply to meet it; assist 
nature. There are hundreds of acres now hardly producing clams that 
are capable of an enormous harvest if properly planted with seed clams 
by the town authorities. On the other hand, there are flats which from 
disuse cannot be made to produce clams by merely sowing the seed; 
other methods of preparation are necessary with these before they can 
be put back to their former fruitful condition. 

V. What is the natural growth of the clam per year? 

There is great diversity in the growth of the clam, owing to the loca- 
tion in respect to three essential conditions, — current, length of time 



50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

submerged, and soil. The following figures give briefly the general 
trend of results from numerous experimental beds under great variety 
of' conditions. For simplicity, a 1-inch clam is taken as the standard. 
A 1-inch clam will grow in one year to a size between 2 and 3 inches. 
Under fairly favorable conditions, with a moderate current, a 1-inch 
clam will increase to 2V2 inches, or a gain of 900 per cent, in volume. 
For every quart planted, the yield in one year will be 9 quarts. For 
beds without current, 1-inch clams average about 2 inches, or a gain 
of 500 per cent.; i.e., five quarts for every quart planted. Beds under 
exceptionally fine conditions have shown the amazing return of 15 
quarts for every quart of 1-inch clams planted. Clams increased in 
these beds from 1 to 3 inches in length. Therefore, by planting clams 
1 inch or over, under favorable conditions a marketable clam can be 
produced in one year. 

VI. What is the maximum production per square foot? 

The number of clams per square foot that can be raised to the best 
advantage depends upon the location of the flat in respect to natural 
conditions. Clams thickly planted (15 to 20 per square foot) in favor- 
able locations may show a greater growth than when thinly planted (5 
per square foot) in less favorable locations; therefore, no definite state- 
ment can be made which will apply in all cases. The only rule that can 
be given is that a flat with a current will produce a greater number 
of clams per square foot than one without a current. On good flats 
clams can be planted conveniently and economically from 10 to 15 per 
square foot, or even a larger number. 

VII. What results can be obtained by planting on barren flats? 
There are two groups of flats which come under the term barren: 

(1) flats which once produced clams in great numbers, but now are 
practically barren, except for an occasional clam here and there; (2) 
flats which never have produced clams, and on which for physical 
reasons clams can never grow. The first group of flats is alone con- 
sidered in this answer. 

Experimental beds were planted on certain flats in the Essex River 
which come within the first group of barren flats. These once productive 
flats had been cleaned out in the past, and for some reason had not 
seeded naturally. Forty beds were laid out under all kinds of conditions, 
with the object of finding a way to make these once more productive. 
Results have been all that could be hoped for. Only 4 poor beds were 
found, out of the 40 laid out; 36 beds were in thriving condition. It 
should be noted that no attempt was made to choose the best places, but 
all conditions were tried. Over two-thirds of the clams were re-dug, 
the increase averaging, in terms of 1-inch clams, over 1,000 per cent., 
or 10 quarts for every quart planted the year before. 

If many acres of Massachusetts flats, idle at present, are capable 
of such a yield, should such economic waste be allowed? Why should 
not the towns, by the expenditure of a little money, re-stock flats such 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

as these for the benefit of their inhabitants'? I do not say that all 
flats can be made productive in this way, as I know of many cases 
where the mere sowing of seed clams will not re-stock a flat; but I do 
say that Massachusetts possesses enough flats of the former nature, 
which should be made a profit to her clam mere. Clam set occurs, as 
Mr. Stevenson shows in his report, in large quantities; the transporta- 
tion of seed clams is easy; planting requires little labor, the practical 
way being to sow the clams, which burrow readily; while the yield in 
proportion to the labor is enormous. 

VIII. What sized clams are best for planting? 

The size best adapted must be determined for each flat. Shore flats 
with little current will allow the planting of any size, from ^4 inch 
up; flats with a swift current necessitate a larger clam (1 to 1% 
inches), as the smaller will be washed out of its burrow; soft mud 
also demands a larger clam, as the smaller will be stifled by the oozy 
silt. 

IX. What are the physical conditions that influence the growth of 
clams ? 

There appear at least three essential conditions for rapid growth of 
clams: (1) a good current; (2) low and level flat; and (3) a tenacious 
soil, relatively free from decaying matter. 

A low flat gives the clams longer feeding periods, as the water re- 
mains over them longer, therefore there is a greater growth. This has 
been experimentally shown by Dr. A. D. Mead. 

According to Prof. J. L. Kellogg, clams cannot do well in a soil 
which contains much decaying organic matter, as the acids eat away 
the shells. Soils of this description also facilitate the spread of in- 
fection from one clam to another. 

Current is the chief essential for successful clam culture. The term 
■" current " does not imply a rapid flow of water, but rather a good 
circulation of water over the flat. In the Essex and Ipswich rivers the 
clam flats have a continuous current. On such flats the growth is more 
rapid than on flats which have no circulation of water, in addition to the 
mere rise and fall of the tide. The current performs the work of (1) 
keeping the flats clean and carrying away all contamination, but its 
most important work is as (2) food carrier. 

X. What is the food of the clam? 

The food of the clam consists mainly of microscopic plant forms, — 
diatoms. These are found everywhere in the water. With the clam, 
food is the chief essential for growth; the more food it gets, the faster 
it grows. Current causes more food to come in reach of the clam; 
therefore, clams located in a current are better fed. The fact that 
currents mean more food explains why circulation of water is the 
primary requisite for good clam growth. 

XI. When is the spawning season? 

The varied physical conditions and range of Massachusetts sea coast 



52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

makes it necessary to divide this answer in two parts: (a) south of 
Cape Cod; (&) north of Cape Cod. 

{a) Spawning begins about the middle of June, reaching its height 
between July 15 and August 5; it lasts until after the middle of Sep- 
tember, larvae then being found in the water, but not nearly so abundant 
as in July. 

( b ) The season north of Cape Cod is much later ; spawning lasts from 
the middle of August until the first part of October. 

XII. What are the natural enemies of the clam? 

The young clams are beset by many enemies which do not trouble 
the adult. The worst enemy of the young clam is the starfish, particu- 
larly the young of that species. Crabs, ducks, shrimps, small fish, 
etc., also prey upon the young clam. 

The only active enemy of the adult is the common winkle (Lunatia 
duplicata and L. heros). This enemy burrows beneath the sand and 
drills a hole through the shell of the clam, through which it sucks the 
contents. Only clams between 1 and 2 inches are destroyed hi any 
quantity, as the winkle does not burrow deep enough for the larger 
clams. One winkle can dispose of 2 2-inch clams in three days. 

Outline of Early Life History. — (a) How the eggs are laid: With 
the clam the sexes are separate. Both eggs and sperm are extruded 
in great quantities from the female and male clam, respectively, at the 
time of spawning. Fate willing, fertilization takes place as the eggs 
float in the water; often the egg is not fertilized, and soon perishes. 

(b) Embryology: As with the scallop, the egg after fertilization 
passes through a definite series of changes, resulting in an elongated 
larval creature with a long " feeler," the flagellum. This little animal 
swims with a spirally rotary motion by means of exceedingly delicate 
hairlike processes (cilia) which cover the anterior end of its body. 

(c) Veliger stage: A second change, — after three days we find an 
entirely different-appearing animal. An embryonic shell has formed, 
covering the whole body. The flagellum and ciliated portion of the 
first embryo have changed into a smaller but more powerful swimming 
organ, the velum, which consists of the long feeler and a circular fringe 
of lashing cilia. From ^so to %oo of an inch in size, this little 
form swims in great numbers through the water, where it is the prey 
of various forms of sea life, even of the mother clam, which sucks 
down many of her hapless babies. To give a slight idea of the enormous 
number in the water during the spawning season, it might not be out 
of place to state that the usual catch with a small plankton net, 12 
inches in diameter, in a single tow of 100 yards, is from 25,000 to 
30,000. 

(d) Footed larva: The veliger stage lasts ordinarily less than three 
days. It is hastened or retarded by the temperature of the water. 
During this period there develops the most useful organ of the clam's 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

later life, — the foot. At the same time the velum gradually dis- 
appears. The first use of the foot seems to be as a swimming organ, 
as numbers of early footed embryo are taken in the plankton net at 
the surface. The main use of the foot is crawling. The young clam, 
by the extension and contraction of the foot, can force its way along 
any surface. 

(e) Byssal stage: The clam soon passes into what might be called 
the late crawling stage. The siphon or " snout " is plainly seen, the 
gills have developed, and the foot is the largest part of the body. The 
clam has acquired a new power, — that of attachment. From a gland 
on the ventral side of the foot a thread is spun, which acts as an 
anchor, fastening the clam to objects such as sand grains, sea lettuce, 
shells, etc. This thread (the byssus) is a single strand with several 
branches. At this time the clam measures less than Vm of an inch. 
The byssus can be cast loose at will and the clam can crawl to a more 
suitable locality, where it rapidly spins another. Prof. J. L. Kellogg, 
in his first paper upon the clam, in which he made a very successful 
and complete study of the clam during the byssal stage, showed how 
great numbers of the young first attached to Entermorpha or to sea 
lettuce floating in the water, and thence when larger migrated to the 
flats. Thus we have two methods of clam set: (1) where the clam 
attaches itself to objects in the water, and later migrates to the flats; 
(2) where the clam sets directly on the flat, and anchors itself to the 
sand grains by the byssus. The clam maintains its byssus until fully 
half an inch long. The foot becomes relatively smaller as the clam 
increases in size, and is used as a burrowing rather than a crawling 
organ. 

Destruction of Clam Larva. — During the free swimming period the 
young clam is at the mercy of the tides and currents, with the result 
that it is often carried great distances. When the right conditions 
are present it sets in large numbers, although in most cases the clam 
does not strike good ground, and soon perishes, either washed out by 
swift currents or smothered in soft mud. 

Cold rains destroy the swimming larva. An observation upon this 
point gives the following figures. During a long, cold rain, counts were 
made of the number of larvee in a certain amount of water which passed 
through the plankton net: before the rain, 30,000; after nine hours, 
15,000; after fifteen hours, 3,000. After the rain ceased the number 
of larvae gradually increased, until it was the same as at the first 
count. 

Scallop (Pecten irradians). 

The yield of the Massachusetts scallop fishing for the year 1902 
is given in the report of the United States Fisheries as 66,150 bushels, 
valued at $89,982. However, the area of this industry, which is con- 
fined chiefly to the southern coast of Massachusetts, is rather limited. 



54 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The mere value of this industry alone is ample reason for the protection 
of its future, both in the interest of the fishermen and of the 
consumer. 

The importance of a thorough knowledge of the life and habits of the 
scallop, in fact, of all the shellfish of economic value, cannot be over- 
rated. Complete knowledge of its methods of life, enemies, etc., is 
absolutely essential to airy legislation for the protection of our future 
scallop industry, and only from such knowledge can successful cultural 
methods be devised. 

The commission has outlined work for three years upon the scallop, 
and at the expiration of that period, in 1908, a complete history of 
its life, habits, and facts pertaining to scallop culture, will be ready 
for publication. The following is a brief summary of several points 
relating to this shellfish, which have been newly discovered or con- 
firmed by us this past summer. For convenience, these have been put 
in the form of questions and answers. 

Methods of Work. — As a rule, in work upon all the shellfish the 
same methods are used, with modifications suited to the individual 
species. The following is an outline of the methods pursued by the 
commission in its work upon the scallop. 

Growth Experiments. — For the past two years such experiments have 
been carried on under all possible conditions, and large numbers of 
scallops have been under observation at various places in Massachu- 
setts. Several different methods have been used, to check possible 
errors : — 

1. Scallops were confined in pens, made either of wire netting or twine 
netting. As far as is known, this has been the first successful attempt 
to grow scallops in confinement. Each division contained 50 square feet ; 
some pens contained several divisions, some only one. Scallops were 
separated by sizes, and each size assigned a division. In all, 7 pens, 
or 12 divisions, were built, at the following places: Monomoy Point, 3 
pens; Chatham, 2; Monument Beach, 1; Marion, 1. 

The object for locating these at various places was: (1) to compare 
the growth in different localities; (2) to ascertain comparative growth 
under different conditions; i.e., bottom, current, eel grass, sand, etc. 

These pens contained different numbers of scallops, the largest con- 
taining 1,000. Monthly measurements were made for each pen, and the 
rate of growth for that locality determined, thus permitting the de- 
termination of the best growth under many conditions. It was found 
necessary to make three measurements for each scallop: (1) from 
hinge to edge of shell; (2) at right angles to this, across shell; (3) 
thickness. By means of these three measurements the relative increase 
in volume could be calculated. The method of water displacement for 
increase in volume used with the quahaug could not be applied to the 
scallop, owing to its inability to close the shell tightly. 

2. A somewhat similar method of obtaining growth of the scallop 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 55 

was used by placing them in wire cages suspended from a large raft. 
Monthly records were taken. 

3. Another method used in connection with the pen methods was the 
measuring of large numbers of well-sampled scallops at regular inter- 
vals at Edgartown, Nantucket, Marion, Chatham and other places. A 
line, called the growth line, is usually found on scallops over a year old. 
This growth line is caused by the scallops resuming growth about May 
1, after a winter's rest. Thus, by measuring the growth line at the 
same time, the exact growth of the scallop from May 1 could be de- 
termined. As many as 5,000 scallops were measured at each recording. 

4. Another method for obtaining knowledge of the individual growth 
and of the migration of scallops was devised by fastening a copper tag 
with a stamped number to the hinge. This did not interfere with the 
growth, and allowed the scallop to go unpenned. At Monomoy Point 
500 tagged scallops are under observation. Certain scallops were kept 
over winter by placing them in wire cages, supported from a frame- 
work deep enough to escape the ice. 

In considering the growth of the young " seed " scallop, two methods 
were used: (1) a thousand small scallops, part of which were caught on 
spat collectors, were placed in wire cages of fine mesh; these were sus- 
pended from a raft. As the scallops increased in size they were trans- 
ferred to cages of larger mesh. Monthly records were taken of their 
growth. (2) Numbers of scallops (500 to 1,000) were measured at 
monthly intervals at Marion, Chatham, Edgartown and Nantucket. 
Care was taken each time to get scallops from the same locality. 

Spawning Season. — Five methods were employed on this prob- 
lem: — 

1. (a) Recording the color of the egg sac by means of a color 
standard. The eggs of the scallop when ready to spawn are a bright 
orange color, (b) By means of Prang's color standard a record was 
kept at intervals during the spawning season of large numbers of 
scallops at Marion, Nantucket, Edgartown, Monument Beach, Chatham 
and Monomoy Point, (c) Certain scallops confined in wire cages were 
under close observation during the whole season, and individual changes 
noted. The color gives a true test, as it disappears after spawning is 
completed. 

2. Microscopic examination of eggs. 

3. Artificial fertilization of eggs. 

4. Plankton net. 

5. Appearance of the young set at Nantucket, Marion, North Fal- 
mouth, Chatham, Edgartown and Monomoy Point. 

The early life history of the scallop from egg to adult was followed 
by (1) artificial fertilization of eggs, (2) plankton net and micro- 
scope. 

I. What is the normal length of the scallop's life? 

The natural life of the scallop is from twenty-two to twenty-six 



56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

months ; relatively few scallops pass the two-year limit. While this was 
the prevailing opinion among scallop ers, no absolute proof had ever 
been obtained until the past summer. Exact data upon this point were 
obtained from scallops which had been under observation in wire pens 
at Monomoy Point for two years. Records of death rate from old age 
show that, of 500 scallops alive May 1, 22 per cent, remained by July 
10, and only four per cent. August 2. In July these scallops would 
have been two years old. Scallops one year old, confined under similar 
conditions, showed only a slight mortality. 

II. At what age does the scallop spawn? 

The scallop spawns when exactly one year old. 

III. Does the scallop spawn more than once in its life? 

The majority of scallops spawn but once during their lives, i.e., when 
one year old; not over 25 per cent, reach a second spawning season. 

IV. What important bearing have these first three points upon legis- 
lation for the protection of our future scallop supply f 

All scallops under one year old must be protected, as these furnish 
practically all the spawn for the following year. Only scallops under 
this age need protection. If the scallop under one year old is protected, 
the law has done all in its power to insure the future of this profitable 
industry. It does no harm to capture scallops over one year old; in 
fact, it would be an economic loss if they were not taken, as nearly all 
die before a second season. 

V. Spawning season in Massachusetts, — when does it take place, 
and how long does it last? 

The spawning season of the scallop begins the middle of June and 
ends the middle of August. The height of the season is through the 
month of July. During these two months the temperature of the water 
ranges from 62° to 72°, averaging 67%°. 

VI. Is the spawning season uniform in Massachusetts? 

The spawning season is comparatively uniform along the southern 
coast of Massachusetts. Observations at Nantucket, Edgartown, Chat- 
ham and in Buzzards Bay show that the limits are practically the same, 
although in Buzzards Bay the main part of the spawning is slightly in 
advance of the other places. 

VII. What was the average size of the scallops taken during the 
(1905-1906) season at Nantucket, Edgartown and Chatham? 

Nantucket, 2.1716 inches; Edgartown, 2.1789 inches; Chatham, 2.13 
inches. At each place 10,000 well-sampled scallops were measured. 
The measurement is taken from the hinge of the scallop to the opposite 
side. 

VIII. Why is a sand-bottom or channel scallop larger than an eel- 
grass scallop? 

Scallopers know from experience that you can find larger and better 
scallops in the deep channel or on sand bottom than in the shallow 
water among the eel grass. These are scallops of the same age, only 



1906. ] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25, 



57 



the former has grown more rapidly than the latter. The increased 
growth of the channel scallop is due to its more advantageous location. 
The difference in growth is due to the current. The same is true with 
the clam and quahaug; those situated in the current grow most rapidly. 
Every shellfish needs circulation of water for growth; eel grass cuts 
off the current and prevents the circulation of water. The growth of 
the scallop depends upon the amount of food it can procure. This 
microscopic food is found rather evenly distributed throughout the 
water. Currents bring more food. As more food is brought to the 
scallop in the channel by the free circulation of- the water, the growth 
there is naturally more rapid. 

IX. What is the food of the scallop? 

The greater part of the food of the scallop, clam and quahaug con- 
sists of certain microscopic plants, called diatoms. These tiny forms 
are extremely varied in size and shape. They are easily recognized by 
their silicious cases and beautiful markings, which have won for them 
the name of " the jewels of the plant world." 

X. How large does a scallop become? 

It is possible for the channel scallop to attain at times the size of 
SYa to 3% inches. In Buzzards Bay they are larger than at Chatham, 
Edgartown and Nantucket. Of the 1905-06 catch at Chatham, only 
2 per cent, were over 2% inches; at Edgartown, 1 per cent.; and at 
Nantucket, 3y s per cent. 

XL When does the scallop begin to grow in the spring, and when 
does it cease growing in the winter? 

The period of growth of the scallop depends upon the tempera- 
ture. The following results are for a scallop during its second 
summer: the scallop resumes growth in the spring, usually about 
May 1, when the temperature of the water has reached 50°; it is 
then about nine months old. 

XII. Which are the most favorable and least favorable months 
for scallop growth? 

The same scallop ceases growth in the fall, usually in the latter 
part of November, when the temperature of the water has fallen 
below 50°. In the folio whig answer each month is given a numeri- 
cal value, representing the gain for that month in millimeters (25.4 
mm. to the inch.) These results were obtained from monthly records 
taken from a large number of scallops confined in pens at Monomoy 
Point : — 



January, 

February, 

March, . 

April, 

May, 

June, 



July, . 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 



XIII. Do scallops cease growing during the spawning season 



2 

4^ 
3 

1 



58 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



From the above table it can be seen that during June and July, 
the spawning months, the growth is half that of May and August. 
This indicates a slower growth during this period, but not a cessation 
of growth. 

XIV. The growth line, — what causes it? 

In old scallops a line, known as the growth line, can usually be 
found running parallel to the edge of the shell. This varies greatly 
in prominence, as it is hardly discernible on some scallop shells. 
This line is formed in Massachusetts scallops about May 1, when 
they resume their growth after the cold winter months, during which 
all growth ceases. This growth line is not caused by the spawning 
season, as has been supposed, since our observations indicate that 
there is no cessation of growth during June and July, the spawning 
months. This distinct growth line arises long before the spawning 
season. 

XV. What was the average size of "seed" scallops May 1, 1906, 
at Nantucket, Edgartown and Chatham? 

Nantucket, 38 mm. (1.52 inches) ; Edgartown, 37 mm. (1.48 
inches); Chatham, 42 mm. (1.68 inches). 

XVI. Growth of " seed " scallops. 

A " seed " scallop, according to a broad definition, is a scallop less 
than one year old. 

Usually seed scallops are attached to eel grass by a thread called 
the byssus. As with the old scallops, the position of the seed scallop 
in relation to the circulation of water is of great importance for 
its growth. Often the majority of a set is unfavorably located, as 
the eel grass cuts off the current. 

The young scallops vary in size, as those of the same set are, for 
example, on December 1 found to range from % to 2^ inches; it 
is therefore difficult to give correct averages. The following figures 
give in a general way the growth of the young scallops of 1906 at 
three different localities : — 



Location. v 


Average Size of Seed Scallops. 


Marion, 

Chatham, 

Edgartown, 


On August 9, 11 mm., or i^ 5 inch. 
On December 1, 34 mm., or 1% 5 inches. 

On August 1, 11 mm., or i^ 5 inch. 
On September 1, 20 mm., or % inch. 
On December 1, 33 mm., or 1% 5 inches. 

On September 1, 13 mm., or i% 5 inch. 
On December 1, 30 mm., or \% inches. 



XVII. What is the range of the scallop? 

The general northern range of the shallow-water scallop (Pecten 
irradians) is Plymouth; from this point it extends southward along 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

the Atlantic coast. Prof. J. L. Kellogg of Williams College, the 
well-known authority on lamellibranchia, in his report on oyster 
culture in the Gulf of Mexico remarks upon the presence of this 
same species of shellfish near the Chandleur Islands. 

XVIII. What were the scalloping centers of Massachusetts in 
1906? 

Nantucket, Edgartown, Dennis, Hyannis, Chatham, Marion and 
New Bedford furnish the bulk of the Massachusetts scallop supply. 

XIX. What are the natural enemies of the scallop? 

The scallop has two important natural enemies, — the starfish and 
the oyster drill. The former is the more destructive. Its method of 
attack is the same as used upon the oyster, its favorite prey. The 
smaller starfish are the more destructive, especially to the small seed 
scallops. The oyster drill pierces a fine hole through the shell of the 
scallop by means of a rasping "tongue," and then sucks out the con- 
tents. The drill is not nearly so destructive to the scallop as to the 
oyster, since the scallop often can shake the invader off with a 
quick snap of its shell. Many scallops have been observed with 
shells partly drilled, showing that in this way they have escaped 
destruction. 

These two enemies are found in certain areas in great abundance, 
and only here is the damage to the scallop at all apparent; in 
other localities scallop is relatively free from natural enemies. 

XX. What are the principal destructive agents? 

Under the broad term of " adverse physical conditions " can be 
grouped the principal causes of scallop destruction. The small seed 
are the chief sufferers. Although protected by their attachment to 
eel grass by the byssus (a bundle of fine threads), scallops are 
constantly in danger of washing ashore in heavy winds. Enormous 
sets of scallops are found where the flats are exposed or nearly 
exposed at low course tides, causing sometimes entire destruction 
during the winter. Eel grass, which serves as a protective medium 
at times, hinders rapid growth, and many scallops are covered by 
masses of dead eel grass. 

In nature there is everywhere this struggle for existence. The 
scallop in the past managed to live only by overcoming these adverse 
conditions. When man intervened by killing both the adult and the 
seed scallop, it became harder to meet these conditions, and the 
natural result was a diminishing supply. The outlook for the future 
is bright, if man will refrain from taking the seed scallop. 

Outline of Early Life History. — (a) How the eggs are laid: The 
scallop is hermaphroditic, i.e., the same animal is both male and 
female. If a scallop is examined during its spawning season, one 
may notice a bright, orange-colored sac, lined with a thin streak of 
white, which composes most of the lower part of the main body or 
visceral mass. The orange-colored part contains the eggs; the white 



60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

part, above the orange, the sperm. When ripe, the eggs, ^ioo of an inch 
in diameter, are extruded into the water, where they are fertilized by 
the sperm cells, usually from another scallop. 

(&) Embryology: Eggs were artificially fertilized June 12, 1906, 
at Monomoy Point. After fertilization the egg passes through a 
series of changes by the usual method of irregular cell division, 
until it becomes, hi about fifteen to twenty hours, a small larva, 
swimming by means of little, hair-like processes, called cilia. In 
the next few hours it develops a fiagellum, a bundle of long, fine 
hair-like processes, which is used as a feeler. The part near the 
fiagellum is now covered with cilia, while the opposite end has none. 
Soon the shell begins to form, and the scallop enters upon the so- 
called veliger stage. 

(c) Yeliger stage: At this stage the embryonic shell is fully 
formed, and encloses the entire body. The animal is still free- 
swimming, locomotion being effected by the organ called the velum. 
The cilia of the former stage have been modified to a circular band 
with the fiagellum in the center, thus forming the velum. This is 
extended when the shell is opened, and by the lashing of the circular 
fringe of cilia the scallop veliger can travel through the water in 
any direction. When startled, it immediately closes the shell and 
drops to the bottom. The diameter of the veliger is V250 of an inch. 

(d) Crawling stage: A gradual transition now takes place, the 
veliger changing so that in less than three days it arrives at what 
may be called the crawling stage. The velum has now disappeared, 
and in its place is a foot, which becomes relatively the largest part 
of the body. The foot possesses a groove or sucker at its end, which 
is also equipped with long cilia. By means of this foot the scallop 
can both swim and crawl, making relatively fast progress. At first 
the size of the footed scallop is scarcely larger than the veliger-, 
development becomes more rapid, and the scallop soon attains a 
length of Yoo of an inch in diameter. 

(e) Attachment stage: Although the crawling stage cannot be said to 
come to an end until the scallop measures at least half an inch in 
length, it soon acquires the power of attaching itself to any object by 
a byssus thread. As it increases in size, the number of strands of the 
byssus increases. The first scallops noticed attached were %o of an 
inch in diameter. Possibly they may have the power of attachment 
still earlier. The attachment is very strong, and it is difficult to dis- 
lodge small scallops, though they are able to cast off the byssus at will 
and in a short time spin another. During the late crawling and early 
byssus stage the eyes and tentacles are developed. Growth now be- 
comes exceptionally rapid. The power of byssal attachment remains 
with the scallop all its life. Often scallops fifteen months old are 
found attached to eel grass. This habit is of use chiefly in preventing 
the animal from being washed ashore in heavy storms. The foot 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

gradually decreases relatively in size, and the scallop loses its crawling 
power. 

Spat Collecting. — Young scallops are usually found attached to eel 
grass, shells, stones, etc., by their byssus threads. The exact conditions 
which govern a set in any locality are difficult to observe. The primary 
requisite is something to which attachment may be made; this is 
usually eel grass. In a number of cases heavy sets are found in the 
still water on the side of a current. This is often the case at the 
entrance to harbors, where eel grass flats line the channel. The spread 
of the incoming or outgoing waters carries with it the young larva, 
which strikes the eel grass in the still water and sets. It is the instinct 
of the young scallop to fasten to anything it strikes. Scallops are 
attached to eel grass from 2 to 12 inches from the bottom. As a rule, 
the scallop remains constantly attached until it has become even 1% 
inches in length, or practically until the first winter. From that time 
on it can attach itself, but appears rarely to make use of this power. 
This merely gives a suggestion for artificial spat collecting, if such 
were found desirable. Old nets, frayed ropes, etc., hung in a moderate 
current, should furnish an excellent means of collecting spat. At 
present there is no distinct need of this, as " seed " is superabundant 
in many localities. Although scallop larva were plentiful no natural 
set occurred during the summer of 1906 in the Powder Hole at 
Monomoy Point. Nevertheless, on boxes and frayed rope, lowered 
for collecting spat from a raft anchored in the center of the Powder 
Hole, 1,200 small scallops were obtained in the limited space of a few 
square feet of surface. 

Quahaug (Venus mercenaria). 

In the last few years the fact that our quahaug supply is rapidly 
diminishing has frequently been called to public attention. The full 
significance of this has been overlooked and not thoroughly understood. 
It means practical annihilation of a valuable industry, if something is 
not done to check this diminution, which is shown by the high price 
now paid for the choice " little neck " (a small quahaug IY2 to 2 
inches). The increasing demand and popularity of this shellfish has 
caused a severe drain upon the natural beds, from which the small 
quahaugs are being taken. 

As the situation now stands, there is a distinct need of a remedy. 
Two possible means suggest themselves: either regulate the capture, in 
view of preserving the future industry, or increase the supply through 
cultural methods.to meet the increasing demand. 

It is hardly necessary to emphasize again the necessity of a complete 
knowledge of the life and habits of the quahaug, before satisfactory 
laws, regulations and cultural methods can be devised. 

The quahaug work durmg the past year has followed out in detail 
the points suggested by Prof. J. L, Kellogg in his excellent work, 



62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

" The Growth and Feeding Habits of Venus mercenaria," which is the 
only publication upon the quahaug. For conciseness, a summary of 
certain points will be put in the form of questions and answers. This 
is by no means to be considered as the complete report, but merely an 
outline, to show the general trend of the year's work. 

Methods of Work. — The quahaug work was mainly conducted at 
Monomoy Point, where a variety of conditions could be obtahied in a 
small area. Experiments were conducted in beds, and in boxes either 
suspended from a raft or resting on the bottom. It was found more 
satisfactory to use boxes filled with sand for the experiments which 
demanded monthly records. 

Experiments were conducted under a great variety of conditions on 
the same plan as the soft-shelled clam experiments, though on a much 
smaller scale. Growth experiments were laid out under such conditions 
as: (1) in rapid and slow currents; (2) in eel grass; (3) on muddy 
bottom; (4) on sandy bottom; (5) between the tide lines, with a view 
of determining the best conditions for growth. 

Beds were planted at Nantucket, Monument Beach, Essex River, 
Ipswich River and Monomoy Point. In these beds were planted all 
sizes, from % of an inch to 3 inches. About 5,000 quahaugs are under 
observation. 

Growth Experiments. — Methods of recording growth are: (1) meas- 
uring length; (2) water displacement; (3) notching the edge with a 
file, — a method used with much success on the soft-shelled clams by 
Dr. A. D. Mead of the Rhode Island Fish Commission. 

I. Sow long does it take a quahaug to reach the size of a " little 
neck"? 

The rate of growth of the quahaug varies according to its location in 
respect to current, tide and other physical conditions; therefore, the 
following answer will not apply in all cases. The answer applies to 
quahaugs under favorable conditions for growth. 

A quahaug will reach the size of 2 inches under naturally favorable 
conditions two years and three months from the time it is spawned. 

An average taken from several favorably located growth experiments 
gives the following results : — 







Spawned July IS, 1904. 




Date. 


Size. 


Equivalent in Inches. 


Oct. 15, 1904, 


13 mm. 
34 mm. 
54 mm. 


.43 inch. 


Oct. 15, 1905, 

Oct. 15, 1906, 


1.275 inches. 
2.04 inches. 



From this down the rate of growth diminishes according to the 
favorable or unfavorable location of the bed with respect to natural 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

conditions. In the most unfavorable experimental bed, one where the 
«el grass cut off all current, it would have taken eight years to produce 
the same-sized quahaug. 

II. How old are the large quahaugs? 

The answer to this can only be an estimation. Large quahaugs over 
3 mches must be at least four years old. "Without doubt 3-inch 
quahaugs can be found at any age over four years, according to their 
favorable or unfavorable location. At present the length of life is 
unknown. 

III. What is a blunt-nosed quahaug? 

In the market there is a distinction in value between " blunts " and 
"sharps." A blunt nosed or lipped quahaug is one whose edges have 
thickened because of slow growth ; while a " sharp " ordinarily indicates 
rapid growth. 

IV. What are the conditions that influence the growth of the 
quahaug f 

(a) Food: The rate of growth among the mollusk family, to which 
the quahaug belongs, depends directly upon the amount of food. 
Ninety-eight per cent, of this food consists of microscopic plants, called 
diatoms, and is taken from the water. As a rule, these forms are 
rather evenly distributed through the water. The quahaug draws them 
in by a short, fleshy extension of the mantle called the siphon. 

(b) Current: Current does two things, according to Prof. J. L. 
Xellogg, the eminent authority on clams: it keeps the surface clean, 
and more food is brought over the beds. Therefore, it should be ex- 
pected that quahaugs situated where they get the best current (the 
current cannot be too strong) would grow the best. In every experi- 
mental bed this fact has been demonstrated. The best growth comes 
from the beds which have the best current and most continuous circu- 
lation of water. More food passes over these beds, and consequently 
growth is more rapid. 

(c) Soil: Quahaugs are found in mud, sand, mud and eel grass, 
and various combinations of these three. Ordinarily quahaugs are 
found on the muddy flats, below low-water mark. In regard to the 
rate of growth, the chief essential is the food. It has been found that 
mud flats furnish more food than sandy flats. The soil alone affects 
the quahaug mechanically as a resting place; chemically by its effect 
on shell; or by a prolific growth of diatoms, which may increase the 
food supply. The quahaug grows equally well in either mud or sand, 
though a muddy flat has more often a slower current. 

In eel grass the growth of the quahaug is less rapid, unless situated 
where there is a current. As a rule, the eel grass shuts off circulation 
of water; therefore there is less food where the current is not strong. 
Eel grass is situated usually where current is not swift, and prevents, 
or retards still further, the circulation of any current. The quahaug 
grows only slowly in eel grass. 



64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Quahaugs set in eel grass more frequently than on other flats. The 
eel grass furnishes a place for the young quahaug to set before it 
enters the soil; it affords protection to the young against transplanting 
power of currents. If a quahaug when small strikes any obstacle, 
such as eel grass roots, it is likely to remain there, never wandering. 

V. Does a quahaug grow betiveen the tide lines? If so, how fastt 
Quahaugs are often found between the tide lines. Growth is much 

slower than on flats continually submerged. Growth was found by 
experiment to average a little more than half that gained by quahaugs 
continually submerged under similar conditions. Naturally, the growth 
between the tide lines varies from the same causes that affect the 
submerged beds. 

VI. Does the density of the salt water affect the growth of the qua- 
haug? If so, what degree of salinity is most desirable? 

As far as can be yet observed from our experiments, the density of 
the water does not affect the growth. It is not as sensitive to density 
changes as the oyster. The quahaug, as the soft-shelled clam, grows 
equally well in very salt water or in brackish water, i.e., water of specific 
gravity from 1.009 to 1.025. 

VII. Can quahaugs grow out of the sand or mud? If so, how can 
this be of economic importance? 

Quahaugs will grow suspended in wire baskets in moving water. 
Growth is one-third as fast as quahaugs in sand under the same condi- 
tions; therefore, a man would not lose entirely by keeping his catch in 
racks under water. 

VIII. What are the growing months of the quahaug? 

The following table has been obtained from monthly observation of 
numerous quahaug experiments under the best growing conditions. The 
months are weighted, each figure representing the gain during that 
month in millimeters (25.4 mm. to the inch), starting May 1. " 



May 3 

June, ...... 3 

July, 3 

August, . . . . . .5 

September, ...... 4 

October, ...... 4 



November, 

December, 

January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 



IX. When is the spawning season? 

The spawning of the quahaug is at the same time as the scallop, — 
middle of June to middle of August. 

X. What are the natural enemies? 

The principal enemy of the quahaug is the " cockle " or " winkle n 
(Lunatia duplicata and heros). This enemy destroys the quahaug by 
drilling a clean, counter-sunk hole in the quahaug shell by a rasping, 
boring instrument. This hole is nearly always found in the same place 
in the shell. The very small quahaugs are occasionally found bored by 
the oyster drill (Urosalpink inerea). Starfish have been found eating 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

quahaugs. The starfish rests on the ground over the quahaug, which 
lies just below the surface of the sand. 

XI. Do quahaugs migrate? 

In beds which have been left a year the quahaugs have not moved 
at all; all were found in a radius of a few feet from where planted. 
This substantiates Professor Kellogg's observations. In experiments 
on this point this conclusion has been reached: the adult quahaug has 
the power of movement, but does not seem to exercise it. 

Outline of Early Life History. — The egg of the quahaug is shot out 
into the water, where it is fertilized. Development takes place rapidly, 
and the animal soon reaches a swimming stage (veliger), with a shell 
which has formed during this time. A few days later a foot is com- 
pletely developed, the swimming organ is discarded, and the animal 
enters upon a crawling stage. Soon it attaches itself by a thread from 
a gland of the foot, fastening itself to objects either out of the sand 
or to sand grains. As in the case of the soft-shelled clam, it frequently 
casts on 2 this byssus, and moves, spinning another at will in a very 
short time. This is the first time the byssus has ever been observed 
with the quahaug, though its existence has been surmised. In every 
detail the byssal stage of the quahaug is identical with that of the clam, 
as the quahaug digs into the sand and anchors itself to the sand grains 
in its burrow. The object of the byssus, as in the case of the clam, 
is for protection against being washed out of its burrow. Quahaugs 
have been found, 3 mm. in diameter, fastened by byssus to objects out 
of sand. The byssus has been observed on quahaugs 9 mm. long. Qua- 
haugs over this size seem to lose the power of byssal fixation, or do not 
make use of it. 

Spat Collecting. — While no very satisfactory method has been found, 
a number of this year's set were caught in boxes filled with sand and 
suspended from a floating raft in July and August. A similar method 
has been used by Dr. Mead in connection with clam spat. 1 It furnishes 
an idea for further work along this line. 

Artificial Culture. — The most favored places for quahaug growth are 
where there are currents. Advantage can be taken of this by placing 
quahaugs in boxes or racks, suspended from rafts or piers. The qua- 
haug can be made to grow in boxes containing only a few inches of 
sand, possessing thus a great advantage over the clam in this regard, 
as the clams demand at least 10 inches of sand. 

The advantages of this method of artificial culture are: (1) faster 
growth (quahaugs can be taken from slow-growing places) ; (2) non- 
trespassing on public rights; (3) utilization of place not hitherto used; 
(4) the market demand as to size can be exactly met; (5) quahaugs 
thus raised will grow when very thickly planted; (6) quahaugs grow 
well in water of any depth, — utilization of all water. 

During the past summer, experiments in artificial quahaug raising 

1 Rhode Island Fish Commission report, 1899. 



66 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

have been made from a floating" raft. Boxes containing sand and qua- 
haugs were lowered to various depths; monthly records of each box 
were made. Quahaugs were planted in various numbers per square 
foot ; results were very favorable, — growth was very rapid, far more 
so than on shore. Quahaugs grew as well thickly planted as when less 
numerously. They could be made to gain an inch in length in five 
months during the summer. 

This scheme of artificial culture is practical and profitable, econ- 
omizing waste space now of no economic importance. 

A complete account of this method of artificial culture and experi- 
mental results from the same will be given in the regular quahaug 
report, to be published next year. 

Oyster. 

The work of the past summer upon the oyster was confined to main 
lines: (1) growth experiments and observations of set were conducted 
at Monomoy Point; (2) several small beds were seeded on the north 
shore, with a view of determining new suitable places for oyster culture ; 
(3) a survey of the oyster area of the State was included in the general 
shellfish survey. The results of these investigations will appear in next 
year's report. 

There are two suggestions which I should like to bring before the 
commissioners concerning matters which have come to my attention 
during the past year: the first, the increasing interest of the public in 
the development of the shellfish eries ; the second, the duty of the town to 
its shellfisheries. 

1. The last few years have shown a decided change in the attitude of 
the general public toward the shellfisheries of the State. The importance 
of this movement can not be overestimated. Present conditions are 
calling the attention of the consumer to the decreasing yield, and only 
through the consumer can legislation be enacted for the improvement 
of the declining shellfisheries. 

Since the Department of Fisheries and Game has become not merely a 
commission on inland fisheries, but through the efforts of the late 
Captain Collins likewise a commission of sea fisheries, the confidence of 
the fishermen, and through them the confidence of the general public, 
has been steadily on the increase. 

The past year has shown remarkable strides along this line, especially 
in the added interest in the experimental work now conducted by the 
commission upon the shellfisheries. Everywhere along the coast the 
kindest reception has been given the employees of the commission, and 
in many cases also help through which they were able to accomplish 
results otherwise not attainable. 

The intelligent consumers as well as the fishermen in the State should 
realize that in the next few years active and intelligent methods must 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 

be used to save the shellfisheries from practical annihilation. The com- 
mission can show cultural methods and indicate the way of reform, but 
no more. The future of the shellfisheries lies in the hands of the voters 
of the towns of the State. 

2. Several years ago the State by a special act (Acts of 1880, chapter 
200) placed the control of the shellfisheries in the hands of the towns. In 
doing this the State placed a great responsibility upon the town, namely, 
an intelligent supervision of its own shellfisheries. One matter was 
overlooked, — the State made no provision for forcing a negligent town 
to care for its own shellfisheries. 

It is a self -apparent fact that our shellfish are steadily decreasing, 
as the result of unintelligent and unsystematic methods of capture. 
The towns are mainly responsible for this. As each town was given 
complete control, it was the duty of each to regulate its own shell- 
fisheries. Better control is what is needed at the present day. 

As an instance of such a lack of foresight respecting the shellfisheries, 
the following case is an excellent example. In a certain Massachusetts 
town in the spring of 1906 there was an enormous set of small quahaugs, 
from % to 1% inches. By the spring of 1907 these would have been 
good-sized u little necks," and, as has been experimentally shown, would 
have increased to six or seven times the volume. Nevertheless, these 
were gathered and shipped out of the State, to oystermen who merely 
replanted, reaping a rich harvest. The result was a financial loss of 
large amount to the town, merely because it neglected to regulate this 
indiscriminate digging by enforcing a simple size limit. 

While many towns have regulated their shellfisheries in an efficient 
manner, there are some that have made no effort to care for theirs. It 
is only justice to the State and general public that such towns be com- 
pelled to put a stop to economic waste, and thus to revive this declining 
industry. 

Respectfully submitted, 

D. L. Belding, 

Biologist. 

The following report upon the soft-shelled clam is merely pre- 
liminary to the one of next year. In this we have given in the 
briefest way a resume of the life history of the clam. Kates of 
clam growth as regards exposure, currents, soils, ages, etc., have 
been set forth as facts ; the account of the experiments will be 
furnished later. But, as regards clam culture, in methods of 
preparing the soils, and in procuring and transplanting the 
clams, we have gone more into detail. Yet here the length 
of time demanded for successful experiment, and the uncertainty 
of practical results, prevent many definite statements. We wish 



68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the clammers and all those interested in clam culture to discuss 
thoroughly what is written along this line. We are collecting 
all available information upon the subject of clam culture. 

Report or J. R. Stevenson upon Observations and Experiments 

ON MOLLUSKS IN ESSEX COUNTY DURING 1906. 

I. What is the spawning season of the soft-shelled clam (Mya 
arenaria) ? 

The times of spawning vary greatly with the locality. (1) Upon 
the shores of New Jersey, the clams are said to spawn during the 
months of May and early June. (2) In Narragansett Bay, June 
is the month (report of Rhode Island Fish Commission for 1901). 
(3) At Chatham, along the south shore of Cape Cod, the spawning 
takes place largely during July, though some larvae are found in 
August and even in September. (4) At Plymouth there were large 
quantities of clam larvae in the towings during the first week of Au- 
gust; during the last week of October a small number were found. 
At this time there was a uniform gradation of set, from V±o of an inch 
in length to more than x /o an inch. The clams had been in spawn all 
these weeks. During August the season was at its height. (5) In 
Ipswich I found no larvae from the towings before August 23. Even 
in the middle of November there were clams upon the Ipswich flats 
less than V\q of an inch long. Here the spawning season is at its 
height during the first half of September. (6) The time of spawn- 
ing at Newbuiwport and at Essex is practically identical with the 
time at Ipswich. (7) The farther north one goes along the coast, 
the later is the time of spawning. (8) It is said upon high authority 
that the spawning of the clam hi the Gulf of St. Lawrence does not 
take place until the end of September and early part of October. 

Thus it is seen that there is a difference between the time of spawning 
at the northern range of the clam and upon its southern extension 
of at least four months. "Within the boundaries of our own State 
the spawning season at Fall River upon Narragansett Bay is two and 
one-half months earlier than the time of spawning upon the Merri- 
mac in the extreme northeasterly part of the State. The time varies 
with the locality. 

The temperature of the water is the mam factor in regulating the 
time of spawning. The warm currents along the southern extension 
of the clam give a higher temperature to the water during the entire 
year, and especially in the early spring they render the water warm 
enough for the spawning to commence very early. The farther north 
one goes, the greater becomes the retarding influence of the colder 
climate and the northern currents. 

Upon the clam flats along the south shore of Cape Cod, as at 
Monomoy or Harwich and farther south, where the ova are extruded 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 69 

early in the summer, there is usually a lesser spawning in the fall 
months. Upon these flats we find two distinct sets each year. This 
makes it most difficult to determine the age of any set of clams that 
have reached sexual maturity. Along the North Shore, due to the 
lateness in the time of the first spawning season, there is no such 
second spawning season. 

Moreover, in each locality the clams do not spawn at the same time. 
By November 1, when the clam larvae in the towings have become 
very few, it is possible to find, upon the same flat, " clam set " more 
than 1 inch long, as well as less than Vio of an inch in length, with all 
the intervening sizes. The average length of " clam set " in Massa- 
chusetts waters north of Cape Cod by November 1 is about % an 
inch. In each locality there are some clams that extrude their eggs 
early in the season, and others toward the close. Finally, each indi- 
vidual clam extrudes its eggs during a period extending over some 
weeks. If a mature female clam is examined early in the season, it is 
found to possess ova in all stages of development. So it is with the 
males; mature spermatozoa, as well as sperm still in an early stage, 
are found in the same individual. After a fortnight one finds, it may 
be, few immature ova in a female clam, the larger number being ready 
for extrusion; but the whole number of ova less than earlier in the sea- 
son. Later but a few mature ova may remain; the spawning season 
has passed. 

For each individual clam the time of spawning extends over a 
period of some weeks. For the clams as a whole upon some one flat, 
or within a certain harbor, the spawning is spread over a period of 
two to three months, — its beginning, its height, its waning. For all 
the harbors along the coast,^ containing clams, the spawning season 
extends from May to November, — a period of six months. Thus 
there is apparent the utter impossibility of formulating any general 
rule as to the spawning season of Mya armaria along our coast. 
Each harbor has its own time. 

In regard to the spawning of the clams there are many difficult 
questions that should be answered: (1) Do the clams upon a mud 
flat spawn before those upon a sand fiat? (2) Which spawn in the 
briefer period? (3) Which extrude the greater number of eggs? 
(4) Do the small clams spawn earlier than the larger ones? (5) 
Does the position of the clams upon a flat with reference to high tide 
affect the time of the spawning season or the number of eggs ex- 
truded? (6) Upon flats of varied texture how old must a clam be 
before it attains to sexual maturity? Several of these questions are 
briefly discussed in the 1901 report of the Rhode Island Fish Com- 
mission. Some of the material we have thus far collected in regard to 
these questions does not entirely confirm their findings. We wish to re- 
port in detail upon this subject another year. Then, too, very little is 
known as to the development of the ova and spermatozoa of the 



70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Lamellibranchia, and the method of fertilization for the clam in par- 
ticular. A vast field is here opened up, even for generalized work. 

The direct bearing of all this study lies in the fact that it may be 
necessary for the towns to set apart certain areas in the several har- 
bors for brood grounds of the clam, as is now done with regard to the 
oyster; or at least to restrict digging over certain localities, whence 
barren areas may be seeded naturally. The value of such localities 
and those that are most suitable must be fully understood. 

Our work with regard to the early stages; the. study of the causes 
and conditions and rate of later growth, and of the depredation of 
enemies and the protection afforded by friendly forces, — all of this 
work must be carried out, at least to some extent, before a sufficiently 
adequate knowledge of the soft-shelled clam is obtained, in order to 
gain its maximum production within the harbors of our Common- 
wealth. 

Practical Methods of Clam Culture. 

When clams have ended their free-swimming stage, they may set far 
more thickly on one part of the fiat than upon another. On one area 
the young Mya, no longer than Vio of an inch, may be found 1,000 per 
square foot, while within 10 yards 10 clams per square foot may be 
scarce. On some flats the set is never very thick {i.e., more than 100 
per square foot) on any part, while a light set may be found upon 
almost the entire flat. As a rule, for two or three months after 
spawning has begun the set is very numerous upon some small por- 
tion of a flat, and scarce upon the greater part. 

(1) This uneven distribution of the young set is of the highest 
inrportance to the transplanter. The clams, destined during the winter 
storms to cover the entire flat, are now set within a small compass. 
Nine-tenths of his labor has been done for him. Even with the set 
over 1,000 per square foot, it is no easy undertaking, however, to 
obtain it clear of sand and debris. The first gathered for experi- 
mental purposes were too small; the strong byssus thread of the 
attached Mya held it fast to the soil. Later, when near the half-inch 
mark, the byssus becomes a relativelj 7 unimportant organ and readily 
breaks. This is the time for collecting. Shovel the surface sand con- 
taining the set into galvanized mosquito wire sieves, and vibrate 
under water. The sand and mud readily sink, leaving the young Mya 
white and clean. Often by one sifting with a sieve 18 inches square, 
3,000 to 4,000 young clams are obtained. This is tedious work, and 
frequently the clam set is far from the water at low tide, necessi- 
tating a long portage, or else the digging of holes near at hand. 
Often sifting is most successful when the water is leaving, or else 
flooding, the flats. 

(2) At times we may use an easier method of collection than the 
one just described. In some limited localities the young clams have 
set in unusually large numbers. Often they are so numerous, 2,000 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

to 5,000 per square foot, that only a small portion can burrow, the 
rest being but half in the sand, or merely resting upon its surface, the 
sport of every storm. Such an area I found during November, 1906, 
in Plum Island Sound, upon the east side of Rowley Reef. The 
narrow channel here washes the eastern thatch bank. Upon the west 
side of this channel a long reef has grown up, upon which lay the 
prodigiously abundant set. Several clammers have told me that fre- 
quently such sets occur here, furnishing extraordinarily good digging for 
the Rowley men. Upon an area 600 to 700 feet long, tapering at the 
ends, and about 150 feet wide in the center, I found a set of young clams 
from 1,000 to 5,000 per square foot. From an average square foot of 
sand in which every clam was burrowed out of sight, and in which I 
counted roughly 1,000 holes, I dug 1,937 clams, averaging about V2 
an inch in length. From a square foot of sand into which the clams 
had not completely burrowed, I sifted 2,416 clams. Roughly esti- 
mating this area as containing 50,000 square feet set with clams at 
least 1,000 per square foot, we have the enormous amount of 50,000,- 
000 young clams. If they go as I found, about 3,000 per quart, 
there are about 17,000 quarts, which is over 500 bushels of young 
clams. The producing power, after two years' time, of these 500 
bushels we may scarcely estimate. From certain productive flats less 
than 500 two-year-old clams filled a bushel basket. This young set 
on Rowley Reef goes 100,000 per bushel. If all were thriving after 
two years we would find a gain in volume of 160; i.e., if to-day we 
were to plant 1 bushel of this set, within two years we would be able to 
dig over 160 bushels of fair-sized, marketable clams. Many of these 
clams, even if carefully transplanted, would die; yet, if but a half 
survive, the gain in volume of even 80 bushels is enormous, — far 
greater than in areas naturally set, for the natural set is most uneven 
in its distribution, certain areas being extremely overcrowded, others 
scarcely occupied. 

Among the peculiarities of this set there were no enemies to be found 
with the clams, and no other shellfish, — neither Gemma, Macoma, 
Mactra, Tellina, Ensis, Lunatia, Littorina nor Nassa; it was a set 
solely of clams. Of all these clams, I could not discover one that was 
fastened by its byssus thread. Perhaps a recent storm, through vio- 
lent shifting of the sand, had destroyed the byssus threads of all. 

Upon the shifting sand of the top of Rowley Reef very few clams 
could be found, but upon the boundaries of this thickly set portion 
of the reef the young clams spread out in decreasing numbers over 
an extensive area. This lesser and more scattering set increases per- 
haps by 50 per cent, the number of young clams upon this reef. Near 
the center of the most thickly set area I found a tidal pool, roughly 12 
feet long by 6 feet wide, and about 15 inches deep. At first sight it 
seemed but an inch or two deep, but upon wading into it I sank to 
my knees. Imagine my surprise when I found it was not mud into 



72 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

which I sank, but a groaning mass of living clams. Here were more 
than 60 cubic feet of solid clams. Reckoning 2,000 per quart, as these 
seemed larger than those burrowed into the sand, with 25.7 quarts per 
cubic foot, I found in this one pool more than 3,000,000 young clams. 
With this discovery the work of transplanting was more than nine- 
tenths done. Upon other portions of this thickly set area were many 
smaller hollows, set full of young clams, layer upon layer, tier upon 
tier, till the former sand hollows now became ridges of living clams. 
These ridges we " scooped " up by the pailful. 

The first day I visited the reef I dug a short trench, about 15 feet 
long, across a portion of this thickly set flat. The day following I 
found several pailfuls of young clams gathered by the force of the 
water into clean heaps. When such natural tide pools fail in their 
supply it is possible to dig others, and, by turning over the thickly 
seeded flat, to let the tides and waves fill the new pools with the dis- 
lodged clams. Those found in the bottom of the large tide pool were 
in poor condition; a few were dead; some were dying; they had been 
left there too long before transplanting. I hesitated to use these 
clams only, and so by careful sifting obtained several bushels from 
the thickly set ridges and from the thoroughly burrowed areas. Two 
bushels I transplanted to the barren flats abreast of Hog Island in 
the town of Rowley, and sowed them in soils of several kinds. Two 
bushels I transplanted upon the north portion of Point Peter, where 
were few large clams and practically no young set of 1906. We sowed 
two bushels upon " Luf kins," abreast of Ipswich Bluffs, just south of 
the north guzzle and well out upon the flat. The day following two 
bushels were distributed along the west side of Treadwell's Island, 
upon lower Senorita, and upon the Horseshoe opposite Diamond 
Stage, — all in Ipswich River. Some of these spots are poor for 
transplanting, but for the sake of the experiment we wish to try them 
all. During the winter and spring of 1907 we plan to keep close 
track of this Rowley Reef set, and of the areas upon which we sowed 
the clams. 

(3) There is still another method of transplanting that may be 
used. When a strong wind is blowing, visit a thickly set flat, such 
as Lufkins or Ritchies Ground, in Plum Island Sound, upon which 
the waves raised by this wind beat directly. As the tide begins to 
flow, turn up some portion of the flats just in advance of it. The 
big incoming waves wash the clams from the heavier sand, and slowly 
roll them up the beach in ever-increasing numbers; finally, one may 
gather them in windrows. 

(4) Many men, as at Essex, dig for transplanting small 1-inch 
clams that have set upon the mud flats in great numbers. This method 
is much more tedious, and the increase in volume for the amount 
transplanted is many times less. But for certain shifting flats this 
is the only method, for clams less than 1 inch in length do not remain 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

where planted in these areas. There are some very shifting flats that 
can be planted only with clams longer than IV2 inches; yet when once 
seeded the growth upon these areas is most rapid, — ample to reward 
the transplanter. 

The clams from these overset areas are more than enough to seed 
all the barren flats now upon the sound. Here are four suggested 
methods. They may be used, or others devised. At any rate, by very 
little effort, the supply of clams can be increased greatly to meet the 
ever-growing demand. Thus, by utilizing the huge sets found in 
various localities, the labor of collecting and transplanting young 
clams of suitable size is rendered comparatively easy. 

Two objections to clam transplanting discussed : — 

(1) It may be said by some that huge sets of the soft-shelled clam 
do not occur in every harbor, especially in the smaller ones, of the 
State; also, that these sets are not found every year, even in the most 
favored localities, (a) But the clammers declare that Rowley Reef 
sets thickly every few years. They tell of huge sets in other years 
upon other flats of the sound, (b) During the fall of 1905 an exten- 
sive set came upon Dumfudgeon in Squam River, (c) The Rhode 
Island Fish Commission, in a report published in 1902, mentions 
numerous sets under varying conditions, — in 1899, from a certain 
area on Cornelius Island, 12,000 clams per square yard were dug; in 
1900 many thickly set areas were located, from which clams were 
transplanted; during August, 1901, on Green's Island, a huge set, in 
some spots going nearly 8,000 clams in one shovel full of sand, was 
visited several times, a portion of it being dug and transplanted to 
other flats, (d) Prof. J. L. Kellogg of Williams College, in a recent 
report has described admirably a most peculiar set in Falmouth, 
Mass. (e) At Harwichport, in a certain portion of the harbor, a 
thick set of 1906 was found. (/") Upon Wheeler's and Castle Neck 
flats in Ipswich an exceptionally heavy set occurred, — several hun- 
dred per square foot, in some cases, (g) The clammers in other har- 
bors tell of huge sets cast up in windrows along the shore (a Rhode 
Island report has described such a set). Though it may be unusual to 
discover clams so exceedingly numerous as this set upon Rowley Reef, 
I have no doubt that in practically all the harbors of the State, where 
clams survive in any number, these extremely thick sets occur. It is 
true that they may not be found in the same place each year, nor in 
the same abundance; but they do occur in sufficient numbers to render 
the work of transplanting possible and practicable. During the coming 
spring and summer we plan to continue our observations in the har- 
bors of the State, with a view to locating these abnormal clam sets, 
and to experiment in transplanting them to the barren areas of these 
harbors. 

(2) Another problem in regard to transplanting to other areas 
consists in the fact that many flats are suited to the successful raising 



74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of elams only after the clams have reached a certain size. If the young 
clams are planted before this size is reached, the beating of the waves 
and the shifting due to current action wash away the clams to other 
areas, leaving the flat almost as barren as before planting. In May 
several experiments at Plymouth, as well as a bed in Squam River 
and several in the Essex basin, failed for this reason. Many flats, 
mainly those where the current is relatively gentle, may be seeded 
profitably in the fall; but the more sandy flats cannot be planted with 
success till well into the succeeding summer. I have no doubt that 
some areas, over which strong currents run, should not be planted till 
the seed are over one year old. Such shifting areas may be planted 
most profitably, even though only larger clams may be used, because 
here, due to the very swift, food-bearing current, growth is extremely 
rapid. I have in mind one such spot in Plum Island Sound, where 
a clam which last April measured 1 inch had by the latter part of Octo- 
ber become more than 3 inches in length. These spots might well be 
named clam-fattening areas. 

II. What is the cause of this enormous set upon Rowley Beef? 

You will notice by this rough sketch of Rowley Reef that the main 
channel of Plum Island Sound takes a bend of nearly 150° just east 
of the reef; in fact, this huge bend in the channel has built up the 
reef. Upon the eastern or convex side of the channel there is slack 
and shallow water. Right here is the huge set. A swift, larvae-bear- 
ing current is suddenly checked; the larvae, as well as the sand grains 
with which they are found, are deposited in the slack water, thus 
extending the reef ever to the eastward, as the channel advances yet 
farther east, exacting its annual tribute from the thatch. Upon the 
top of the reef the waves from the west beat with force too great to 
permit any permanent set; but upon this eastern side the waves do 
not exert sufficient power to dislodge the set, which remains and 
thrives. A larvae-bearing current, suddenly checked by some obstruc- 
tion, causes the set of the young clams upon Rowley Reef, as else- 
where upon the tide flats of the State. 

The Localities upon which -is found an abundant Set. — Every dis- 
tinct flat has at least one area that is thickly set by young clams for two 
or three months after spawning. During the past year we have studied 
more than a dozen Ipswich flats, with a view to noting the localities 
upon which is found the abundant set, and to explaining the cause 
of this set in these special localities. We plan to continue this work 
during the winter and spring of 1907, and in a more complete report 
to describe in detail, with the aid of maps and photographs, the loca- 
tions of and variations in the set upon the several flats. 

(1) Early in November on Lufkins I found one thickly set area, 
a couple of acres in extent, containing from 500 to 1,000 elams per 
square foot. The outgoing tide gently washed the southern edge of 
the flat, causing a bend in the current and giving slack water. Here 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

I found the set. Elsewhere it was very scarce. Though upon the 
muddy parts of the fiat I could find almost no set, yet in this same 
mud clams one year old are growing in huge numbers. I believe that 
they did not set in this mud, but that they first came where now I 
find so many of 1906, and that during the winter and spring storms 
they were shifted to the inner portions of the flat. I believe that this 
1906 set, so numerous near the bend of the current, will likewise shift. 
There is a portion of Lufkins, the outer middle area, upon which clams 
are very scarce at any time of the year. Here the current is greater, 
the food supply larger; here are needed the efforts of the transplanter 
to double the yield of this productive flat. 

(2) Upon Foresicles, the western part of Plum Island Sound mid- 
dle ground, we find a heavy set, not so numerous as upon Rowley 
Reef or Lufkins, but over a large area. This is a typical flat; no 
shifting sand dunes interfere. To the west near the low tide is the 
coarser sand, high-reefed, and shifting at every storm. Here clams 
grow most rapidly, but they shift too much; here the young set is 
scarce. 

Within these shifting sand reefs we find a smoother, more stable 
portion of the flat of finer sand. Here the clams of all sizes are 
numerous ; the growth is rapid, — nearly as rapid as upon the reef. 
Here we find the abundant young set. Early in November, 1906, 
I found set ranging from 2 mm. to 20 mm. and more. This area 
is primarily the home of the young set of the clam, as well as of 
the mature forms, — a smooth flat of fine sand, between the areas of 
coarse sand and soft mud. 

Within this well-set area, towards the thatch bank, we find mud 
with very fine sand, — a heavy flat. Here the young set is scarce; 
here is the home of the Macoma, old and young; here clams one and 
often two years old are abundant; here there is no shifting, but the 
growth is comparatively slow. Upon this muddy area the clams are 
shifted from their first lodgment by the storms of winter and of 
spring. 

Upon this flat the assistance of the transplanter is needed to collect 
the clams sufficiently large to be sown upon the outer shifting and 
sandy areas, where set is scarce, but growth extremely rapid. The 
transplanting should be done during a poor run of tides, when no 
storm is in sight, to insure that the clams have firmly burrowed be- 
fore any shifting occurs. Thus the outer area of Foresides has a cur- 
rent too swift and unchecked, the inner portions too slow a current, for 
a numerous set; but in the central parts the currents are of sufficient 
force, yet checked enough by thatch projections and sharp bends, to 
induce an ample set. 

(3) Upon Northeast Sides of Plum Island Sound Middle Ground, 
where the current takes a sharp curve, there is a very heavy set over 
a small area, for the flat is small, and high as well. The set seems 



76 FISH AND GAME. . [Dec. 

never to shift here, where I find clams of all ages closely crowded into 
a comparatively small area. The portions of the flat about this set 
are lightly seeded. Here the transplanter is needed. 

(4) Lobster Cove contains a set due to a strong eddy that sweeps 
around the flat, leaving very soft mud upon its center. Along the 
edges of this soft mud in quiet water the set is found. It is scarce 
upon the borders of the flat and lacking in its center. The same 
cause for the set obtains here as upon the other flats, — moving water 
is suddenlj r cheeked. I might describe several other flats, well set, but 
in some parts very poorly seeded, all showing how small is the area 
upon which the clams set, and how large the area upon which very few 
clams survive, — not nearly as numerous as should grow upon it. 
Upon all the areas of this most productive harbor in the State there 
is a great need of judicious transplanting, in order to increase the 
production of clams. 

III. Are all the flats set at the same time? 

No; some are set more than a month before others. While young 
clams were setting continuously upon Foresides from August till No- 
vember, Lower Reef, across the channel to the westward, was barren 
till the largest Foresides set measured about V2 an inch in length, 
about October 1. Then a very heavy set covered Lower Reef. North- 
east Sides was seeded some weeks later than Foresides. The north 
part of Castle Neck Flat set several weeks later than the southern 
part. The set upon Lufkins covers an area rather small, as com- 
pared with the set area upon Foresides; also, the set is somewhat 
later. Wheelers was thickly covered comparatively early in the season. 

Daring the year 1906 very few young clams came upon the river 
flats of the North Shore; as far as I could examine Ipswich, Green, 
Rowley and Merrimac rivers, there was only a decidedly scattering set 
along their banks. Upon the sound flats it is very heavy this year. 
Will the set another year be light upon the sound flats, and thick 
along the rivers? 

IV. Is the area for most favorable growth of the soft-shelled clam 
identical with the area upon tvhich the thick set comes f 

As a rule it is ; but the area of favorable growth is usually far larger 
than that upon which the heavy set is found. This applies to other 
genera of shellfish as well. 

V. Are there many clam areas below low water? 

It is rare that one finds clams in abundance below low tide; and 
this is mainly for mechanical reasons: (1) shifting sand, (2) soft 
mud, (3) eel grass and mussel occupation alike prevent clam growth 
upon most of the areas below low tide. 

(1) As one approaches the low-water mark on a sandy flat the soil 
becomes coarser, more rippled and shifting. Below this mark the 
shifting increases, because of the increased force of the current when 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

the tide is down. For the same reason we find no clam areas ex- 
posed to the wash of the sea, though the flat be far below low tide. 

(2) Often a muddy flat, though it produces good clams between the 
tide lines, becomes too soft for clam growth below tide lines. This 
is especially true of flats extending out from the shore of a large 
harbor, — flats where the current is extremely slow. 

(3) In many tidal rivers much of the bottom is overspread by 
eel grass and mussel beds. These in many cases occupy ground below 
low tide, suitable for excellent clam growth; but the clams can gain 
no adequate foothold among vigorous eel grass areas and densely 
populated mussel beds. 

(4) Clam areas of any extent below the low-tide mark that go to 
none of these extremes, undue shifting or very soft mud, or eel-grass 
and mussel occupation, are comparatively few. In the larger har- 
bors some such areas are found. They occur mainly upon the banks 
of rivers (some distance from the sea), as along Senorita in Ipswich 
River, and in Rowley River in a few limited spots. The northern 
side of Joppa Flat Ground, upon the south side of the Merrimac, is 
an excellent type of a clam flat below low tide. At the lowest tides 
of the year the clammers dig numbers of big clams here, and they 
declare there are numerous " holes " upon a bright, quiet day. Upon 
the south side of Cape Cod, as in Buzzards Bay, etc., there is some 
" churning " of the clams below low tide. But the extent of these 
areas south of the Cape, as well as those to the north, is relatively 
limited, probably no more than 2 to 5 per cent, of the whole clam 
area of the State. 

YI. Such areas should he reserved as " brood grounds." 
Clams below low tide grow more rapidly than those between the 
tide lines. They are exposed during no portion of the day, and have as a 
rule a greater current. A number of experiments conducted the past 
year confirm this. Upon these limited areas clams of enormous size 
thrive in great numbers. Annually they extrude millions of eggs, which 
develop and settle upon the many flats. A chief reason why the outlook 
for clamming at Newburyport is so good is that the seeded areas below 
low tide remain in large measure undug. I believe that if Plymouth 
harbor possessed extensive clam areas below the low-tide line the 
present depletion of her flats would be far less. 

Such areas, limited but extremely prolific, are imperatively de- 
manded as " brood grounds." They should carefully be protected as 
an essential source of young clams, which are transported by the 
currents to all the flats of the harbor. The idea among many clam- 
mers, that if only they could devise a method of digging in firm soil 
at some depth below low water they would make " big money," should 
be lost sight of as soon as possible. The towns of our Common- 
wealth should look to it that the devices used at present in some localities 



78 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

for digging below low tide, as well as new methods in such work, do 
not endanger the welfare of our clam industry. Where digging is 
constant, where the clams are decreasing in number, where depletion 
is threatened, the protection of existing brood grounds is demanded 
imperatively. If the sources of supply of young clams are disre- 
garded during the next few years as they have been in the past, what 
have we to expect from our clam industry of the future? Here are a 
few productive localities where clamming is difficult; at least let us 
protect these. 

Many further questions we wish to investigate more in detail during 
the coming year. Some of these are : — 

(1) How fine may the surface of the flat be not to prevent a heavy 
set of young clams'? 

(2) At what period in the life of the young clams do they settle 
upon fine mud flats, or those of coarse, shifting sand? 

(3) What per cent, of the swimming larvae perish out at sea and 
do any enter other harbors? 

(4) What per cent, of the larvae set in unfavorable localities and 
die there? 

(5) Is the set deposited by the outgoing and incoming tides alike? 

(6) What per cent, of the clams spawn during the first year, and 
upon what flats is this per cent, greatest? 

(7) What is the relative advantage of a sand flat over a mud flat 
as to clam growth? 

(8) How extensive is the shifting of the clams over % an inch in 
length? 

(9) Is this shifting voluntary, or unavoidable? 

Many difficult questions arise as to the food of the clams in the 
larval stages, as well as for the adults. The enemies of the clams dur- 
ing their successive periods of development call for careful study. 

Observations and Experiments at Plymouth during 1906. 

This past year we have conducted a number of experiments in 
Plymouth harbor upon the soft-shelled clam (Mya arenaria), with an 
ultimate view to increasing the production from that extensive area. 
In years gone by the flats furnished occupation for many diggers; 
but at present from Plymouth flats, even during the summer months 
of greatest demand, scarcely two barrels daily are dug. 

In this report we describe, first, the present state of clam life 
throughout the harbor (1) from a careful observation of clams still 
surviving along the shore, as well as upon the flats; (2) from the 
results of numerous artificial beds made in a number of localities; 
(3) and from a careful study of the 1906 set of young clams on the 
flats of the harbor. Secondly, we give our present opinions upon the 
continued depletion of clams, with a few brief suggestions as to deal- 
ing with the problem in clam culture. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 79 

The Localities in which Clams are found to-day. — I. A few 
clams still grow along the shores: (1) in the gravel upon the south 
side of Clark's Island clams have always thrived; (2) from Plymouth 
beach a few are obtained; (3) the several grants to property holders 
along the shore contain thickly seeded but slowest-growing clams. One 
man, who owns a grant, remarked to me : "I thought, when I had seeded 
my grant and had adequately protected it, I should have an abun- 
dance of clams, but they don't grow. It will take four years to raise 
a clam fit for bait." His statement is correct. Over these shore fiats, 
exposed many hours, the current is slight, in fact, over much of this 
area there is merely a most gentle inspreading of the tide and an 
equally gentle ebb. There are, however, a few relatively small shore 
areas, viz., on projecting points, where the current is stronger and the 
growth proportionately greater. Yet the entire extent of the shore 
flats from the Cordage Company's plant to Eel River is small as com- 
pared with the possible clam area of the now barren flats in the center 
of the harbor. The shore flats are, as a rule, rather high up and rela- 
tively narrow;' for wherever the gravel along the shore gives way to 
the mud flats, here the clam set almost invariably ends. The muddy 
areas along the shore, as well as upon the flats (except where new 
soil has been formed upon them), which in well-seeded harbors are 
filled with clams, here are barren. (4) To the south of Beach wharf 
there has been a fair production from the " Dump," but this now is 
on the wane. 

II. Upon the extensive flats of the harbor scarcely any clams are 
to be found. Here and there upon several of the central flats an ex- 
perienced clammer may dig by tedious effort ten to a dozen large 
clams, but they are very scarce. In but few areas upon these central 
flats, and these of small extent, are clams to be found in any number. 
(1) The first is upon the top of Wind Flat, amongst the scattering 
mussels, where are a few clams of 1904 or 1905, with a greater set of 
1906. The soil is very dark, in some cases soft and muddy. Here 
their growth is relatively slow. Near at hand are areas lower down, 
more sandy with a better current, but without a clam (similar areas 
in Ipswich are more productive). (2) Upon the west side of Wind 
Flat, where the scattering mussels have raised the level of the flat, 
a small set is found. (3) Upon the high southeastern portion of 
White Flat, as (4) upon a similar area of Egobert's, there are a few 
clams of all ages burrowed deep in the shifting sand. But leave this 
high shifting portion of the flat and examine lower down, amongst 
the areas where are scattering worms or eel grass or mussels and one 
finds no clams. (5) Upon a small portion of Grey's Flat in Kingston, 
in the neighborhood of scattering mussels, a numerous set has grown 
for many years. Upon this area one or two men make a regular prac- 
tice of digging; but the clams are either numerous and of small size, 
fit only for steaming, or else large but few in number. This area is a 



80 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



lone survivor of former abundance. (6) Even upon the highest parts 
of the flats, south of the Oyster Grant, there are no clams. There 
may be other limited areas within Plymouth harbor on which are 
scattering clams, but these are few and far between. 

Note that all these spots w 7 here clams are found are (1) the very 
tops of the flats; (2) where there is shifting; (3) where new soil has 
been formed; (4) or else they are gravel beds or thatch banks along 
the shore. Very rarely does one find clams upon the low flats or upon 
the lower parts of the higher flats, and these are the great areas that 
should be so productive; these areas are barren. Such, from careful 
observation, are the conditions obtaining at present in Plymouth 
harbor. 

The Results from the Planting of Clams throughout the Harbor. — 
During 1906 we have conducted at Plymouth a long series of experi- 
ments in clam culture. We have planted about 150 clam beds, in 
most of which the clams have died. 

I. Early in May we made five beds on the Oyster Grant, Beach 
Wharf Flat, White, Grey's and Egobert's flats. We planted clams of 
small size, — probably too small for these areas. They averaged 1,200 
to 1,500 per quart. Before the end of June not a live clam and very 
few shells were left in these beds. 

II. The first week in July I replanted the five beds with larger 
clams of several sizes, dug partly from the shore grants and partly 
from Grey's Flat. The first of August we found that the beds planted 
upon White's and Egobert's flats, where the sand was high and rather 
shifting, contained both shore and flat clams in thriving condition. 
There were no live clams in the other beds. These latter were upon 
old soil that shifted very little. 

III. At once we planted about 90 more clam beds, putting from 30 
to 50 clams of various sizes in a straight line between two posts. 
These beds were approximately as follows : — 



1. Eel River outlet, south of the Oyste 

2. Oyster grant, 

3. Wind Flat, .... 

4. White Flat 

5. Cory's Flat, .... 

6. Grey's Flat, .... 

7. Egobert's Flat, 



Gr 



ant, 



15 beds. 

6 beds. 

12 beds. 

15 beds. 

10 beds. 

15 beds. 

15 beds. 



About October 20 I carefully examined all the beds, and found as 
follows : — 

1. Eel River outlet: all dead; some bored; some shells; many missing. 

2. Oyster Grant: all dead. 

3. Wind Flat: five beds, planted up among scattering eel grass and 
mussels, contained some live clams. These surviving beds had been 



planted near the natural set mentioned before, 
on the flat were failures. 



Those made elsewhere 




A rough outline of the chief Plymouth flats at present practically barren of clams. 
During 1906 the commission planted a number of experimental clam beds upon the 
flats named in the sketch. But few of these beds contained live clams Dec. 1, 1 ( J0G. 






I ■ ■ 







■■ A 



if mi. J',- 







.2 ® 
^'1 



1: 1 





■ g 



.. .... . . .. ... . .. ......,, 



££ 



i 



'.'■'/• 








;■;,«.: 



-t 




;>v 



I- 






il^ #■ 






Ess ^#wa 



Plum Island Sound area, the chief clam flats roughly stippled. Even here, upon 
the most productive clam area in Massachusetts, the abundance of clams' is far 
less than the maximum. In the Sound no sewage or manufacturing waste 
enter as a factor in clam destruction. 




From Plum Island Sound. (Sept. 1, 1906.) A rapid two-year growth compared 
with a slow two-year growth. There is a surprising difference in the growth 
rates of two flats which may even he close together. The rate of growth on 
the one may he three times greater than the rate upon the other ; hence the 
absurdity of working out growth rate tables unless one takes into account the 
height of a flat above low tide, the texture of its soil, the abundance of its 
food supply, and, most important of all, the force of the currents over it. Ex- 
cellent clam growth is obtained only from a combination of several favorable 
conditions. 




From a thickly set area just to the west of the High Sands, Ipswich River. 
(Aug. 25, 1906.) One square foot of the flat, carefully dug, produced 176 
clams. The smallest are of a late 1905 set, the great majority of a 1904 set. 




From a gravel bank on the east side of Fox Creek, at its junction with Ipswich 
River. (August, 1906.) About one-third natural size. The row to the left 
of the ruler was from a square foot of soil located about two hours above low- 
tide mark. The next rows were taken from areas of equal extent, succes- 
sively higher up the gravel bank. The clams are fewer and of smaller size 
the farther they are from the low-tide mark. 








From the mouth of Ipswich River, eastern edge of High Sands, where shifting 
occurs to some extent. (Aug. 25, 1906.) One square foot contained 62 clams, 
somewhat larger in size (due to better current) , but fewer in number (due to 
unfavorable conditions for the young set) than upon the less shifting areas of 
the flat. 





















I' 4- • * JL . *^ 4 










> » 






' '.1* * '* 



r v 




B B 

C8 O 






i o 



£13 
g£ 

o 



i-H B 



if t-< 

© o 



B & 



B c — 

O Sh , 



o 




K s z 



® S° S > 




I 
H 


% B 




o 


















R 


- 


OS 


P 








tr. 




•— 








+2 


X 






c 


5 




x 




1 


EH 

X 

eg 


5 

>. 


~ 


a 








5 


02 




© 




- 
x 


•c 


~ 




71 


J 


cS 




CO 








x 




- 






g 




i 


> 






(B 


3 


a 


£ 




R 




5 




fcj 




5 


~ 


£ 


^ 


+a 




VI 














H 


l; 


p 


8 




fl 


if. 


-U 


8M 


s 




88 
























OD 


02 

ea 

1, 


R 
R 


+3 


•_ 

5 






u 


r 




—■ 






O 


/- 


_^ 


cS 
















„^ 


.9 


^ 




/ 




- 


- 




.s 


■H 














r 




o 


> 

> 


X 


DO 


R 


X 


&c 




T3 


a 


1 


2 


.3 


>se8 

© 0} 




i-i 


i 






si 


— 


r; 




_ 


R 


r- 


_^ 


R 


S 




c 


+a 


B 




5. 


4-= 




It 


in 






c 




X 


5 


9 


tf 


x 


— ^ 


X 

- 


he 


© 




© 




;r. 








- 


~ 


R 




O 


- 
x 

R 


« 


a 
— 


E 

+3 

co 


5 

X 


© 


- 




x 


;_ 


^3 




i 


ri 








,£ 


x 








x 

CO 


© 

■A 




P. 


r 

►a 


© 

X 

O 


© 

© 


se 


C 


= 


a 

X 


93 

e8 






£ 

— 

o 


fat 

R 


5 


R 
z 


- 


X 


l 


£ 





CS 


e3 


_>. 


i 




X 


— 


^5 


> 

03 


C8 

CO 


c 




a 






£ 


R 




c 


3 










5C 


— 


u 


R 


.- 


© 


85 

© 


BH 


^ 


£ 


— 


a 




3 




Ill 

i 
- 


3 

Ph 


3 

05 




© 


£ 


— 

«H 


- 


d 





© 













r 




From Powder Hole Flats, Chatham, Mass. (Nov. 20, 1906.) All natural size. 
The two largest clams are late 1905 set ; the rest are 1906 set. Here the 1906 
set is very small, but during 1905 an unusually heavy set occurred ; this illus- 
trates the wide annual variation in the abundance of the clam set in any one 
locality. 



From the Middle Ground, Plum Island Sound. (Oct. 15, 1906.) The upper- 
most group of small clams shows the natural size of the young set on " Fore- 
sides." Here the set is usually later than on " Southeast Sides." Immedi- 
ately below and to the right are four clams about 15 mm. in length, the largest 
which could be found on " Southeast Sides." Here about September 10 the 
set in some spots was 1,000 clams per square foot. By October 15 the indi- 
viduals of this young set varied from 1 mm. to 15 mm. long. The two larger 
clams were notched on Sept. 21, 1906, and immediately planted upon " Fore- 
sides." They were dug again on October 15. The figures show the growth 
made between these dates, an interval of twenty-four days. The largest clam 
shown on this plate grew from 41 mm. long May lto 99mm. (about 4 inches) 
in length by September 20, under most favorable conditions. The photograph 
at the bottom of the plate shows the average rate of growth of clams on the 
Powder Hole Flat, Monomoy Point, Chatham, Mass. : July 20, 1905, length 
27 mm. ; Nov. 15, 1905, length 38 mm. ; Aug. 5, 1906, length 54 mm. ; Nov. 20, 
1906, length ti6 mm. ; 25 mm. = approximately 1 inch. 




From Plum Island Sound " Foresides." (Sept. 5, 1906.) Two-thirds natural size. 
In the centre are small 1906 clams ; next are four 1905 set, greatly retarded in 
their growth ; then come two clams probably of 1901 set, also showing a slow 
growth. The large clam at top of the photograph is probably of 1901 set, 
showing a rapid growth. The largest clam, at bottom of photograph, may be 
four years old. 




From Ipswich, Plum Island Sound. (September, 1906.) An excellent " Fore- 
sides " clam, natural size ; probably three years old. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

4. White's Flat: all dead except in one bed upon the highest part, 
where the sand shifts. 

5. Cory's Flat: all dead, though planted under many diverse condi- 
tions and far apart; but no beds on this flat were made upon shifting 
areas, none upon new soil. 

6. Grey's Flat: all dead. No beds were made under the conditions 
of the natural set growing there, as was done upon Wind Flat. 

7. Egobert's Flat : all dead but in one bed planted upon soil similar to 
the ]one survivor of White's Flat. 

Thus, of nearly 90 beds, but seven contained living clams at the end 
of ten weeks. 

Some have argued that the cause of the death of the clams in most 
of these beds planted during August was the unusually warm weather 
at this time. This is not the reason, for: (1) During the same month we 
planted clams upon the North Shore as well as along Cape Cod, that 
grew well. (2) From earlier reports of clam transplanting, summer 
beds have been a success. (3) The clams that we dug for transplanting 
were healthy, and they showed no fatigue when planted upon the flats. 
Those beds containing, at the end of ten weeks, living clams, were in 
places unfavorable for the best growth during the hot months, — well 
up above low tide, and exposed for many hours daily to the direct rays 
of the sun. Those clams planted in the apparently favorable areas 
died without exception. 

IV. After examining these beds throughout the harbor, I made 
further experiments: (1) Upon a barren area of Wind Flat, where 
there were few worms, no mussels and no eel grass, a spot about 20 feet 
square was forked over, and after several days planted to both shore 
and flat clams of several sizes. The first of December no live clams 
were found in the bed; a few had been bored, some were dead, but a 
large part were missing. This spot shifts but little; the small areas 
upon White's and Egobert's flats, where clams now grow, shift much 
more. The current action over this Wind Flat bed is most favorable, 
and has not caused the destruction of the clams. (2) At the same time I 
planted a small bed, turned over beforehand, upon an area of Wind 
Flat, near the former bed where scattering eel grass grows. Here, 
many of the planted clams lived. (3) A large bed was carefully dug 
over and planted among the scattering mussels of Wind Flat, where 
there is a. small natural set. Here, December 1, the clams were thriv- 
ing; none bored, none dead, none missing. 

These experiments upon Wind Flat merely confirmed our former 
conclusions, as did beds planted at this time upon White's and Ego- 
bert's flats and upon the Oyster Grant. 

Our experiments as a whole have confirmed our observations in 
regard to the areas that at present are in condition for the growth of 
clams. They point to the fact that all those areas fit for clam growth 
are set naturally with clams at the present time. Upon these spots 



82 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

-where the clams naturally settle are clams of many ages, — sets of 
1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906. These are areas of (1) new soil formed by 
mussel growth or spreading eel grass or harbor dredging; of (2) shift- 
ing sand, where the current is not excessive; (3) and of gravel flats, 
through which the water freely percolates. In Plymouth harbor these 
spots alone contain living clams : elsewhere, clams die. Here are the 
facts, from which to draw conclusions. 

The 1906 Set of Clams: the Abundance of Free-swimming Clam 
Larvce in Plymouth Harbor. — The argument that there is " no spawn 
in the harbor," meaning that too few old clams are left to furnish set 
for the flats, is of no weight. The spawning season for the clam at 
Plymouth is at its height in the latter part of July and the 'first of 
August. From our towings through the water with a fine silk net we 
procured great numbers of clam larvse; these towings were taken from 
many parts of the harbor. There is an abundance of sw imm ing clam 
larva?. 

The source of this abundance is in large measure the clam grants 
along Plymouth shore. It is most unfortunate for the outlook of clam 
increase on Plymouth flats that several of the large private grants 
have recently expired. They are being dug out rapidly. Little spawn 
from these areas can be expected another season, unless digging is 
stopped, either by action of the selectmen or by a renewal of the grants. 
One thing is certain; every locality in Plymouth harbor upon which 
clams can by any means be made to grow and multiply should be pro- 
tected carefully. Reckless digging of but a bushel or two of clams 
daily during these years of exhaustion works more harm to the clam in- 
dustry than the digging of hundreds of bushels in times of abundance. 

The number of clam larva? that pass this free-swimming stage is at 
present amply sufficient to repopulate the barren areas. While at 
Plymouth during the latter part of October I paid careful attention 
to the summer's set of young clams upon the several flats. 

(1) Upon Grey's Flat, where the clams are usually found,, the set 
was thick, — in some spots very thick. Upon a few small spots of the 
flat where I had previously found no natural set, and where our beds of 
August had failed, there was a small 1908 set in thriving condition. 
Here we have young clams, less than V-i inch long, thriving in numbers 
directly over the spot where older clams, more deeply burrowed, died. 

(2) There was no set upon Egobert's Flat. From my study at 
Ipswich I conclude that the Egobert area upon which the older clams 
thrive is too shifting for the young larva? to settle upon in any number. 
Elsewhere upon the flat upon the favorable setting areas (so they 
would be regarded upon the north shore) there were no young clams, 
or older either, for that matter. 

(3) I could discover no set upon Cory's Flat or upon White's Flat, 
where the conditions are similar to those upon Egobert's. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 83 

(4) A fair set came upon Wind Flat, but only upon the areas pre- 
viously occupied by clams. 

(5) There were none upon the Oyster Grant or upon the flats to the 
' south. 

(6) I found a very thick set along Plymouth beach, south of Beach 
wharf, but not low down, only high up in the gravel and thatch. 

(7) A thick set has come south of the Atwood lumber yard; but 
here only in the gravel, not in the mud farther out from the shore. I 
am told that elsewhere along the Plymouth shore a good set has come. 
However, this set of 1906 in Plymouth harbor I find upon spots high 
up, well above low tide. If so found at Ipswich, I should say the 
<3lams were on an unfavorable area. In Plum Island Sound, as I hope 
to show later by photographs, maps, drawings, etc., the thickest set 
occurs upon those portions of the flats similar to those which at Plym- 
outh grow neither large nor small clams, upon which our experimental 
plantings without exception have failed utterly. 

The Important Point. — A question now clearly confronts us. Why 
is it that upon the natural and original clam areas of each flat neither 
the young set comes nor the mature clams grow? There appear to be 
many forces at work upon Plymouth flats harmful to clam life. Let us 
mention possible harmful factors: (1) excessive digging; (2) starva- 
tion of the clams through destruction of the diatoms, their staple food; 
(3) contaminated water; (4) Lunatia (cockle) boring; (5) ice action; 
(6) encroaching eel grass; (7) encroaching mussels; (8) a lack of 
digging. 

(1) I have no doubt that the continued depletion of the Plymouth 
flats is due in some part to over-digging. It may be a cause, but it is 
by no means the sole cause of depletion. Even this past summer, with 
clams so few upon the Plymouth flats, a number of bushels were dug 
daily. Wherever a few small clams are found growing along the 
shore or upon the top of some flat, the clammers soon have them in 
their baskets, and the possible " brood ground " is destroyed. The 
localities now growing clams should be jealously guarded; their spawn 
is needed to set further areas. We can hope for no increase of clam- 
ming at Plymouth unless we protect the places upon which comes the 
annual set, — in some localities more numerous each successive year. 
Except from some grants, for purposes of thinning out the set where 
too numerous, it Avould be far better for the next two or three years 
that no clams be taken from the harbor. 

(2) The argument as to the starvation of the clams through lack 
of nourishment is of trifling weight. If clams thrive in great num- 
bers in high, long-exposed spots, and in localities where the current is 
very slight, there surely must be an excellent food supply, or else all 
would perish. If starvation caused the death of clams at Plymouth, 
we should find them living now, if living at all, only in the most fa- 



84 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

vorable localities, similar to the best Ipswich areas: instead, we find 
young and old clams only in localities that seem comparatively un- 
favorable to their best and most rapid development. Further ob- 
servation is necessary, especially by means of the Sedgwick-Rafter 
method of filtration and counting of diatoms, etc., which we have used 
along the North Shore. 

(3) There is little evidence to support the statement that contami- 
nated water is the cause of the destruction. 

(a) If the water be impure, how is it that the mussels {Mytilus 
edulis) thrive over areas so extensive? And the mussels are ever 
spreading. The food of the mussels is practically identical with that 
of the clams. They live mainly upon diatoms, very minute, vegetable 
organisms. The mussel thrives upon a large part of the Plymouth 
flats. The clam grows but sparsely, and only along the shore and 
upon the tops of certain flats, where there is either shifting of the 
sand or else newly prepared soil. This year a very heavy set, form- 
ing a veritable mussel-mat upon the surface of the flat, has occupied 
several acres of what should be favorable clam ground upon both 
White's and Egobert's flats. Unless some means are at once taken to 
remove these young mussels, that grow so rapidly, a large and valua- 
ble area will become worthless for clam production for a number of 
years, at least. This is no unimportant matter. 

Over extensive areas where no clams are found the razor clam 
(Ensis directus or Solen ensis) abounds, and its food also is the same as 
that of the clam. Neither the mussel nor the razor live burrowed 
deeply in one spot in the flat, as does the clam. The razor is con- 
stantly in motion through the soil, while the mussel thrives upon the 
surface. I might cite further forms that live where clams die, and 
whose food is identical with the food of the clam. 

{b) Why does the young set thrive in places where the older clams 
die? The cause of this destruction lies, not upon the surface, but 
below. 

(c) Last November several specimens of water from Plymouth 
streams, as well as from certain flats, were carefully analyzed. There 
appeared no trace of copper or iron, which might act as an algicide 
in the harbor water, while the amount from any of the entering 
streams was very slight. At certain periods, however, the streams 
may carry down waste matter containing larger per cents, of copper 
compounds. Waste products of petroleum also may here do injury. 

(d) Plymouth harbor at low tide contains as little water as any 
harbor of its size in the State, while at high tide it is a full sea. This 
drainage so complete twice each day is an all-powerful factor in sup- 
plying the shell-life with the purest of sea water, and in removing 
whatever impurities are brought down by streams and sewers. The 
chief cause of this destruction, in my opinion, does not lie in a con- 
taminated water supply. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

(4) The " cockles " or " borers " (Lunatia Jieros and L. duplicata 
[Polynices, Natica] ) are great enemies to the clams, wherever found. 
By means of its lingual ribbon or file-like tongue, the cockle rapidly bores 
a countersunk hole through one valve of the clam, and then sucks out 
the soft parts of its prey. At Newburyport and Ipswich, where 
clams occupy practically all the available flats, cockles are few in 
number, and the clammers, many of them, are ignorant of their de- 
structive powers. Though at Plymouth extremely abundant in days 
gone by, the cockles, especially the larger ones, are at present far less 
numerous. Men who make a business of " cockling " declare they are 
unable to earn as much to-day as they did some years ago, in spite of 
the fact that the price per bucket has advanced 25 per cent, and more. 
In fact, as this genus of mollusks is a source of excellent income for 
many men, should not their decreasing abundance be investigated? 
Otherwise, cockles may become as scarce in Plymouth harbor as clams 
are to-day. Soon nothing will remain but eel grass and razor fish. 

The mussels living upon the surface of the flats are easier of access 
than are the burrowed clams. Cockles of all sizes tend to congregate 
about and beneath the mussel beds, which suffer extensively from the 
11 borers." 

Certain men in Plymouth have told me that many years ago the 
cockles were relatively few in number, but that they rapidly increased 
in abundance at about the time of the clams' most rapid decrease. 
It may be that to the cockle, more than to any other cause, is due the 
first depletion of the clam areas. 

But some other agency (or agencies) is the cause of this continued 
depletion. It is only upon areas where clams are in scattering num- 
bers that the cockles do the greatest injury. Where the clams are 
numerous, the cockles that congregate about them are easily and with 
avidity gathered for bait by the fishermen. In some small clam beds I 
have found most of the clams with bored shells, but in very many 
beds under diverse conditions I have found scarcely a shell bored; yet 
all the clams that were planted in these beds had died. Why? 

Though cockles may have destroyed the former thriving clam areas, 
though they do some injury at present, especially in isolated beds, 
there is some other agency or combination of agencies that prevents 
the growth of clams in Plymouth harbor to-day. 

There is a current belief in certain harbors of the coast that the 
" periwinkle " (Littorina) and the " black winkle " or " little sea- 
snail " (Nassa) destroy young clams. This past year we have con- 
ducted a series of box experiments with Littorina, Nassa, and clams 
of various sizes. We have found no evidence of such destruction. 
As soon, however, as a clam shell is broken, many Littorina and Nassa 
flock to it and devour the soft contents. It is our belief that these 
gastropods do no harm whatsoever to the healthy clams of any size or 
age. 



86 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

(5) Ice may cause slight injury, but it is very little. Only upon 
the tops of the flats do the clams thrive, yet here ice action is always 
strongest. If ice to any extent destroyed the clams, one would expect 
to find clams growing only upon the low and better-protected areas ^ 
but this is not the case. 

(6) Vast stretches of good clam flats are now occupied by eel grass. 
As long as this retains possession of these areas we can expect no 
clams to thrive upon them. Several reliable men, living both in New- 
buryport and in Ipswich, have described to me the increased area of 
clam flats where formerly grew puny and contorted clams, when, during 
some years since clamming declined, the diggers were compelled to 
turn to these flats, thereby killing out the eel grass. Soon a set larger 
than before came in, and these clams grew more quickly and to a 
greater size. In fact, the flats, once covered by abundant eel grass, 
now produce excellent clams, and are valuable acquisitions to the 
clamming areas of the respective towns. I have been told by reliable 
Plymouth men that eel grass has spread over extensive areas formerly 
productive of good clams. Although much of the Plymouth eel-grass 
area has a very low, watery soil, yet I believe that portions of many 
flats, now eel-grass-covered, can be reclaimed with profit. However, 
there are areas so numerous and extensive, covered by neither eel 
grass nor mussels, and probably more easy to render fit for clam 
culture, that the eel-grass question of Plymouth need not immediately 
concern us. 

(7) The area occupied by mussels (the action of these has been 
described) changes somewhat, but as a rule, when a bed becomes 
firmly established upon a flat, many years are needed to render the 
soil good for clamming, and the mussel area is becoming larger each 
succeeding year. Both mussels and eel grass are detrimental to clam 
life, in that they occupy valuable flats that should be set by clams 
alone. They may, however, perform a necessary service for suc- 
cessful clam growth in preparing the soil and in rendering it suitable 
for clam culture. 

Neither of these last two factors has caused the depletion of the 
flats; they simply have usurped the rightful area of the clam, either 
to retain it permanently, when they must be accounted enemies, or 
else to hand over the flats once more fit for occupation by the ostra- 
cized clam, in which case they directly become benefactors. 

(8) Thus far I have mentioned a number of active factors that 
may be harmful to clam growth, but which in reality do but little 
injury. There is another factor that operates passively, namely, a 
lack of digging upon the flats. Many clammers on Plum Island 
Sound, when asked as to the value of frequent digging of the clam 
flats, unanimously declare in favor of it. They reason much as fol- 
lows : " You see practically all our flats are well seeded to clams, but 
they are constantly being dug; in fact, many flats are over-dug. This 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 87 

constant digging keeps the soil in a wholesome, healthy condition." 
A feAV years ago a flat near Eagle Hill, Ipswich, was dug out during 
severe freezing weather. Clams have not grown here, nor has the 
flat been broken up since. Upon this flat we planted a bed last sum- 
mer. The clams in this bed died, but worms, Solenomya, etc., live 
here in abundance. The conditions here are somewhat similar to those 
at Plymouth. Neither the Eagle Hill flat nor the majority of the 
Plymouth areas will grow clams until either new soil is made, or the 
flat is thoroughly broken up. 

I do not maintain that lack of digging has caused the depletion 
of the flats; that is due mainly to other causes, such as excessive 
digging, the work of the " borers," etc. But I do maintain that the 
clams where seeded should be " cultivated," and frequently cultivated, 
especially if set in soil comprised largely of clay or mud. Upon 
gravel and stony areas the water percolates more freely into the flats; 
upon areas of shifting sand there is not this need; but upon a firm, 
unchanging flat, a turning of the soil is beneficial to the growth of 
the clam, and essential in many cases to its very life. The Plymouth 
flats have been so long undisturbed that they need an artificial shift- 
ing of the soil, similar to that caused by "storms upon the high, sandy 
areas, where to-day some clams thrive. 

This coming spring we wish to carry on a comparative series of 
experiments: one at Plymouth, or Kingston; another upon certain 
barren areas of Plum Island Sound, especially those lying within the 
limits of the town of Rowley; and a third series upon a good Ipswich 
flat. We desire to find out the cheapest and most speedy methods of 
working the soil for profitable clam culture. There may easily be an 
excess of digging, but a lack of work upon the soil of a flat is equally 
disastrous. This passive factor, viz : the lack of digging, is the greatest, 
possibly the only present existing hindrance to thriving clam growth in 
Plymouth harbor. 

A Rotation of Life upon the Tidal Flats. — The extensive clam 
flats of Ipswich for many 3 r ears have been dug with profit, yet to-day 
the supply holds good. It seems as if clams are the only form of life 
upon the flats, so completely have they taken possession. Other shell- 
fish find scanty representation. Muddy soil and sandy soil, rippled 
and smooth, is mainly clam set. A few Macoma, Tellina, sea clams 
and razors, with numerous Gemma and some mussel sets, are found 
among the clams, but ihese are as nothing when compared with the 
clam set. 

Now, at Plymouth, on certain portions of the Essex flats, and in 
many other harbors of the State, the flat life is utterly different. The 
clams have been dug out, or at least, for some cause, they are gone. 
There also are practically no Gemma, Tellina, Macoma or Mactra. 
In their places we often find razor fish; frequently the fancifully 
fringe-edged Solenomya; the rough-skinned Holothurian, Synapta 



88 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

girardii ; and, most abundant, worms of many genera, — the long* 
band worm (Meekelia), the "blood" and "clam" worms (Glycera, 
Nereis, et al.), the tube worms (Clymenella, et al.). Especially numer- 
ous are these last, — red, jointed, with a scalloped cup terminating 
the posterior segment. Upon turning over the soil, frequently hun- 
dreds of these cemented sand tubes are found in one square foot. 
So close together do these worms live that they monopolize the entire 
flat. As they thrive in many sorts of flat soils, from a heavy mud to 
a slightly shifting sand, neither clams nor any other shellfish (except 
razors, Solenomya, et al.) have a chance of existence. I do not state 
that the worms, etc., destroy the clams (they may, however, to some 
extent), but that the conditions bringing about the presence of the 
worms, etc., are decidedly unfavorable to clam growth. 

The tubes of the Clymenella often project slightly above the level 
of the flat. The tidal currents bear in their course bits of eel grass 
(Zostera marina), which, catching upon these tube projections, take 
root in the flat and commence to grow. Though eel grass and mussels 
thrive under similar conditions, the mussels prefer a firmer and usu- 
ally a higher flat ; so that in many cases the struggle for the possession 
of certain barren flat areas* is, to one familiar with the conditions, a 
foregone conclusion, though at first sight the forces appear equally 
balanced. "Now a contest is begun between the growing eel grass and 
the mussel set. If it is an " off year " for mussel spawn, the eel grass 
may obtain a sufficient start to enable it permanently to occupy the 
flat. As the spawning season closes, many young mussels, concluding 
their free-swimming stage, settle upon the stems of eel grass, often 
covering them completely. If the mussel set is large, as was the case 
in 1906, the young eel grass is overwhelmed by the great numbers of 
tiny mussel larva 1 that attach to it by their strong byssus threads. 
These mussels now grow rapidly, many by December having passed 
the half -inch mark. Sediment and shifting sand " catch " among 
them. The original eel grass is smothered by its overload of mussels, 
sediment and sand, while the mussels, thoroughly fastened to the flat, 
continue their growth unmolested. In November and December, 1906, 
I kept track of an extensive 1906 set of mussels that had come upon 
several acres of the north central portion of Egobert's Flat, formerly 
a favorable clam area. In many places two-thirds of the surface was 
completely covered by these small, closely packed mussels, — a genuine 
mat. A set nearly as large has come upon the east central portion of 
White's Flat. 

Upon digging a flat formerly "wormy," but set with mussels (no 
longer, it may be, than six months), one finds comparatively few 
worms. Clymenella are scarce, though glycera and similar species 
still are numerous. Solenomya and synapta are rare. Where mussels 
have grown for some time, one finds almost no worms of any sort, — 
just the mussels, which, though the inshifting" of sand among them 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 89 

and their ability to retain the sediment deposited upon them, build 
the flat up, in some localities two or three feet in a very few years. 
The disintegrating mussel shells also contribute to this elevation. The 
surface of the raised flat is new soil. Also, where eel grass has begun 
its growth upon a " wormy " flat the worms decrease in number, and 
upon thickly covered areas the number of worms is comparatively 
small, frequently none being found. 

If by any chance the mussels decrease in numbers, from ice erosion, 
" cockle boring," etc., unoccupied spots occur in their midst, whereon 
clam larvae settle. They grow well upon this new soil, as I have ob- 
served in many places, and in time may occupy all the spaces left 
vacant by the mussels. As the clams burrow well into the soil, they 
are destroyed less readily by ice action and cockle boring than are the 
mussels. Hence under favorable conditions the clams may in time 
reoccupy the entire flat; thus completing a cycle from clam depletion 
to clam restoration. Before the soft-shelled clam became so impor- 
tant an article of diet, I have no doubt that this rotation of life, or 
others similar, obtained universally. Constant digging, etc., checked 
this rotation, which, now that the flats are little molested, has begun 
once more. We may either await nature's readiness, or else hasten her 
processes. 

Suggested Methods for reclaiming Unproductive Flats. — (1) Per- 
haps, by setting out eel-grass upon certain areas now " wormy," matters 
may be hastened; (2) perhaps we may greatly assist by removing 
mussels from flats that have built up rapidly. This entails great ex- 
pense. If farmers and gardeners would use the mussels for fertilizer 
(in England there is so great a demand for mussels for use upon the 
farms that the supply is protected by law), a profitable method of 
gaining excellent clam areas would be found. Though in walking over 
mussel-covered flats one sinks deep down .into the soft black mud, the 
flat when cleared of the mussel mat becomes firmer and harder, suita- 
ble for the best clam culture. Portions of Wind Flat, Plymouth, upon 
which We planted a number of clam beds, illustrate this. (3) A solu- 
tion of the problem might result in depositing a laj^er of pure sand 
or fine gravel over the surface of flats so affected. This, however, is 
an expensive method, and entails hard labor. The material from 
harbor dredging might be so utilized in an inexpensive way. The 
Plymouth " dump," from dredging nearly ten years back, has fur- 
nished excellent clams, when the undisturbed flats about it were bar- 
ren. Is there not some other way of getting rid of the worms, synapta, 
solenomya, etc., or of removing the cause of their occupation, than 
by going through the tedious process of eel-grass and mussel-set occu- 
pation? (4) Why not turn over the flat, or plough it under? Will 
not this afford a better chance for the beneficial action of the sun, 
air and water upon the sub-soil of the flat? If this is done in the 
winter season, will not frost action be of assistance upon the newly 



90 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

exposed soil? Is not the digging over of a clam flat simply a speedier 
way than nature's " worins-eel-grass-ruussel-ice-and-cockle method ? " 
There is a right way somewhere; this we wish to find. 

One thing cannot be overemphasized. Clam flats, of which the vast 
areas at Plymouth are a good example, cannot be re-seeded with clams 
merely by sowing them upon the flats (certain sandy areas and those 
recently dug out of course excepted). Before they are seeded the- 
flats must be worked. The best we may do is to assist nature's proc- 
esses. The practical method for this is yet to be learned. 

We wish to express our thanks to the selectmen of the town of 
Plymouth for the assistance they have rendered us in furnishing men 
and boats. We also thank Capt. Alfred Holmes, who has warmly 
aided us in many things, and other men of Plymouth and Kingston, 
as well as many living upon the North Shore and along Cape Cod. 
We will most gladly receive suggestions and ideas for further experi- 
ment. What is for the benefit of one is an advantage to all. We aim 
to determine what is the easiest, cheapest and speediest method of 
profitable and practical clam culture upon the tidal areas of varied 
types within this Commonwealth. 

llethods of Work along the Coast, chronologically arranged. — The 
last of July, with C. B. Coulter of Williams College, I began a series 
of experiments upon the Plymouth flats, to determine what areas 
were then in condition to grow clams. After examining the beds pre- 
viously laid out in the harbor, wherein the clams had for the most part 
died, we began a series of new experiments. 

We desired to learn not the capacity of the flat for clams, gained 
by the usual bed of two dimensions, but the ability of the flats to 
grow any clams at all. Hence we used a new type of bed, planting 
between two stakes 4 to 8 feet apart a single row of clams, the larger 
at one end, or else shore clams near one stake and flat clams near the 
other. We planted about 75 such beds, as well as other beds of a 
different sort, upon practically all of the possible clam flats of the harbor. 
With the aid of Capt. Alfred Holmes, we usually dug the clams during 
one tide and planted them during the next. We also made numerous 
towings in the various parts of the harbor, with a plankton net of 
silk bolting cloth. The young clam larva passes the first few days of 
its existence in a free-swimming stage, carried about by the waves and 
tides. We procured great numbers of these young clams, as well as 
mussel larvae, in the towings. The larvae of these two species of shell- 
fish far outnumber at this season of the year, at Plymouth, the larvae 
of all other species combined. Coulter preseiwed many of these 
larvae, and made drawings of others for future study. Also, we kept 
records of the daily temperatures and measurements of the force and 
times of the tidal currents on several flats. 

About the middle of August we examined the Newburyport and 
Salisbury flats. By constant measurements of clams of all sizes from 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 91 

many of these flats a comparison of the rates of growth was obtained. 
We studied the growth lines on the shell, to determine the ages of the 
various clams and the rapidity of their growth both in winter and 
summer. Upon certain flats we could easily tell the ages; but where 
there was constant digging, especially in clay soil, in which burrowing 
is difficult, the task was not so simple. Though we searched for 
traces of the 1906 summer set of clams upon the flats, we found none; 
nor in any of our towhigs at this time did we find one clam larva. A 
study of many adult clams revealed mature eggs and active sperma- 
tozoa, showing that the spawning season was near at hand. 

A dozen or more clam beds planted in the spring upon Plum Island 
Sound and its tributaries gave rapid rates of growth, disclosing the 
importance of the current as the great factor in clam development. 
About August 24 we reached Ipswich. Here our earliest towings 
contained a few larvsB, which occurred more numerously as time ad- 
vanced. We now carefully examined many Ipswich flats, finding no 
trace of 1906 clam set, though we were expecting to find tiny clams 
any day. The very last of August, Tom Roberts, an experienced 
Ipswich clammer, while digging on the middle area of Foresides, showed 
us a few very small clams, about ^5 of an inch long. The same tide, 
farther out, I found other young clams, many with bits of the fine 
filaments of green algae fastened to them. Here and at this time only, 
did I notice algae fastened on many of the clams. Elsewhere I found 
the young set only on the flats and upon a rippled area, firmly fas- 
tened by their relatively strong byssus threads to the sand grains. 
They were usually burrowed also. In a day or two I discovered clams, 
1,000 per square foot, upon the southeast side of Plum Island, South 
Middle Ground. From this time on we exammed many flats, finding 
on some young clams, upon others no trace of set. Upon several Essex 
flats we noted a small set at this time, the first week of September, 
when we examined carefully our 40 experimental beds in the Essex 
basin. At Squam we found only a scattering set, when we were ex- 
amining several clam beds planted there the previous year. 

September 15, Mr. Coulter returned to college, leaving me to con- 
tinue the work of studying this rapidly increasing set. The 20th of 
September F. C. Lane of Boston University assisted for ten days in 
noting the localities of the clam set, as well as the conditions and 
forces that induce the set upon some flats and not upon others. With 
this end in view, he carefully mapped out several of the flats. 

Upon Foresides, a famous Plum Island Sound flat, I tried a number 
of box and netting spat collectors (designed to collect great numbers 
of young clams for transplanting, while yet in the free-swimming 
stage). I could obtain abundance of larvae for study, ^o to Y25 of an 
inch long; but spat collecting, at least as I conducted it, was not prac- 
ticable for clam culture. 

All this time we were carefully noting the conditions of the mature 



92 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

clams, now at the height of their spawning, as well as examining many 
towings, in which a great variety of larvae was found. There was 
much difficulty in surely identifying the larvae of each species. A 
comparison with the larvae found upon the south side of Cape Cod, 
where the shell life is very different, materially assisted us in this 
identification. Many photo-micrographs were taken of the clam larvae 
in their several stages, as well as of the young of other species of 
mollusks. 

Specimens of the young clam set from a number of flats were col- 
lected at intervals during the fall, and preserved in order to deter- 
mine average rates of growth. I found that certain flats received 
the set weeks before other flats. The reason for this irregularity of 
set is very difficult adequately to explain. By the middle of October 
the numbers of larvae in the tows, as well as the numbers of tiny set 
upon the flats, became very small. The spawning was on the wane, 
but the huge set over a large number of flats was in thriving condi- 
tion. That the current was the prime cause of the set of young clams 
became increasingly apparent. 

It is comparatively easy to visit the distant Plum Island Sound flats 
from the coal wharf at Ipswich, for daily many clammers in their 
gasolene launches make the trip. Most of our visits have been with 
Samuel Killbourne, in his 16-foot, 2V2 horse-power dory. We wish 
to thank Alvah Perkins, Emory Hall, William Jewett, Samuel Kill- 
bourne, Tom Roberts and many others for the assistance they have 
rendered us in our work at Ipswich. 

The 20th of October I revisited Plymouth. At once I examined the 
August beds, none of which contained living clams except those upon 
new soils, upon shifting areas and upon the gravel beds along the 
shore. The set of clams for 1906 upon several of the flats was care- 
fully studied. From towings a few larvae were obtained, as well as 
some tiny larvae newly settled upon the flats, from Vko to y 2 5 of an 
inch long. Here, as well as at Ipswich, the spawning season had 
drawn to a close. Several new experiments were started by turning 
over the soil upon several flats and then planting or sowing the clams. 
In making these experiments of October, as well as those of August 
and July, we wish to express our thanks to the selectmen of the town 
of Plymouth, who through Capt. Alfred Holmes have supplied us 
with boats and men. Plymouth has a most difficult problem before 
her in the effort to restock the barren flats. We have already learned 
much of what not to do, and that persistent and careful experimenta- 
tion is needed to determine the correct methods for practical clam 
culture. Early in November a number of samples of water from 
Plymouth harbor when analyzed showed no injurious elements in 
dangerous quantities. 

About November 5 I returned to Ipswich, to observe the growth and 
shifting of the young clam set upon the flats studied before. The 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 93 

spawning season had ended, though clams not longer than Vy.2 of an 
inch could be found here and there. 

With D. L. Belding and C. L. Savery a large number of the ex- 
perimental beds upon the Hats of Plum Island Sound, Ipswich River 
and the Essex basin were taken up, measured and replanted. We 
filed a notch in the shell of all the clams put back, in order that at the 
spring examination their winter growth under varied conditions might 
be tabulated with accuracy. 

On November 13, while studying the outer Rowley clam flats, most 
of which were barren, I found an unusually heavy set upon Rowley 
Reef, whence, as elsewhere described, bushels of the 1906 set of clams, 
averaging perhaps % an inch in length, were collected and transplanted 
upon other areas. If clam sets in such quantity as here found exist in 
all harbors, the problem of seeding in barren flats is solved. But a 
set so numerous is rare. The Rowley clammers truly are fortunate 
in having so huge a set, — more than ample to restock their exhausted 
areas. 

On November 17 I returned to Monomoy Point, Chatham, in order to 
study the clam set there, and make comparisons with various localities 
upon North Shore. I also visited for the same purpose a number of 
other harbors along the south side of Cape Cod. Photographs were 
taken as opportunity offered. 

On December 1 I found that most of our recent Plymouth experi- 
ments were thriving; yet the clams planted upon the barren areas 
had died, as they did in May, July and August. These results simply 
strengthened our former impressions. The barren areas of Plymouth 
harbor at present are in no condition to receive a sowing of clams,, 
be they large or small, from shore or from flat areas. Some prelimi- 
nary work upon the flats is necessary. 

On December 4 the Gloucester flats, buried by the dumping from 
the recent dredging, were examined; on account of snow and ice, 
study upon the flats and out-door experiments have been suspended, 
except for chance visits in times of mild weather. 

In describing hastily our methods of work in a chronological order, 
we wish to add that any suggestions as to new lines of experiment 
or ideas in conducting our present work are most gladly received. 
Our first aim in this work, our ultimate study, is to determine the 
possibilities and most practicable methods for restocking the barren 
clam areas. But to attain this end, even in a small way, it is essen- 
tial that we become familiar with the life history of the clam, its 
habits and enemies, its food and growth, as well as with the areas 
upon which it now thrives and those from which whenever planted it 
seems always to perish. This work is primarily to benefit the clam- 
mers of each harbor. We thank them for their assistance, and ask 
for further help in our work during the year 1907. 



94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 



Summary. 
A Biological Survey of the Clam Area of Massachusetts. 
During the past year we have studied clam growth in many towns 
of the State, — Bourne, Harwich, Chatham (including Monomoy 
Point), Provincetown, Plymouth, Kingston, Boston, Lynn, Gloucester 
(Squam), Essex, Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury, Newburyport and Salis- 
bury. Other towns have also been visited. We have (1) noted the 
areas now productive of clams of various grades; (2) looked to the 
relative abundance or scarcity of the clam set; and (3) studied rates 
of growth in various soils on flats of different heights. The effect 
of the currents has been regarded particularly. We are gradually 
accumulating material for a reliable estimate of the present actually 
productive clam area of this State. It is small, and much of it scarcely 
may be called clam area, so few are the clams thriving upon it. Also we 
are collecting material for an estimate of the possible clam area of the 
State, which is much more extensive. To do this, a large amount of 
experimentation is needed with the different soils and the varying 
conditions and forms of life that obtain upon these areas. In fact, 
a pretty complete life history, as well as a careful study of the pos- 
sibilities of clam culture, are essential before we can, even with ap- 
proximate accuracy, map out the available clam area of Massachusetts. 

The Action of the Currents. 

In closing this preliminary report upon the soft-shelled clam, I 
wish to emphasize one point, — the action of the currents. Success in 
raising such shellfish as the oyster, quahaug and clam, depends largely 
upon the regard that is given to the water currents that flow over 
the seeded areas. By the action of the currents is meant the effect 
•of wave beating in wind storms, the movements of the tides and the 
outward motion of the water in the rivers; in fact, any movement 
of the water of our harbors, whatever the cause. However, the 
-chief factor of this action is the tide. 

I. The action of the current determines the very structure of the 
flats. 

(1) If a strong incoming tide washes a flat near the harbor mouth, 
inevitably it becomes very high, sandy and shifting, as illustrated by 
the " Spit " or a part of " Wheeler's," near the mouth of the Essex 
River. 

(2) If a strong current simply passes a flat, lying snugly between 
two rocky or sandy points that receive the force of the water, a large 
amount of fine sediment is deposited, forming a clay flat. " Luf kin's," 
by Ipswich Bluff, is a good example of this sort of flat. 

(3) A strong current near the harbor mouth may cause a marked 
eddy, that deposits a soft mass of the finest sediment over the center 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 95 

of the flat, rendering it utterly unfit for clam growth; cf. "Lobster 
Cove," just to the north of Little Neck on Plum Island Sound. 

(4) If the current is but fairly strong the sand deposited becomes 
finer, and upon these areas are the best localities for clam growth; cf. 
4i Middle Foresides," the eastern portion of " Wheeler's " and of the 
"High Sands." 

(5) As the current decreases in force upon the inside of the flats 
•or near the harbor's head, the deposit is entirely of mud. Upon this 
-clams grow in great numbers, it may be, but slowly, as illustrated by 
parts of Pine Creek flats, certain areas in Ipswich, the upper Powder 
Hole flats at Monomoy Point, several of the clam grants of Plymouth. 

(6) Upon certain areas, as off shore from Frank Cole's boat yard 
in North Plymouth, or South Senorita in Ipswich River, the extremely 
slow current rapidly deposits mud too soft and deep for clam growth. 

The current determines as to whether the flat shall be high or low, 
sandy or muddy, of gravel or of clay. 

II. It also determines the enemies of the clam. The difficulties to 
he overcome by the clams upon a sandy flat are almost the reverse of 
those upon an inward area of mud. The shifting flats never support 
eel grass or mussels. High, stony spots also are bared of mussels. A 
tine, sandy area is free from the fine smothering " slime " of the mud 
areas of slowest current. The cockle is less numerous upon the most 
sandy flats, but upon these ice causes the most harm. 

III. The current regulates the amount of food. In a harbor thor- 
oughly well drained at each tide the distribution of diatoms is fairly 
even throughout all the waters, perhaps increasing in number over the 
muddy areas. With an increase in current a larger quantity of food 
is brought to the clam. Where the current is extremely slow over a 
thickly set area, one clam may take in what its next neighbor has cast 
out. In such a case, is there any wonder that growth is slow and that 
the clams are stunted? Up to a certain speed, the more current there 
is over a clam bed the more rapid is the growth. 

IV. In the fertilization of the clam ova the current performs its 
part, 

V. as also in the development of the larvse during the veliger 
and crawling stages. 

VI. After the young larvse have become firmly set upon the flat, 
the wave action and tidal washing distribute the clams over unset 
areas. This is done during the entire life of the clam. At times the 
Tesults of this action are disastrous, rather than purely beneficial. 
Certain further and less obvious effects of current action have as yet 
scarcely been observed; such are ice action, the work of spring fresh- 
ets, river bed gougings, etc. During the coming year we plan further 
work along these lines. 

VII. Lastly, but perhaps most important of all, is the action of 
the current in causing the set of clams. This is briefly treated else- 



96 FISH AND Gx\.ME. [D 



ec. 



where in our report. A set is caused by the " spread of the water 
upon the side of a current ; " in other words, a relatively strong cur- 
rent is checked to some extent, and here we find the heavy set of 
young clams. It may be caused by a pronounced eddy; or by a 
sudden bend in the current, due to a projecting rocky point or sandy 
reef; or, as in the majority of eases, simply by an inspreading of the 
Avater over a flat at the side of the channel. This is ever changing 
with the tide; its force, its position, its depth, vary every hour of the 
day. In many harbors the incoming current takes a course far different 
from the outgoing, building up its own flats and causing its own sets. 
A richly set, productive clam area is the combined result of all 
forces that set in motion the water of the harbor. Other factors play 
their minor parts, but the currents the most important. Further study 
of the life history and habits of our clams, as well as of possible areas 
for growth and of methods of culture, can be undertaken only with 
due regard to this all-important factor, — the action of the currents. 

The Lobster. — Three important questions upon the lobster 
fisheries appear to be fully decided in the public mind. 

First, the lobster supply is annually decreasing, and this de- 
crease is most obvious in the neighborhoods of the great markets 
of New York, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The com- 
mercial extinction of the lobster in these sections is imminent, 
and a decrease is even now beginning to appear in the great 
fisheries of Maine and the British Maritime Provinces. 

The following figures, derived from the sworn statements of 
the fishermen, tell of the conditions in Massachusetts. We are 
of the opinion that the real conditions are even more deplorable 
than the figures indicate, for the reason that our blanks reach 
a larger number of fishermen and are now more carefully filled 
out than formerly. This table also includes, under 1906, the 
lobsters caught in Massachusetts waters, but marketed at New- 
port, Rhode Island. In some previous years these have been 
omitted. 



1906.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



97 



Date. 



Fisher- 
men. 


Traps. 


367 


21,418 


344 


20,016 


379 


19,554 


327 


15,448 


312 


14,064 


371 


17,012 


425 


20,303 


377 


17,205 


453 


22,041 


388 


18,829 


340 


16,195 


327 


15,350 


309 


14,086 


331 


16,286 


410 


20,058 


309 


20,121 


326 


19,539 


287 


13,829 


335 


21,918 



Number of 

Lobsters 

above Ten 

and One-half 

Inches. 



Egg-bear- 
ing 
Lobsters. 



Average 

Catch 
per Pot. 



1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 
1897, 
1898, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 



1,740,850 

1,359,645 

1,612,129 

1,292,791 

1,107,764 

1,149,732 

1,096,834 

956,365 

995,396 

896,273 

720,413 

644,633 

646,499 

578,383 

670,245 

665,466 

552,290 

426,471 

487,332 



61,832 
70,909 
49,973 
37,230 
32,741 
34,897 
34,343 
30,470 
23,719 
19,931 
16,470 
15,638 
16,353 



13,950 
9,865 
9,378 



81 
68 
82 
84 
7n 
62 
54 
56 
45 
48 
44 
42 
46 
35 
34 
33 
28 
31 
28 



A correspondent of the " Fishing Gazette " says, under date 
of Feb. 10, 1906: — 

There weren't as many lobsters packed in Newfoundland last year 
as the year before. The reasons assigned are: the lobster is getting 
scarcer and smaller from overfishing, and the superior inducements of 
the codfishery drew many packers in the latter direction. We esti- 
mate the pack at 30,000 cases, which at $12 a case gives a value of 
$360,000, or $40,000 less than 1904. 



The " Coast Guard " (Nova Scotia) says that " the lobster 
season winds up [June 29] without fulfilling the fair promise 
of its opening." 



98 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In December, 1906, the " Coast Guard " also says: — 

Scarcity of lobsters is reported all along- the shore. Since the be- 
ginning moderate weather has prevailed, but the high course of tides 
has created and kept up a heavy sea. This has been unfavorable, 
but in the opinion of most fishermen it does not account for the gen- 
eral shortage. It may be that we are spoiling the breed by not spar- 
ing the babies. Others say it is owing to the severe cold before the 
season opened; while a few think the tons of fish offal thrown over- 
board by the big boats while returning from codfishing during the 
fall has a bad effect. There may be something in all of these answers, 
but we remember severe cold snaps before the season opened that did 
not prevent a good catch before the season closed. 

Second, the-present laws are responsible for this rapid decline. 
Practically all the laws are based upon the Massachusetts law 
instituted in the early '70's. The same salient fallacies appear 
in every lobster law at present in force; namely, that these 
laws are extremely difficult of enforcement, for the reason that 
they permit the sale of short lobsters and of meat by permitting 
the capture of illegal lobsters. It is an inherent weakness in 
any law when such a law permits the capture or handling, in 
any form whatever, of the prohibited articles. An important 
factor, too, in rendering the enforcement more difficult is the 
fact that the public demand lobsters between 8 and 10% inches. 

The present law, having as its cardinal feature the prevention 
of the killing of any lobster below 10% inches, was man's first 
attempt at legislation upon a peculiar problem. This attempt 
was undertaken with a lack of knowledge of the habits and of 
the life history of the lobster. On account of the enormous 
number of lobsters in the ocean, the original advocates of the 
law were led into the erroneous belief that any inroads which 
man might make could have no effect upon the number of 
lobsters in the ocean. But with the increasing population and 
the enlarged demands, with wide-spread prosperity, which per- 
mits the payment of higher prices, the demand has constantly 
increased, and the results are obviously a tremendous decline 
in the total number of lobsters in the ocean. This condition 
is, however, somewhat masked by the fact that the development 
of power boats has enabled the fishermen to tend a larger number 
of pots, to extend their operations over a wider area and for a 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 99 

greater number of days in the year. For these reasons, the 
actual condition of the lobster supply in the ocean is not reflected 
accurately by the market reports or by the statements of the 
fishermen and of the dealers. The present law has had a fair 
trial during the past thirty years, and has proved inadequate. 
What, then, is the fallacy % One has but to compare the present 
lobster law, which permits and even puts a premium upon the 
capture of the adults, with the universal practice which has been 
found necessary in the case of other animals ; namely, the selec- 
tion and protection of the breeders, and the utilization of the 
immature young to meet the market demands, if we would main- 
tain our supply of domesticated animals and plants up to a 
point where the reasonable demands of man could be met. 

The third point upon which the public is agreed is, that the 
lobster is commercially worthy of the utmost consideration. All 
substitutes have proved unsatisfactory. The crab, the crayfish, 
the prawn and the shrimp have their places, but the American 
lobster is inimitable. In view of all these facts, it is plain that 
the future market history of the lobster is dependent upon the 
correct interpretation of these observations, and an immediate 
application of the remedy by the States interested. 

Of all of the plans advocated for meeting these conditions 
of the decline of the lobster, three are most prominent : — 

First, artificial propagation. This necessitates protection of 
the eggs. Usually the lobster is killed after the eggs have been 
removed; but during the past few years a greater number of 
lobsters bought by State and government officials, from which 
the eggs have been taken, have been liberated. The efficiency 
of such a measure would, of course, be greatly increased if the 
protection of the fertilized eggs could be extended to the parents 
of those fertilized eggs, in order that subsequent litters of eggs 
might be produced. This work has been carried on very largely 
by the United States Fish Commission for many years. It has 
the very great merit of saving from destruction the eggs which 
the short-sighted, selfish fishermen would have destroyed if the 
government and the State had not purchased those lobsters at a 
price equal to, or somewhat above, the market price. It also, 
incidentally, is subject to the criticism that there is undoubtedly 
a greater loss in hatching, and a greater loss in the distribution 



100 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of the just-hatched lobsters, than would have been probable if 
the lobster had been allowed to hatch and distribute the young 
in its own way. With increasing knowledge and the efficiency 
of men and measures, many improvements have been incorpo- 
rated into this method. The most noteworthy are those de- 
veloped under the auspices of the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries and of the Commission of Inland Fisheries of the 
State of Rhode Island, under the direction of Drs. Bumpus, 
Mead, Gorham and Sherwood, which are now being developed 
at the Experiment Station of the Rhode Island Commission at 
Wickford, R. I., and at the Hatchery of the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries at Boothbay, Me. It should be noted, 
however, that all these attempts at artificial propagation must 
start with the protection of the adult, for the purpose of securing 
the eggs. With the decline in the number of adults, there must be 
a corresponding decrease in the number of young hatched each 
year. We believe that the statistics offered above indicate this. 
These statistics are based upon the sworn statements of the 
fishermen of Massachusetts, and show conclusively that there has 
been a tremendous decline in the number of egg-bearing lobsters, 
a marked decline in the size of lobsters caught, and there must 
follow necessarily a decline in the number of eggs laid, for 
the reason that, as Dr. F. H. Herrick points out, a 10% iuch 
lobster lays only 10,000 eggs, while a 14 or 16 inch lobster 
may lay 60,000 to 90,000 eggs. Thus, by continually catching 
the largest lobsters, we have seriously impaired the annual re- 
productive capacity of the race. Our statistics indicate that in 
1890 there was 1 egg-bearing lobster to every 22 lobsters taken; 
in 1905 there was 1 egg-bearing lobster to every 43 lobsters 
taken; in 1906 there was but 1 egg-bearing lobster to every 52 
lobsters taken. 

The difficulties connected with artificial propagation are 
many, on account of the peculiar characteristics of the lobster, 
e.g., the rate of growth is exceedingly slow. From all the evi- 
dence thus far gathered it is probable that it requires from 
four to seven years for a lobster to reach the length of lO 1 /^ 
inches, the rate of growth varying with individuals. Normally, 
the rate of reproduction is slow, especially with small lobsters. 
The eggs appear to be laid only every two years, and require from 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 101 

ten to eleven months in hatching ; so that even if a large lobster, 
say 16 inches, produces 80,000 eggs every two years, the per 
annum yield is cut in half ; whereas, if the breeding is restricted 
to the small lobsters below 10% inches, the annual yield of 
eggs is correspondingly not over 5,000. The young are exposed 
to a great number of enemies. In successful cultivation of food 
fishes the greatest gain is made through protecting the young 
from the enemies peculiar to that stage of existence. In the 
case of the lobster, however, it is extremely difficult to rear 
them under artificial conditions, on account of their notorious 
cannibalism, the difficulty of securing a proper and easily pro- 
cured cheap food, and the difficulty of preventing the growth 
of various diatoms and possibly also bacterial diseases which 
may kill or starve the young lobsters. Apparatus to meet all 
these difficulties has been devised by the workers in the Rhode 
Island Fish Commission, but at the present it seems rather a 
personal triumph over difficulties than a commercial proposition. 

Close season. The other and most promising proposition, 
particularly when taken in connection with the continued work 
upon the problems of artificial propagation, is to be found in a 
close season. This has been urged in many instances. While a 
close season is undoubtedly the best remedy, and is the one 
generally first considered for cases which have an apparent 
similarity to the one before us, it is not by any means equally 
adapted for all cases. While it is efficient for rapid breeders, 
and for such as have a breeding season limited or at least not 
extending over six months, a close season for a portion of the 
year would be entirely ineffective in the case of the lobster, 
which carries its eggs for ten or eleven months after laying. 

During the month of July the lobsters resort to harbors and 
protected places, and there shed the shell; during this one 
month, when they could be taken with the least destruction of 
eggs, they are practically unmarketable on account of the soft 
shell; therefore, the only close season which can promise any 
degree of permanent benefit is a close season upon all lobsters 
for a term of years. 

In order to be at all effective in protecting our lobsters during 
the close season, the law should forbid the sale or possession of 
any and all lobsters, whenever and wherever taken. Such a 



102 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec 



law obviously carries too great a hardship to the fishermen, to 
vested interests and to the public. 

There is, however, a modification of the close-season idea, 
which was at first, we believe, advocated in 1902 in a report to 
Capt. J. W. Collins, then chairman, which is, that a perpetual 
close season should be placed on all adult lobsters and upon all 
lobsters below 9 inches. Such a measure presents no similarity 
to the ordinary 9-inch law, which permits the capture of all 
lobsters above 9 inches ; but it combines the advantages of such 
a 9-inch law with the benefits of a close-season law for an ex- 
tended period; i.e., it permits the catching of lobsters above 9 
inches, which are of least value in maintaining the species, and 
puts a close season upon those above 10% inches, which lay the 
greatest number of eggs, and eggs of the best quality for pro- 
ducing the strongest progeny. 



Number of Egg-bearing Lobsters collected by the Launch "Egret" 
during the season of 1906, divided according to their Various 
Lengths. 



Size 
(Inches). 


Number 
collected. 


Size 
(Inches). 


Number 
collected. 


Size 
(Inches). 


Number 
collected. 


7% 


1 


ny 4 


149 


m 


11 


sy 2 


1 


ny 2 


294 


i4y 2 


19 


8% 


1 


11% 


143 


14% 


10 


9 


4 


12 


23 


15 


13 


9% 


7 


i2y 4 


382 


i5y 4 


5 


9y 2 


26 


12y 2 


377 


i5y 2 


5 


9% 


36 


12% 


226 


16 


1 


10 


128 


13 


316 


16% 


1 


10% 


58 


isy 4 


75 


iey 2 


3 


ioy 2 

1034 


299 
165 


i3y 2 

18% 


86 
32 


17 


3 
3,382 


11 


388 


14 


94 







Number to and including 11 inches, 
Number above 11 inches, 



1,114 

2,268 



The ordinary 9-inch law, permitting the catching of every- 
thing above 9 inches, would be calamitous to the lobster industry. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. J 03 

Note in the above table that only 7 out of 3,382 breeders were 9 
inches or less. From this it may be inferred how enormously 
the reproductive capacity of the race is being reduced by legal 
capture of the adults. 

The present suggestion, however, is entirely different, since 
it provides for a close season upon the adult and upon the 
smallest lobsters, permitting the catching only of those between 
9 and 11 inches. The present chairman of the commission 
in 1902 made an investigation of the question, at the instance 
of His Excellency Governor Crane, and Captain Collins, then 
chairman of this commission. His report in no way covered 
the question of the expediency of such a change in the law ; he 
merely called attention to the scientific basis of the law. As 
the present chairman of the commission, it is his duty to con- 
sider in addition the expediency of such legislation, and to 
call attention to the fact that such legislation is entirely untried, 
and is a theory, pure and simple. Nevertheless, it is a theory, 
or rather, a biological principle of action, which has been applied 
with success to whatever animals and plants man has found 
necessary or possible to domesticate ; and has been proved to be 
an absolutely essential procedure if we would maintain and 
increase the supply of such domesticated animals and plants. 
It is, therefore, not entirely a new theory, but merely the appli- 
cation of an old theory to a new case. The results of such a 
law are not susceptible to proof until the evidence can be fur- 
nished by the actual observations upon the effects of such a law. 

It is important, in a case like the present, to give greater 
attention to the objections to such a law than to the advantages. 
These objections appear to be at least fi.ve. 

First of all, it is not uniform legislation throughout the 
lobster-producing States, and there is a possibility of work- 
ing hardship to other States. For example, undoubtedly from 
Maine there would be a tendency to divert the 9-inch lobsters 
to the Boston market; and Maine would then be in the same 
position with reference to Massachusetts and the States south as 
is to-day Massachusetts in reference to the 9-inch laws in force 
in New York and Rhode Island. Should Massachusetts pass 
the suggested law, protecting the adults and permitting the sale 
only of those lobsters between 9 and 11 inches, the other States 



104 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and Provinces would probably find it to their advantage to fol- 
low with similar laws. 

Secondly, the law is on its face more difficult to enforce, 
because two measurements, the 9-inch as the lower limit and the 
11-inch as the upper limit, are necessary. The difficulty of 
dealing with the upper limit can, however, be remedied by the 
use of a pot with a legalized ring (of such inside measurements 
as would prevent the entrance of lobsters above 11 inches), and 
an inspection and registration of the pot, instead of the inspec- 
tion of the lobsters. According to our observations, the catches 
made by pots with various-sized rings indicate that, in a total 
of 534 caught in these pots, a smaller number of lobsters above 
11 inches are caught by the pots with the smaller rings; and 
that the average length of all the lobsters entering the pots hav- 
ing a ring 3 inches " inside in the clear " was 9.9 inches, in a 
S^-inch ring 10.4 inches. 

These figures show merely that the smaller rings permit the 
catching of the smaller lobsters, and in general prevent the 
entrance of the larger lobsters which have reached the breeding 
size. A 314-inch ring will permit the entrance of lobsters 
even as large as 11 or 12 inches, but the average size is 10 % 
inches ; while the average size of all caught by the 41/2-inch ring 
was 12 inches, including some as large as 15 inches and many 
above 12 inches in length. 

The law should provide for the size of the entrance ring. 
There should be a space of at least 1% inches between the 
slats. The law should provide for the official inspection and 
sealing of the traps, and all traps not conforming to these 
specifications should be liable to confiscation wherever found. 
Any one setting an illegal pot should be liable to a fine. The 
law should seek to prevent the destruction of lobsters which are 
so small as to be below the size for most profitable use. Such 
a law would do away with many of the uncertainties connected 
with the measurements now necessary, and with abuses and 
evasions too frequently connected with a standard so arbitrary 
as a definite measurement. The situation in Maine is well 
described in the following clipping from a Portland paper : — 

Plans for a change in the measurement of lobsters, to determine the 
minimum length a crustacean must attain before it is offered legally 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 105 

for sale, are meeting with much opposition on the part of the fisher- 
men of this State, who yearly obtain a large income from the lobster 
industry. At present a lobster is measured from his nose to the tip of 
Ms tail, and should obtain a length of at least 10V 2 inches. Some- 
times, when the crustacean falls a trifle short of requirements, the 
fishermen, it is said, have stretched the tail, and by this method have 
caused wardens much trouble. The new method proposes to have the 
measurement made from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail 
only. Warden M. J. Hanna of this city is at present studying, with 
some of the large wholesale dealers who supply the Boston and New 
York markets, the mean length to be fixed for this much-prized deli- 
cacy. For this purpose several hundred crustaceans are being experi- 
mented with. 

Should the efforts of Mr. Hanna prove successful, a determined 
effort will be made by him and his associates to have the Legislature 
repeal the old law and adopt the new one to be recommended. The 
fishermen are vigorously opposing any suggested change. They claim 
that lobsters are very scarce now, and that anything tending to restrict 
further their business would mean ruin. 



The third objection is the injuries to vested interests, — to 
capital invested in the lobster business. It is a fact that such a 
hill, if it became a law, would reduce the average size of market- 
able lobsters taken in Massachusetts waters six-tenths of one 
pound, and more lobsters would have to be handled by the lob- 
ster dealers for a given amount of money (in exact figures, 155 
lobsters to every 100 lobsters under present conditions). 

Undoubtedly, too, the price per lobster paid by the dealers to 
the fishermen would be on the average correspondingly less than 
at present; but the price received by the fishermen and others 
now in the " short " business would be greater, and the cost 
less to the consumer. On the other hand, the public demand 
and use a lobster as small as 9 inches ; and the use of at least 
three times as many lobsters as under the present law would, 
in the opinion of the writer, do less damage to the future 
supply of lobsters than does the present destruction of lobsters 
above 10% inches. 

A fourth objection is found in the fact that perhaps in at 
least two places in Massachusetts the large lobsters predominate 
in the catch, and therefore the present interests of the fishermen 
at these places might be injured. But it is not entirely certain 
that this injury would be actual ; and from personal observations 



106 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

we are convinced that there are even at Cape Cod at least six 
lobsters between 9 and 10% inches to every one over 10% 
inches, while off Monomoy the 9 to 11-inch law would permit 
capture of about half of the lobsters at present taken. 

A fifth and most important query is, Will enough lobsters 
escape the critical period of 9 to 11 inches and pass into the 
exempt class, where they can be sure of an extended period of 
egg-producing usefulness ? This is entirely problematical, and 
there is at present absolutely no knowledge bearing upon the 
case. It is a fair presumption that enough would so escape. 
In any event, the lobster would have, under the proposed condi- 
tions, — exemption from capture after reaching the point of 11 
inches, — far greater opportunity to lay a larger number of 
eggs than under existing conditions ; since under the present laws- 
not only every lobster above 10% inches is exposed to capture,, 
but, as a matter of fact, a greater number of those between 9 
and 10% inches or even smaller are captured, in spite of all 
the machinery of law enforcement which can be brought forward. 
The fact that lobsters on the average increase 15.6 per cent, at a 
moult is of importance. Thus, a 9-inch lobster would become 
10% inches in one moult, and a 9%-inch lobster would be- 
come 11 inches, and thus exempt. Many individuals would 
pass within a few days entirely beyond the legal size for capture ; 
and the actual length of time which a lobster requires to pass 
through the dangerous period of adult life (i.e., from 9 to 11 
inches, the only period when exposed to legal capture by man) 
may be, after all, relatively brief for any one lobster, practically 
during not more than two moults, probably not more than four 
years at the maximum. Yet there should be such a number of 
individuals as to satisfactorily supply the market. 

Our experience with the present laws dates from 1873. 
Since that time, even with the protection of a certain number 
of adults by purchase of egg-bearing lobsters and the hatching of 
eggs by the United States Bureau of Fisheries, and in spite of 
the fact that the 10%-inch limit was fixed at a point where the 
lobster had an opportunity to produce at least one litter of eggs, 
there has been a gradual decline in the catch of lobsters in 
Massachusetts from 84 per pot in 1891 to 28 per pot in 1904; 
and from 1 egg-bearing lobster to every 22 lobsters above 10% 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 107 

inches in 1890 to 1 egg-bearing lobster to every 52 lobsters above 
10% inches in 1906. The present laws are difficult to enforce: 
first, the public demand for 9 to 11 inch lobsters is strong; 
second, it is easy to destroy the evidence that a lobster was below 
the legal limit of size ; third, the law is easily evaded, and there- 
fore tempting ; fourth, it is not practicable to properly safeguard 
the law-abiding fishermen. Honorable men throw overboard the 
short lobsters from their traps, and see these caught the next 
day by unscrupulous neighbors. 

In the opinion of this commission, the lobster is approaching 
commercial extinction. In the neighborhood of the great mar- 
kets, i.e., in the waters of Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts, the decrease is especially evident; yet the biological 
conditions and the productive capacity of the area still remain 
essentially the same as they did when these same waters produced 
at least ten times the number of lobsters that they do to-day. 
Under wise laws, these waters might again produce as many 
lobsters as they did twenty or more years ago ; but, in order to 
produce again the requisite number of lobsters to meet the de- 
mand, not only must there be protection for all the adults of 
breeding age, but active measures must be taken for placing the 
artificial lobster industry upon a commercial basis, when the 
value of the number of young lobsters produced will be in dollars 
and cents greater than the actual cost of production. The trout, 
shad and oyster industries have reached that stage. The lobster 
industry at present has not; but the outlook is promising, and 
appears to lie through the protection of the breeders, supple- 
mented by protection of the just-hatched young up to such a 
stage as they are able to care for themselves on the bottom of the 
ocean, either after the methods developed by Bumpus and Mead 
in Rhode Island, or by the method of specially protected breed- 
ing reserves or nurseries for the young; and on this your com- 
mission hopes to have something to report next year. 

In conclusion, we may say that, for the interests of the Com- 
monwealth and of the lobster, a new law, restricting catching to 
those lobsters between 9 and 11 inches, and putting a close season 
upon both males and females above 11 inches, is without doubt 
a step far in advance. It is not a departure so radical as it 
appears to the popular mind at first glance. The close-season 



108 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

law has many obvious advantages, and the protection of the 
adult lobster is already in practical operation to a limited extent. 
The proposed measure is a combination of -"close season" and 
the " 9-inch " laws ; and, though essentially a compromise meas- 
ure, it embodies the advantages of both with the disadvantages 
of neither.. 

Finally, such a law as would permit the legal catching and 
marketing of any lobster between 9 and 11 inches, except those 
with eggs attached, would readily meet the market conditions in 
all the States and the Maritime Provinces. It would permit 
fishing to be carried on at all seasons, for the close season would 
then be upon only a part of the lobsters all the year, instead of 
upon all the lobsters for a part of the year-. 

During the past four years this modification of the law has 
been carefully considered, and now numbers among its adherents 
many persons whose intelligence is unswayed by personal con- 
siderations, since they are interested in the lobster neither as 
fishermen nor dealers, and whose opinion is, therefore, of great- 
est weight. 

This proposed measure has the written endorsement of such 
eminent investigators in marine biology as : — 

Prof. F. H. Herrick, special investigator of the American 
lobster for the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 

Prof. W. K. Brooks of Johns Hopkins University, director 
of the Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory. 

Prof. C. O. Whitman of Chicago University, director of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole. 

Prof. E. L. Mark, director of the Zoological Laboratories, 
Harvard University. 

Prof. J. S. Kingsley of Tufts College, director of the Marine 
Laboratory at Harpswell, Me. 

Prof. Sidney I. Smith of Yale University. 

Prof. John M. Tyler of Amherst College. 

Prof. E. G. Conklin of University of Pennsylvania. 

Prof. Jacob Peighard of University of Michigan. 

Prof. William Patten of Dartmouth College. 

Prof. J. L. Kellogg of Williams College. 

Prof. G. A. Drew of University of Maine. 

Prof. H. Y. Wilson of University of North Carolina. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 109 

Prof. A. L. Treadwell of Vassar College. 

Prof. A. W. Weysse of Boston University. 

Prof. Francis H. Herrick of the Western Keserve University 
recommends a radical change of policy in protecting the young 
lobster. " The theory of past legislation has been that the young 
lobster is in greater need of protection than the old one. Hence 
it was made unlawful to retain (after catching) lobsters below 
a given limit in size. Some States fixed the dividing line at 
10 % inches and others at 9. These standards have been adopted 
by most of the Canadian provinces, though one or more place 
it at 8 inches. This regulation is usually supplemented by a 
second, which prohibits marketing female lobsters that are 
spawning. " Professor Herrick would reverse the first of these 
rules, and thus make the second unnecessary. One of his reasons 
for proposing the change is, that " it would protect the female 
lobster more effectually than existing laws do, for these can be 
and are often evaded. It is possible for a dishonest fisherman 
to remove the evidence that he is violating the statutes. Forbid 
him to have or sell a lobster which is more than 9 or 10 inches 
long, whether it is spawning or not, and detection and punish- 
ment will be easier than they are now." * 

Professor Herrick is the well-known authority on the lobster. 
His study of the life history and habits of the American lobster 
while in the employ of the United States Fish Commission will 
remain classic, and his opinion carries great weight. 

Summary. 

The Proposed Law combines Close Season and 9-Inch Law. — 
It would combine the best points of a close season (by putting 
a close season on all lobsters above 11 inches and below 9 inches) 
and of a straight 9-inch law (by permitting the legal sale of 
lobsters between 9 and 11 inches, size-limits which include the 
largest number of lobsters now caught). 

Would be more readily and economically enforced. — By for- 
bidding the use of any pot other than a legal, standard pot, with 
the seal of the inspector, having an entrance ring not exceed- 
ing 3 or 3% inches, the law could be more readily and economi- 
cally enforced, since no large lobster could enter the pot, and the 

1 Cf. Science, N. S., Vol. XXIII., No. 591, pp. 650-655, April 27, 1906. 



110 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

further possession of large lobsters would be illegal. The lower 
limit could be controlled by the prohibition of the use of lob- 
sters under 8 inches as bait, or of their possession for any other 
purpose whatever, except for use in scientific study. The temp- 
tation to keep an 8-inch lobster would be less than that involved 
in the possession of a large lobster. It would give every man 
in the lobster fisheries an equal chance. The honest man would 
no longer throw overboard 9 to 10 inch lobsters for the benefit 
of his less scrupulous neighbor. 

Would increase the Number of Eggs 'produced. — It would 
immensely increase the number of eggs produced, and therefore 
the number of young lobsters which would by growth meet the 
market demand. 

Woidd improve the Quality of Eggs produced. — By perpet- 
ually reserving the best specimens of mature age as a breeding 
stock, the best quality of young would be produced. 

Objections. — The chief objections appear to be the difficulty 
of enforcement, on account of an upper and a loAver limit of 
size (it should be noted that the upper limit can be cared for 
by an entrance ring of a specified size upon the pots or traps), 
and the danger that too many small lobsters would be caught. 

But the crux of the whole matter is that the present laws 
result in a diminished yield of eggs, and to this is to be as- 
cribed the obvious and alarming decline of the lobster in all 
waters where the effects of these pernicious laws have become 
evident; and we therefore urge upon you a most careful, judi- 
cial and prompt consideration of this important question. 

In discussing the question, we strongly urge that the matter 
be discussed and settled for the benefit of all the people of the 
State, — consumers, fishermen and dealers alike. It is the per- 
son from the interior who, after all, is most interested in the 
maintenance of the lobster supply, — the fisherman and the 
dealer are too often interested only to a personal and selfish 
degree; and this matter should not be left to the consideration 
only of the representatives of the shore towns , many of whose 
constituents are actively engaged in the lobster business, and 
are perhaps too deeply concerned in the pursuit of present gain 
to give an unbiased opinion upon the methods which the Legis- 
lature should carry out in pursuance of the duty and responsi- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. Ill 

l)ility of the Commonwealth as the trustee and conservator of 
its natural sources of wealth. 

Following are reports of the work done by the U. S. Bureau 
of .Fisheries in Massachusetts for the maintenance of the lobster 
fishery : — 

Department of Commerce and Labor, 
Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, Jan. 18, 1907. 

Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, Boom 158, State House, Boston, 

Mass. 

Gentlemen" : — In compliance with your request of January 1 to 
the superintendent of Woods Hole station, there is submitted here- 
with a brief resume of the lobster work accomplished at that station 
during the fiscal year 1906. 

Fair results having followed the holding of egg-bearing lobsters 
through the winter months of the previous year, it was decided to 
repeat the experiment. Accordingly, 678 lobsters, collected between 
September 1 and November 23, were placed in live cars and fed regu- 
larly to December 20. Feeding was resumed on March 20, and con- 
tinued to the time of liberation. When removed from the cars late in 
April, the loss of lobsters during confinement was found to have been 
25 per cent. The receipts of eggs from this stock aggregated 5,505,000, 
or about one-third of the total number handled. They were of good 
quality, and commenced hatching at about the same time as those 
obtained from the spring collections. 

The eggs received from the spring collections numbered 10,041,000, 
and from both lots 12,787,000 fry were hatched, and deposited in 
waters along the Massachusetts coast. The egg collections of the pre- 
vious year exceeded those of the past season by about 1,800,000; but, 
taking into consideration the fact that nearly one-third of the 1905 
yield were secured from waters outside the State, while the past sea- 
son's work was restricted to the State limits, the results seem quite 
encouraging. During the season eggs were taken from 1,187 lobsters, 
780 of which were furnished by employees of the Massachusetts com- 
mission. The remainder were collected by the Woods Hole station 
force. 

Respectfully, George M. Bowers, 

Commissioner. 

Department of Commerce and Labor, 
Bureau of Fisheries, Gloucester, Mass., Jan. 15, 1907. 

Dr. Geo. W. Field, Chairman, Commissioners on Fisheries and Game, 

Boston, Mass. 

Sir : — I submit herewith a brief report of the lobster work at this 
station during 1906. 

There were 1,398 egg lobsters received, of which number 1,324 were 
collected by the employees of this station and 74 by the State force. 



112 



FISH AND GAME. 



[Dec. 



Of the number collected by the station force, 1,215 were utilized for 
hatching purposes, and the remaining 109, having new eggs, were 
turned over to the State. 

There were 1,494 egg lobsters used for hatching purposes, including, 
besides those mentioned above, 205 which had been kept in a live-car 
since November, 1905. The total yield of eggs amounted to 22,846,000, 
from which were hatched 20,375,000 fry. The fry was distributed at 
various points along the coast from Rockport to Cohasset. 

Respectfully, C. G. Cokliss, 

Superintendent* 



Statement of Fish and Eggs distributed from Gloucester, Mass., Station 
for Year 1906. Species, Lobster; Age, Fry. 



Date. 



To whom delivered. 



Address or Point of 
Deposit. 



Waters stocked. 



Number. 



1906. 

June 11, . 

June 13, . 
June 16, . 
June 18, . 
June 20, 
June 23, . 
June 26, . 
June 28, . 
June 29, . 
June 30, . 
July 2, . 
July 5, . 
July 7, . 
July 9, . 
July 10, . 
July 14, . 
July 16, . 
July 17, . 
July 19, . 
July 21, . 
July 23, . 
July 26, . 
Total, . 



Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Launch " Egret," . 

Launch " Egret," . 

Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau" of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Launch "Egret," . 

Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 
Bureau of Fisheries 

consignment. 



Gloucester, Mass. 

Nahant, . 

Boston, . 

Magnolia, 

Marblehead, 

Gloucester, 

Cohasset, 

Rockport, 

Manchester, 

Gloucester, 

Rockport, 

Manchester, 

Marblehead, 

Rockport, 

Gloucester, 

Lanesville, 

Hull, 

Beverly, . 

Gloucester, 

Manchester, 

Gloucester, 

Manchester, 



Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Ipswich Bay, . 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Loblolly Cove, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Ipswich Bay, . 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Ipswich Bay, . 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 
Massachusetts Bay, 



900,000 

800,000 

1,200,000 

500,000 

1,000,000 

500,000 

2,000,000 

2,000,000 

1,400,000 

1,200,000 

1,500,000 

1,800,000 

1,100,000 

1,000,000 

800,000 

600,000 

500,000 

400,000 

600,000 

325,000 

175,000 

75,000 



20,375,000 



1906.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25 



113 



Collection of Egg-bearing Lobsters by the Massachusetts Fish and 
Game Commission for the Year 1906. 



Collector. 



Number. 



Launch " Egret," 
George W. Bloomer, . 
E. F. Locke (Woods Hole), 
E. B. Mecarta, . 

Total, .... 



3,382 

1,069 

410 

5 

4,866 



Statement of Lobsters sold to United States Bureau of Fisheries, at Sta- 
tions at Gloucester and Woods Hole, in 1906. 



KIND. 


Woods Hole. 


Gloucester. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Brown egg, 

Green egg, 


728 
427 


$202 40 
141 55 


74 


$22 35 


Totals, 


1,155 


$343 95 


74 


$22 35 



Date. 


Amounts returned 

to Treasurer 

of the 

C ommon wealth . 


Date. 


Amounts returned 

to Treasurer 

of the 

C omm on wealth . 


July 3, 1906, . 
July 19, 1906, . 
Aug. 2, 1906, . 


$117 50 
19 65 
85 90 


Aug. 20, 1906, 
Jan. 30, 1907, 


$1 40 

141 55 

$366 00 



BosTOisr, Mass., Dec. 16, 1906. 
George W. Field, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In the launch " Egret " we have collected this year 
3,381 seed lobsters. They were disposed of in the following manner: 
318 brown-egg lobsters were shipped to Woods Hole; 74 taken to the 
Gloucester hatchery; 427 green-egg lobsters to Woods Hole hatchery; 
2,497 green-egg lobsters liberated. In the handling of these lobsters 11 
died ; 78 were caught and paid for twice and 2 were caught and paid for 
three times; 256 were less than 10 V-2 inches in length. We have received 
and distributed 5,300,000 from the Woods Hole hatchery and 4,000,000 
from the Gloucester hatchery of the fry from the lobsters that have been 



114 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

sent to them from the " Egret." This fry was let go as nearly as possible 
in the locality and in quantities proportional to the number of lob- 
sters there taken. We have also liberated 703 adult lobsters from the 
Gloucester hatchery, but all which we have sent to the Woods Hole 
hatchery have been liberated in that region. 

In doing this work the " Egret " has run 4,623 miles, at an average 
rate of 10 miles an hour. We have had no accident whatever, and 
have not been delayed by either the boat or machinery during the 
summer. This summer has been very foggy, and hi the latter part 
there was a month in which there were very few days in which the 
fishermen could fish; their traps were stove up, and it was such bad 
weather that it was nearly impossible for them to get out at all. 

By the strict enforcement of the Sunday gunning law, shooting from 
boats is practically stopped on the coast where we can reach it with 
the " Egret." In general the weather on Sundays during this fall has 
not been good for gunning. 

In the spring of the year we were employed somewhat in the propa- 
gation of the shellfish, as the United States government boat was col- 
lecting most of the lobsters on the north shore. We have got a great 
many more lobsters on the south shore than on the north. The well in 
the " Egret " has not been opened this year, as we find that we will 
not have near so many dead lobsters by running them dry as we had 
when we used an open well. This we have faithfully tried. There 
are very few repairs needed on the " Egret " this year, aside from the 
painting and varnishing. In Cohasset it would help us to get many more 
lobsters if they could be collected by some one there, so that when we 
go there I could get them from one man. It is a harbor that we cannot 
get in and out of unless it is half tide or better, and it is seldom that I 
can wait to see all the fishermen and get out in less than twelve hours. 
Yours respectfully, B. A. Foster. 

Lobster Meat. — There is still urgent need of a law, both 
from the point of view of the public health and of the lobster 
fishery in this State, which will effectually eliminate the practice 
of selling " lobster meat " at wholesale, and of lobster meat pre- 
pared at any considerable distance from the point of consump- 
tion, or prepared under unsanitary conditions. 

The following is a correct statement of the state of affairs 
under our present laws, not alone on the Maine coast, but along 
the Massachusetts shore as well : — 

A lobster pirate is making a good revenue in the waters of Maine 
by buying short lobsters at 2 cents each from the fishermen, and boil- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 115 

ing them on a steam launch which he has fitted with a boiler. He 
breaks the tails and claws from the lobsters, and has nothing to fear 
from the fish and game wardens, for there is no evidence to convict 
him. He can handle 800 pounds of meat per day, which he sells in 
Boston, obtaining good prices from the hotels and restaurants. He 
contemplates buying three more launches this summer. 

Even the fisheries which attempt to furnish substitutes for our 
lobsters are already having " troubles of their own," as the fol- 
lowing clippings show : — 

The crawfish season has opened again in California, and the first 
catches of the year were brought in from the islands the first part of 
the month. Prospects are not very bright for the fishermen who 
make a specialty of this line of trade, for the prices are low and the 
fish are scarce. The wholesale and retail prices are usually quite high 
at the opening of the season, when there is as a rule a big demand 
for the fish ; but this year the opposite is the case, — the wholesale 
price has been several points lower than it was last year. The lawful 
season commenced September 15. The average number of men to a 
camp is three, and it is estimated that there are at least fifty camps 
between San Diego and Santa Barbara. The great majority of these 
camps are on the different islands of Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa 
Barbara, Catalina, Anacapa and San Clemente, all lying at a short 
distance to the westward of the southern California coast. As off any 
high and rocky promontory is a good place for taking them, the mainland 
will also have many traps close to it, but the islands are better for good 
money making. The work, if pressed hard enough, is a profitable one, 
many men making as high as $20 per day out of it. It is highly dan- 
gerous, as the traps usually have to be visited before it is light in the 
morning, and often when the seas are rough. A skiff must be used to 
•get to them, and it is only the most able oarsmen and intrepid seamen 
who can stand it. If the traps are not visited every day, there is a 
loss of that day's labor entire. (" Pacific Fisherman.") 

The " Fishing Gazette " of June 2, 1906, says: — 

The fish and game merchants of New Orleans, La., held a meeting 
last week to protest against a proposed law to restrict the shrimp- 
fishing season. They claim it will be the means of seriously embarrass- 
ing many of the fish merchants, and will also deprive thousands of 
poor men from making a living. They also claim it is absurd to have 
a close season on shrimp, for they spawn at all times of the year. 



116 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Inland Fisheries. 
Stocking State Waters with Food Fish. — The practice of 
maintaining and protecting at public expense the fisheries of 
the public waters is of long standing, and is firmly established 
in well-nigh all densely populated States and countries as both 
expedient and profitable. Two definite methods are in vogue : — 

I. The regulation of fishing for the purpose of protecting 
the adults either (1) during the breeding season, or (2) in 
cases where the demand exceeds the natural increase: (a) by 
reducing the number of fish taken during the year; (b) by lim- 
iting the catch; (c) by limiting the number of days upon which 
fish may legally be taken, i.e., a close season; or (d) by prescrib- 
ing how and by what apparatus fish may or may not be taken. 

II. The artificial hatching and rearing of young fish, and 
subsequent stocking of the water by the liberation of fry just 
hatched, or preferably one or two year old fish. 

The purpose for which such laws are instituted is absolutely 
correct. If the adults of both sexes are not protected, the num- 
ber of fertile eggs laid is immediately reduced. Then necessarily 
follows a decrease in the number of young hatched, and a pro- 
portionally smaller number of immature fish. Observations in- 
dicate that in a natural trout brook, undisturbed by man, an 
optimum population of all classes of life is established; enough 
insect larvae, adult insects, worms, Crustacea and small fish of 
various, species are present to furnish food for a rather constant 
number of young trout. Further, practically enough large adult 
trout are present to eat at least 90 per cent, of the trout fry 
before these young reach the breeding age, and to furnish a 
number. of offspring practically just sufficient to furnish food 
for themselves and similar large fish. Thus a surplus of not 
more than a pair or two come to maturity out of the hundreds 
of annual progeny of each pair of breeding fish, to replace the 
old trout which pass on through accident or senile decline. 

When, however, man appears, and a considerable number of 
the breeding fish are removed by him, the most important conse- 
quence is a sudden diminution of the number of eggs laid and a 
corresponding diminution in the number of fry hatched ; conse- 
quently, a relatively larger proportion of young fish which are 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 117 

destined to go as food for the " big fellows." A 2-pound trout, 
for example, requires a certain weight of animal food per day. 
He will persistently hunt until this amount is secured and his 
voracious appetite is satisfied. If, then, only a relatively small 
number of young trout are present, it is possible that every one 
of these may thus fall victims, and not alone an actually smaller 
number but even no surplus fry may remain to grow to become 
breeding adults. When this occurs, the trout fishery in that 
brook declines, and the waters soon become occupied by less 
valuable fish ; or else the stream remains unproductive, yielding 
either nothing to man, or at least less than its normal productive 
capacity. Such is the history and condition of most of the un- 
polluted waters of Massachusetts, chiefly from a failure- to main- 
tain unimpaired the number of breeding adults. 

The necessity of meeting these conditions has led to biological 
studies which prove the following facts of economic impor- 
tance : — ■ 

(1) More trout fry can be secured by artificial impregnation 
of the egg than are ordinarily hatched under natural conditions. 

(2) The trout fry can be reared artificially in immense num- 
bers with less mortality than in nature. 

(3) By an increased quantity of food the rapidity of growth 
may be accelerated, and by substitution of an artificial food 
in place of young fish a greater weight of trout may be secured 
at less expense. Whereas nature feeds calves with whole milk 
and trout with smaller trout, man secures equal results at less 
cost by substituting foods of other less valuable materials. 

(4) More satisfactory economic results may be obtained by 
continuing the artificial feeding and rearing to an age limit not 
yet very definitely determined, but which is at least at or near 
the age of sexual maturity (two years in the case of brook 
trout), than by liberating the fry at an earlier stage. The 
obvious advantage of this method of stocking our waters is found 
in the fact that the larger the fish are at the time of liberation, 
the smaller is the number that fall a prey to the voracious adults. 
Hence stocking with fingerlings, i.e., trout one year old, has 
proved more satisfactory and economical than stocking with fry, 
i.e., just-hatched fish, or, more exactly, fish which have just be- 
gun to feed actively. Similarly, and such is the testimony of 



118 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the Maine commissioners, it is to he expected that two-year-old 
fish would yield better results for stocking than would younger 
fish. ' 

The Number necessary for Stocking. — The question of the 
proper number to liberate in a stream at the time of stocking 
demands a consideration of several points : ( 1 ) the amount of 
food, (2) the minimum volume of water in times of drought, 
and (3) the number of fishermen resorting to those wafers. In 
general, a ]arge number of fish can be reared and transported 
relatively cheaper than a small number, and the chance of suc- 
cess is manifolded if the number is adequate. In too many cases 
Ave are obliged to make plants by liberating the young when the 
number *of fish available is so small that it is probable that 
all the fry or fingerlings are eaten by larger fish, leaving no 
surplus to become established as breeders. Often an additional 
100, 500 or 1,000 fingerlings in a brook or a pond would satisfy 
the demands of the larger fish, and leave an adequate surplus. 
This may cause one to question the practicability of any stocking 
of the water whatever ; but we should note that nature does the 
work in this very way, producing what appears to be excessive 
numbers of young, very few of which ever attain maturity. The 
best modern methods are close to nature's own practices, and in 
general merely seek to hasten and to strengthen her processes. 

Since our State hatcheries were established, great changes 
have come in the methods and possibilities of trout propagation. 
Formerly, there were no commercial hatcheries ; the State hatch- 
eries were almost the only available source of trout fry. Finger- 
lings were rarely, if ever, used for stocking purposes. When it 
had been demonstrated that trout could be artificially propagated 
on a profitable commercial basis, many commercial plants de- 
veloped. From the fact that such an establishment can sell its 
surplus adult fish at rarely less than 50 cents per pound, also a 
considerable proportion of the surplus eggs, fry and fingerlings, 
and that usually the proprietor or manager does the most im- 
portant work himself (working sometimes twelve or more hours 
per day when necessary), or personally supervises unskilled 
laborers, the actual net cost per thousand fish is considerably less 
than when done at a State hatchery, where both skilled and un- 
skilled labor must be paid maximum wages, and for eight hours' 
work. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 119 

In spite of this, we believe that the State should maintain its 
own hatcheries, (1) not alone for the purpose of maintaining its 
independence of combinations of the commercial hatcheries to 
secure unduly high prices, but (2) particularly for the purpose 
of advancing our knowledge of diseases of both young and old 
fish, (3) of devising methods of handling and feeding such fish 
of all ages and conditions, (4) of determining the effects upon 
food fish of sewage and other pollutions and upon the possible 
sanitary problems related thereto, and (5) of making trials of 
new species and of developing improved breeds. Such a hatch- 
ery, however, should in all its features be a model, not alone 
for the economical propagation and distribution of food fish, 
but also adapted for accurate studies of all the problems con- 
nected therewith. With increasing population and the higher 
prices for all nitrogenous foods, the questions of securing the 
best possible yields from the water as well as from the land 
will become of ever greater importance. We are more and 
more convinced that such a plant, adapted for rearing not less 
than 250,000 fingerlings annually, should be established at the 
earliest possible date. 

Though we believe firmly that the brook trout is the fish par 
excellence for .our streams, there is much other public water for 
which this fish is not adapted. To a limited extent we have 
distributed in certain of our waters and have made observations 
upon the rainbow (Sahno irideus) , the European or brown trout 
(Trutta fario) and the landlocked salmon (Salmo Sebago). 
When it was learned that trout fingerlings could not be satis- 
factorily reared at the ITadley hatchery (compare reports for 
1903 and 1904), we considered the propagation of black bass 
or white perch or the large catfishes. With the loss of the surface 
water, however, this cannot be undertaken with probability of 
success, though the value of the hatchery building and the 
supply of ground water for hatching eggs continues thus far 
apparently unimpaired. 

The Distribution of Game Fish. — From the State hatcheries 
during the past year 815,000 fry, 60,450 fingerlings, 500 two- 
year-old fish and 296 large fish, all of the salmon family, were 
distributed to public brooks and lakes. (For details, see Ap- 
pendix B.) 



120 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The Hadley hatchery has invariably yielded us larger and 
stronger trout fry than either the Winchester, Sutton or Adams 
hatcheries. (See reports for 1903 and 1904.) The Hadley 
hatchery was established at a time when it was generally be- 
lieved that trout streams could be most satisfactorily maintained 
by stocking with fry. It was built solely as a hatching station, 
from which the fry were to be distributed soon after hatching. 
The abundant supply of ground water of unsurpassed quality 
was found to be well adapted for hatching the eggs, and this 
station has every year since its establishment furnished our best 
stock of fry. The water of Hart's Brook, running through the 
hatchery grounds, furnished water to the pond and pens in which 
the stock of approximately 2,000 brood fish was kept. When 
it became evident that stocking with fingerlings gives more 
certain results than when done with fry, attempts were made 
to rear flngerlings at Hadley by using the water from driven 
wells, supplemented by water from Hart's Brook. The results, 
however, were unsatisfactory, mainly on account of insufficient 
flow of water to maintain a low temperature. There always, 
however, was sufficient water to maintain the brood fish in good 
condition without unusual mortality. 

In the summer of 1905, however, the town of Hadley con- 
structed a reservoir which impounded the water upon the upper 
watershed of Hart's Brook and diverted it to the town mains. 
This diversion of the water, while not apparent during the fall, 
winter and spring rains, so reduces the supply to the pond dur- 
ing the summer months that it is no longer advisable to risk 
keeping a brood stock of fish in the pond, from which to secure 
a supply of eggs for the hatchery. It also precludes the utili- 
zation of this pond for rearing black bass, white perch or 
other valuable food and game fish. The brood fish, therefore, 
were transferred to the Sutton hatchery, and the eggs must 
hereafter be transported annually from Sutton to Hadley. This 
greatly lessens the value of the hatchery property. We are of 
the opinion that the damage to this property by thus diverting 
the water is not less than $1,000. When a personal conference 
and a view of the premises with the water commissioners of the 
town of Hadley failed to bring about a satisfactory adjustment, 
the matter was referred to the Attorney-General of the Com- 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 121 

monwealth, for the purpose of protecting the interests of the 
State. 

Report of the Sutton Hatchery. — ■ That portion of the report 
of Arthur Merrill, superintendent of the State hatchery at Sut- 
ton, which pertains to the hatching, rearing and distribution of 
game and food fish, follows : — 

The fry hatched from the eggs collected the previous season num- 
bered 400,000; of these, 35,000 were brown trout and 4,000 were land- 
locked salmon. The additions to this number before or during the 
hatching season amounted to 60,000: (1) 30,000 brook and rainbow 
trout received from Hadley; (2) 20,000 salmon hatched from eggs 
received from the* United States Bureau of Fisheries, Grand Lake 
Station, Me.; and (3) 10,000 rainbow trout hatched from a lot of 
25,000 also received from the United States Bureau of Fisheries, from 
Manchester, la. There were 275,000 fry distributed in April and May. 
The remainder, minus some losses from disease, were reserved for rear- 
ing, — a smaller stock than usual, but yielding a better lot of finger- 
lings than the previous three years. The salmon and rainbow trout 
were much reduced by disease, which attacked those in the pens and 
tubs below the dam. The fry brought from Hadley suffered much loss 
from inflammation of the gills, due to irritation from transporting 
them in warm weather. During the season for distribution some loss 
of fingerlings was experienced in the lower tubs, where they were held 
awaiting shipment, owing in part to inflammation of the gills hi those 
that were caught from muddy ponds, and in part to the poor water 
supplied to the lower tubs, which is unfit for use at any season. 

The hatching was very satisfactory, except for the lateness of the 
last lot of eggs. This, as in former years, delayed the distribution of 
the fry and gave less satisfactory results, since it was necessary to use 
the late fry in stocking our rearing pens and tubs. In the case of the 
salmon and rainbow trout, where losses have been frequent following 
the removal from the hatchery to the lower tubs and ponds, it is very 
probable that these losses are due to the change to the outside water, 
when it has become much higher and more variable in temperature 
than the hatchery water. If the hatching could be done earlier, the 
fry could be established in summer quarters, and be so far developed 
as to stand better the summer temperature. 

The brood stock, which had become seriously depleted, was consid- 
erably increased by the addition of a portion of the Hadley stock; and 
an increase of eggs resulted during the present season, even though the 
average size of the fish was smaller. The decrease in the size of the 
breeders has continued for several years, and doubtless new stock is 
required to regain the lost ground in that respect. The work of im- 
provement being mostly directed to quail and pens for the northern 



122 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

varying hare, commonly known as the " white rabbit," not much could 
be done on the ponds; but all the shallow exposed ponds except one 
were covered with netting* and shaded, and, although stocked much 
more lightly than commonly, yielded an increased number of fish of a 
very much larger size, the one unprotected pond alone showing a de- 
crease hi the number of fish raised. 

One unused plank pen below the dam was made secure, and an ex- 
cellent lot of salmon raised there. The leakage which made the pens 
useless for fingerlings was stopped by tearing out the board bottoms. 
Underneath the board bottom a solid pavement of cobblestones was 
found; and, by using this for a foundation, a cement bottom could be 
put in, making the pens safe and useful at all seasons. The next 
season the other pen will be put hi order, and the two will doubtless 
carry through a lot of salmon as large as those lost this year in the 
lower tubs. 

The work of improving the ponds should be continued, and several 
available locations should be utilized for building new ponds, as the 
surest and quickest way of making a further increase in the output of 
fingerlings. There still is a question as to what extent the water supply 
can be burdened with additional stock; but it seems unlikely that the 
four additional ponds proposed will cause any harmful deterioration 
of the water, especially if some of the worn-out tubs are discontinued, 
which seems desirable, as the small and inferior tub fish are often a 
cause of dissatisfaction when distributed. 

The work of improving the grounds and buildings was continued to 
some extent, the ice and meat houses removed, considerable brush cut 
away, fencing completed and gates hung. Many heaps of rocks that 
had accumulated in previous work on the grounds were removed, inci- 
dentally to the work done on quail pens. 

The usual recommendations for repairs and additional work are 
made, and it seems well to urge that this matter be given special at- 
tention, and that before any further work is done the subject be care- 
fully studied, and a plan adopted looking to a rearrangement of many 
features of the hatchery, in order to avoid many serious faults and to 
handle the stock more effectively. The many extensive repairs that 
have been made have perpetuated these defects at a cost greater than 
the desired changes, and the added cost of doing the work with the 
depreciated value of the output represents a still greater amount. 

The hatchery building will in the near future require such extensive 
repairs that it is a question if it would not be better to rebuild it in 
another location, and gain thereby a great advantage in handling the 
fish; also, to make it useful for many purposes for which it is at 
present unfit. Its location is 500 feet from the springs that supply it, 
and two lines of pipe carry the water supply for it and the stand of 
tubs near by. The pipe that supplies the tubs is so nearly clogged 
with rust as to be useless ; the water supply that it carries is too scanty 
for any considerable number of fish. As has been frequently noted in 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 123 

the reports, the hatching is very late, and when the fry are distributed 
or put into the rearing ponds they are poorly developed and often 
decidedly inferior. The lateness of hatching is certainly due to the 
distance to which the water for the hatchery is carried, permitting it to 
cool in the long flow through the pipes. Moreover, it is probable that 
the fry are weakened because of the late hatching and the deterioration 
of the water. This is indicated by occasional losses in the hatchery 
troughs late in the spring; and, while a comparison of the results 
from using the water at the hatchery and at points near the springs 
cannot be made, because none of the hatching has been done at the 
springs,* the contrast between the water used for rearing the fish and 
that for shipping the fish is very marked. Disease has repeatedly de- 
stroyed the fry and fingerlings kept at the hatchery, but when kept 
elsewhere, though in water drawn from the same source, the fish have 
suffered no harm. 

The relocation of the hatchery at this time is suggested, since the 
present building is so far decayed that its future use is not possible 
without extensive repairs. In the mean time, if this plan is adopted, 
further repairs can be made to conform to it, and in the end much of 
the inconvenience arising from the scattered and unrelated places 
avoided. The spawning would in this case be done at the hatchery, 
and not as at present, at a distant point without shelter. The work in 
connection with shipping fish, which is done without any conveniences 
for handling fish or protection in inclement weather, could be done 
from the hatchery, using tanks that have a good water supply, instead 
of the treacherous supply used at present. 

For the better control of the visitors at the hatchery and the pro- 
tection of the property and stock, now too widely scattered to be closely 
watched, fences should be built, dividing the grounds into parts, so 
that no one unless authorized can get near the breeding stock or the 
hens that are setting on pheasants' and quails' eggs, or the incubators 
and brooders, or the remote parts of the grounds where opportunity 
is offered for mischief. The pens are now constructed so that the con- 
necting fences would involve only a small outlay, and, besides serving 
the purpose mentioned, would form convenient lines for planting trees, 
etc., and would serve in the building of temporary pens that are needed 
for holding birds to be distributed. 

The eight-hour law, which went into effect during the summer, will 
require a somewhat different arrangement for doing the routine work, 
which has usually been done with the aid of one man. As this work at 
some seasons requires a fifteen-hour day, it will be difficult to do it 
properly with the former arrangement. At other seasons, when it 
does not require the full time to do the routine work, several hours 
each day have been devoted to permanent improvements and repairs. 
In this respect, much is accomplished in the course of the year. Be- 
cause of this law, the work for permanent improvements and repairs 
must in the future be done by extra help, and it can not be left undone. 



124 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The agricultural papers of this country are unfortunately 
accustomed to look upon the fish and game laws, and the activ- 
ities incidental thereto, as being undertaken solely in the interest 
of the " sportsmen." Such papers, perhaps unintentionally, 
oftentimes do much to establish such a misconception. No one 
class of people are so directly and so extensively benefited by the 
fish and game laws as is the farmer. In Europe, agricultural 
societies directly promote the propagation of fish and birds. 

The " Fishing Gazette " for Jan. 5, 1907, says: — 

What is reported to be the largest fish hatchery in the world is in 
the course of construction in Sinaland, Sweden. Several local agri- 
cultural societies are behind the movement. A morass of about 30 
acres has been secured, and this tract will provide a place for 60 basins. 
The land lies so that the expense of dams and other works will be 
comparatively light. It is planned to propagate not only fish from 
Sweden, but spawn will be obtained from Germany, Hungary, Italy 
and the United States. An expert from Germany will have charge of 
the hatchery. 

Effect of Fish upon the Purity of Water. — We have fre- 
quent requests from water commissions and owners of artificial 
lakes for information as to the effects of fish of various species 
upon the purity of the waters. Some of the general results of 
our investigations are given in the following reports. Other 
reports of a similar nature have been made from time to time. 

Boston, Mass., May 31, 1906. 
A. E. Pickup, Esq., Registrar, Board of Water Commissioners, City 
Hall, Holyoke, Mass. 
Dear Sir : — In reply to yours of April 25, and as a result of our 
visit on May 15, we are sending you herewith a report with recom- 
mendations in regard to stocking the high-service reservoir with food or 
game fish. 

If you decide that it is expedient to put in game fish, any species of 
trout could be used. If you wish a fish which is an edible fish, and yet 
not strictly a game fish, I would suggest white perch. In any event, we 
would not advise the introduction of bass or pickerel, for the reason 
that a better quality of fish can be satisfactorily maintained there. We 
would warn especially against the introduction of carp of any species. 
Yours very truly, George W. Field, 

Chairman. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 125 

May 31, 1906. 
A. E. Pickup, Esq., Registrar, Board of Water Commissioners, City 
Hall, Holyoke, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request of April 25, we per- 
sonally visited, on May 15, the Holyoke high-service reservoir, for the 
purpose of securing information upon which to base the recommenda- 
tions which you ask. 

At the city hall we examined the contour and section maps of the 
reservoir, to ascertain the depth and the general course of the water 
currents. 

We drove around the reservoir, and noted the characteristics of the 
water-shed and of the bottom of the reservoir. So far as we could 
observe, everything was in good condition, and the prospects are ex- 
cellent for a continuance of the very satisfactory biological conditions. 

The chief question at issue is, however, one which you, not we, must 
decide. To what extent do you wish game fish, i.e., carnivorous fish, to 
be maintained in the reservoir? Under natural conditions, game fish 
are relatively few in numbers when compared with the smaller vege- 
table-eating animals (small fish, snails, clams, insect larvse, etc.). 

The ideal condition to which nature would attain in a long period of 
years, if left undisturbed by man, would be an exact balance between 
the total intake and the total outgo of the animal and vegetable organ- 
isms in the water. In such a state of biological equilibrium the vegeta- 
ble growth is just sufficient to pasture the vegetable-eating organisms, 
and the carnivorous animals are exactly numerous enough to prevent 
an undue increase of the vegetable eaters. The excreta of the animals, 
and plants, together with the material resulting from the decay of the 
dead bodies, furnish the proper quantity of plant food to keep the pas- 
turage in condition. Thus the cycle of matter goes on, and the equilib- 
rium is maintained by natural causes. Such conditions obtain in 
isolated lakes in the virgin forest, where the best drinking water is 
found. Similar conditions may be artificially produced in a glass jar 
of water, when by experimentation under proper conditions the quanti- 
ties of animal and vegetable may be so adjusted as to exactly compensate 
each other, — "a balanced aquarium." 

The causes which bring about the undesirable biological conditions 
evidenced in offensive odors and tastes in the drinking water are at 
least two-fold, and both traceable to human activities. First, the de- 
struction of trees and vegetation on the water-shed increases the quanti- 
ties of nitrites and nitrates, and other nitrogenous materials, which 
enter the pond with the storm and ground water. In instances where 
tracts upon the water-shed are cultivated, this increase may be still 
greater. In certain reservoirs where the basin has not been " stripped " 
before flooding, the growth of vegetation may become excessive for the 
similar reason that the larger quantities of chemical plant food bring 
about more extensive and rapid growth of plants in the water. These 



126 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

growths may be inoffensive, and act as beneficent agents in improving 
the potable qualities of the water. On the contrary, some species may 
in their growth store up certain essential oils (analogous to that of the 
mint and other well-known plants), which, upon the decay of the plant 
and the liberation of the oil, may cause the water to become decidedly 
malodorous. The fishy taste of pond water comes not from the fish, 
but from such oil-containing microscopic plants which have multiplied 
beyond all natural bounds. Such organisms as Anabaena, Clathrocystis, 
Uroglena, Synura and others that are particularly offensive and fre- 
quent, are in general the causes of the bad odors and tastes. 

One cause of this unnatural preponderance has been referred to 
above, viz., the denudation of the water-shed, which leads to a super- 
abundance of food and consequently to an abnormal growth of aquatic 
vegetation, most frequently microscopic. The second cause is the un- 
natural decrease of the organisms which devour this microscopic vege- 
tation. Such organisms as snails, clams, water fleas and other small 
Crustacea, insect larva?, including the young of the mosquito (note that 
the young mosquito is directly beneficial, but the good die young!) and 
fish fry, feed almost exclusively upon these microscopic plants. Thus 
a certain number of such animals must be maintained, to keep the un- 
desirable microscopic plants eaten down to a degree where the presence 
of these latter is not offensive. 

From the above we must infer that the first move to improve the 
quality of a potable water which is periodically or continuously below 
the optimum on account of the presence of these undesirable plants 
would be (1) to control the denudation of the water-shed, and (2) to 
increase the number of snails, clams, Crustacea and plant-eating fishes, 
etc., in the water. 

The number of these latter animals can be most easily augmented by 
preventing the increase of their enemies; the fewer carnivorous fish, 
the more small fish, snails, Crustacea and insect larva?, and, as a result, 
a corresponding diminution of the offensive micro-organisms. These 
biological facts point to the conclusion that the indiscriminate stocking 
of reservoirs of potable water with game fish is, on general terms, and 
for these reasons, unwise. In the personal opinion of the writer, stock- 
ing with the European carp may be still more unsatisfactory, and is 
not to be undertaken without careful study of the special conditions. 

A chief objection to the employment of copper sulphate for purify- 
ing reservoirs may be the fact that it may totally annihilate all the 
beneficent organisms, such as snails, clams, Crustacea, insect larvae, etc., 
which normally control the biological equilibrium, and fails to remove 
the real causes of the annual plague of offensive microscopic vegetation. 

While, however, it may be true that game fish, e.g., of the trout, 
bass and pickerel groups, may be undesirable inhabitants of reservoirs, 
and certainly should be removed from such reservoirs where the bio- 
logical examinations indicate a tendency to abnormal increase of Ana- 
baena, Clathrocystis, Uroglena and Synura, in many cases it may be 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 127 

desirable to permit the growth of sueh game fish, which, when mature, 
could be removed under proper control and supervision. Under the 
ordinary conditions, if the growth of the carnivorous fish were not 
found to impair the quality of the water, the catching of the large fish 
either for sport or for economic uses, if done in an approved manner, 
would not do injury. 

Briefly, then, in general where the quality of the water is excellent 
and the condition of the water-shed as well controlled as in the present 
case, game fish may be maintained in limited numbers with little danger 
of impairing the quality of the water; but careful observations should 
be maintained of the number of organisms shown by your biological 
analyses, and a gradual increase approximating to a degree where 
offensive conditions may be caused, should be met by diminishmg the 
number of carnivorous fish, and of increasing the number of fresh 
water clams, snails and Crustacea, and small herbivorous fish. 

Should you so desire, the writer will gladly confer with your board, 
and give more specific suggestions upon the matter of the biological 
analyses now being carried on. 

Yours very truly, George W. Field, 

Chairman. 

Brook Trout Fishing. — Evidence of satisfactory and im- 
proved brook trout fishing comes from various sections of the 
State : — 

Ware, Mass., Dec. 17, 1906. 
Dr. George W. Field, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — Enclosed find a list of some of the trout that were, 
caught in this section last season. 

Homer Beach of Ware caught 24 trout in one day, weighing from 3 
ounces to l 1 /^ pounds; another day, with friend, they caught 31. 

Thomas F. Horrigan of Brighton caught 38 trout in one day, weigh- 
ing 14 pounds, the largest one weighing 2 pounds. 

J. H. Dunphy of South Hadley Falls, and myself, caught 29 trout 
in seven hours, weighing 16% pounds. Those fish were all taken 
within five miles of Ware, and they are all open brooks. I will enclose 
Mr. Marland's letter, which speaks for itself. 

Respectfully yours, Dennis F. Shea. 

Ware, Mass., Dec. 13, 1906. 
Dear Sir : — The report you requested is as follows : June 8, 11 
trout, averaging 8 to 10 inches; June 15, 9 trout, averaging S to 10 
inches; June 22, 23 trout, averaging 8 to 10 inches; June 29, 18 trout, 
averaging 8 to 10 inches; July 4, 19 trout, weighing 17 pounds; July 7, 
14 trout, weighing 15 pounds; July 11, 5 trout, weighing 6 pounds. 
These are my best catches; the others are not worth mentioning. 

Yours truly, John L. Marland. 



128 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

A Change of Regulations of Fishing in Stocked Ponds. — 
In the ponds which were stocked this year, namely, Attitash, 
in Amesbnry; Spectacle, in Littleton and Ayer; Hardwick, in 
Hardwick; Nuttings, in Billerica; Moores, in Warwick; Tispa- 
quin, in Middleborough ; Congamond, in Southwick; Little 
Alum, in Brimfleld ; Forge, in Westford and Littleton ; Wachu- 
sett, in Princeton; Fresh, in Orleans; Dennis, in Yarmouth; 
Spectacle, in Sandwich; Crane, in West Stockbridge; Mud, in 
West Stockbridge; Fort Meadow, in Marlborough; Pearl, in 
Wrentham ; Archers, in Wrentham ; Hampton, in Westfield and 
Southampton ; Pottapaug, in Dana ; Keyes, in Westford ; Bloody, 
in Plymouth ; Pratt, in Upton ; and Benton, in Otis, — fishing 
is permitted every day except Sunday from June 1 to November 
1, instead of only on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays. 

Sunday Fishing Laws. — Since there still persists in the pub- 
lic mind a lack of knowledge of the laws pertaining to fishing on 
Sundays, we may repeat that fishing on the Sabbath is a viola- 
tion of the Sunday laws, but not a violation of the fish and game 
laws unless the fishing is done on a closed pond. In the latter 
case, the law against fishing in closed season (though it be on a 
Sunday) is enforced by our deputies, but they have no author- 
ity to enforce the general Sunday laws which forbid fishing on 
the Lord's Day ; the enforcement of these laws is in the hands of 
the local town authorities. 

Destruction of Inland Food and Game Fisheries by Pollution 
of the Brooks and Rivers. — As an important feature in the 
solution of the question how to check the excessive flow of pop- 
ulation from country to city, increased consideration must soon 
be given by the State to the amelioration of country conditions. 
Among the most important of the conditions which render the 
country less attractive to the visitor and to the commuter, and of 
diminishing productive capacity to the farmer and the country 
resident, is the ever-increasing and frequently unnecessary pollu- 
tion of our streams and rivers by the so-called waste products 
and sewage of manufactories : sawdust and shavings from wood- 
working mills; wool scourings, dye stuffs, acids, etc., from cot- 
ton and woolen mills ; tarry wastes from gas works ; copper and 
iron salts from tack and nail factories ; local " dumps ; " stable, 
house, town and city sewage. Nearly all of these materials are 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 129 

of greater or less commercial value, either as a source of certain 
specific substances or as irrigating or fertilizing material. In 
the great majority of cases this value is not sufficient to warrant 
in their utilization the diversion of capital which can be more 
profitably employed. In many instances, however, the damage 
to public and private property or to public resources (the inland 
fisheries and the shellfisheries) are so manifest and so extensive 
that the public is warranted in compelling the disposal of this 
material in such a manner that the injury is minimized. In 
many instances, if this material was pronounced to be a public 
nuisance, the attention necessary to secure a satisfactory and 
economic disposal of such wastes would be developed. Such is 
the fact in the instance of sawdust, which previous to 1890 
was permitted to enter the streams, to the great detriment of 
the trout and salmon fisheries. Since 1890, uses for sawdust 
have been devised, so that, except in instances rare in Massa- 
chusetts, the sale of sawdust and planer shavings has been a 
considerable source of income to the sawmill owners, as well as 
of value to the farmer in stopping an important " leak " on the 
farm by absorbing the liquid barn manures and as a cheap and 
satisfactory bedding for stock. Thus the economic effects of the 
law prohibiting the pollution of public water ways by sawdust 
has not alone contributed to maintaining the trout in the streams, 
for the benefit of the country visitor and the country dweller, but 
has changed an economic loss to the mill owner to a source of 
profit to him and to the farmer, and through these to the entire 
community. 

In a similar way, the time is not far distant when the quan- 
tities of other waste substances polluting public waterways will 
be such a conspicuous injury to the inland fisheries and to the 
shellfisheries in the harbors and estuaries, and also the quantities 
of material will be so considerable, that economic considerations 
will lead to the utilization of such waste material for fertilizing 
and irrigating farm land. Abundant experiments prove that 
such wastes are quickest rendered harmless to health and suit- 
able for plant food when the processes of oxidation and nitrifica- 
tion take place on land. In the longer-settled communities of 
England, Ireland, Scotland and Germany such materials are 
utilized on land very completely for the benefit of agriculture 



130 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

.and the maintenance of excellent trout and salmon fisheries. 
Increased intelligent attention to these questions should be given 
by our legislators. 

It is unnecessary to quote more than one or two of the numer- 
ous specific instances of fish killed or driven out of streams by 
pollution of various kinds and degrees. On Oct. 5, 1906, Mr. 
William II. Larkin of 16 Newton Street, Faneuil, Brighton dis- 
trict, reported (by telephone) that he saw large numbers of dead 
smelt that morning at low tide along the bank of the Charles 
River, at the bridge near the Faneuil railroad station. The 
London " Mail " says : — 

An enormous quantity of dead fish has been floating down the River 
Sow from Norton bridge through the town of Stafford for the past 
week, as a result of creosote having got into the river at Norton bridge. 
One man estimates that he has removed three hundredweight of dead 
fish from the river, and it is believed that for six or eight miles the 
Sow has been depleted of fish. It is stated that it will take about 
fifteen years to repair the loss, which is much deplored by anglers. 

These conditions obtain very generally, and are to be deplored. 

The Sawdust Law. — ■ Since the passage of the law in 1890 
owners of sawmills have been prohibited from emptying the saw- 
dust into the streams. Though the law provided for no hearing 
of aggrieved parties, and that the action of the commissioners 
was final and not reviewable in the courts, nevertheless, in no 
case has a hearing been refused except in one instance at New 
Marlborough, where the hearing was not asked for until nearly 
a year after this Board had issued the order of prohibition. 
When it was found that this owner had persisted in violating the 
order, court summonses were issued. Not until after these court 
summonses indicated the intention of the commissioners to en- 
force the order was a hearing asked for. The commissioners 
were of the opinion that, if a hearing had been desired, it should 
have been asked for previous to the court summons. 

Much time and money was spent in a fruitless attempt to 
organize opposition and to disseminate misinformation as to the 
purposes of the commissioners in refusing to make an exception 
of the sawdust pollution on the Konkapot Kiver. It is scarcely 
necessary to say that the commissioners regard it to be their 
duty to consider fully the relative value of the fisheries and of 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 131 

the industries whence pollution arises. In the very great ma- 
jority of cases the prohibition of the dumping of sawdust into 
the streams has led, as previously stated, to the utilization of the 
sawdust so as to become a source of profit to the mill owners 
as well as to the farmers who use it. In a general consideration 
of the problems, it is an open question whether such a stream 
as the Konkapot Biver and its tributaries would not have yielded 
more wealth to the State through an annual crop of fish, if its 
fisheries had been cherished and maintained from the settlement 
of the country to the present day, than has been the aggregate 
value of the water power derived from it during this period. 
It is, however, certain that, were it not for the tons upon tons of 
decaying sawdust, the river could be made to pay a larger tribute 
in trout and in healthful recreation to fishermen and health 
seekers, and in corresponding prosperity to the residents both in 
villages and on farms. The sympathies of the commissioners 
have ever gone forth to those who toil, for we are of them, and so 
long as we are entrusted with the enforcement of State laws we 
shall strive to ascertain and to carry out impartially the purposes 
of the people who made these laws. No one who properly 
grasps the entire problem can justly claim that the enforcement 
of the sawdust laws is a contest of " Sport versus Industry; " 
neither is this particular case " one of many " who suffer hard- 
ship from this law; nor does it affect the country districts un- 
favorably, as a writer claimed in many newspapers. The com- 
missioners have ever been desirous of securing fair and frank 
consideration and discussion for all problems where interests 
conflict, and in that spirit welcomed the incorporation of the 
right of a public hearing and of an appeal to the courts or 
parties aggrieved by the orders of the commission. Since the 
case has proved useful in defining the respective rights of the mill 
owners and of the State, the decision of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts is here reprinted. 

Commonwealth v. Sisson et al. 

Berkshire. Oct. 17, 1905. 

Water and Water Rights — Pollution of Stream. 
Loring, J. — These are two complaints, one against each defendant, 
charging them severally with permitting sawdust to be discharged into 
the Konkapot River, on March 29, 1905, in violation of an order made 



132 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

by the Fish and Game Commissioners, under Revised Laws, chapter 91, 
section 8, dated Aug. 1, 1904. 

The order, after reciting the authority given by the act, and stating 
that the mill here in question owned by the defendants had been ex- 
amined by the Board and that it had been determined by the Board that 
the fish in the brook are of sufficient value to warrant the prohibition 
of the discharge of sawdust into it, and that the discharge of sawdust 
from the defendants' mill into said brook materially injures the fish 
therein, directs the defendants (1) to erect a blower or take other 
means approved by the commissioners to prevent the discharge of 
sawdust from said mill into said brook directly or indirectly, and (2) 
not to accumulate a pile of sawdust on the bank of the brook, so that it 
may be liable to fall into the stream or be swept away by a rise of water. 

At the trial it was proved that this order was served on the defendants 
on or before July 1, 1904, and that the defendants continued to dis- 
charge sawdust into Konkapot River up to the time these complaints 
were instituted. It also appeared that there were edible fish in the 
river at the time the Board passed the order in question. 

The defendant offered to show in substance that the commissioners in 
making the order did not act on sworn evidence or personal knowledge 
as to the fish or the sawdust; that in the spring of 1905 the defendants 
asked for a hearing which the commissioners denied; that the mill has 
been used as it is now used for more than thirty years under a claim 
of right, and that the right was admitted by the next mill owner below; 
and, finally, that a compliance with the order as to a blower would 
impair the efficiency of the mill about twenty-five per cent.; that the 
sawdust could not be sold, and to cart it away would entirely destroy 
the value of the land for mill purposes. This evidence was excluded, 
and an exception was taken. 

The defendant then made the following six requests for rulings, 
to wit : — 

First. — That the act of the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game by 
which they determine that the fish in any brook or stream are of sufficient 
value to warrant the prohibition or regulation of the discharge of saw- 
dust from any particular saw mill, or that the amount of sawdust which is 
discharged from any particular mill materially injures such fish, is a judi- 
cial act, which can be lawfully performed only after the hearing of evidence 
bearing upon the questions involved, viz., the value of the fish in such brook 
or stream, and the effect of such sawdust as injuring such fish. 

Second. — That the order in this case, having been passed by the com- 
missioners without hearing any evidence and without any knowledge by 
them of the value of the fish in the stream or the amount of water in the 
stream, or the amount of sawdust that is discharged by defendants' sawmill 
into the stream, is not a lawful order under the statute, and is not binding 
upon the defendants. 

Third. — That the defendants and the predecessors in title, having been 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 133 

discharging sawdust from their sawmills for more than twenty years con- 
secutively, under a claim of right, into the Konkapot Kiver, have acquired 
by prescription a title to such right, and such right is their property, of 
which they cannot be deprived without compensation. 

* Fourth. — That section 8 of chapter 91 of the Eevised Laws makes no 
provision for compensation to the owner of a sawmill who is forbidden by 
an order of the commissioners to discharge sawdust into a brook "or stream, 
and said statute is therefore unconstitutional and void so far as these de- 
fendants are concerned. 

Fifth. — That this order of the commissioners so interferes with the use 
of the property of the defendants as to amount to a taking of such prop- 
erty for public use, and the order is void, as no compensation to defendants 
for such taking is provided by the order or by the statute under which the 
order is made. 

Sixth. — That this order of the commissioners so interferes with the use 
of the property of the defendants as to seriously damage, impair or injure 
such property, and the order is void, as no provision is made, either in the 
order or the statute under which the order is created for compensating the 
defendants for such damage, impairment or injury to their property. 

The defendant's grievance is that by an order of the Board of Fish 
and Game Commissioners they have been deprived, without compensa- 
tion being made therefor, of the right to conduct the business of 
sawing wood as they and their predecessors in title have conducted it 
for thirty years last past; that from this decision there is no appeal; 
and that not only was the order made without a hearing, but when a 
hearing was asked for by the defendants it was denied. 

Their contention is: (first) that under the act they had a right to 
be heard at the trial in the Superior Court on the questions of fact 
determined by the Board; (second) that they could not be deprived 
by the Board of their prescriptive right to discharge sawdust into 
Konkapot River without being heard and by a finding not made on 
sworn evidence; and (third) that under any circumstances this right 
cannot be taken without compensation being made therefor. 

In support of their contention, they argue that the Board, in deter- 
mining (1) that the fish in Konkapot River are of sufficient value to 
warrant the prohibition or regulation of the discharge of sawdust 
therein, and (2) that the discharge of sawdust from the defendant's 
mill materially injured such fish, was a judicial action; and in con- 
nection with this argument they rely on the distinction pointed out in 
Salem v. Eastern Railroad Co., 98 Mass. 431, between the action of a 
local board of health in making general regulations respecting articles 
capable of conveying infection or creating sickness, and the authority 
of such a board to examine into the existence of any specific case of 
nuisance, filth or cause of sickness dangerous to the public health, 
and to make an order for the removal of it. The former, being a rule 
for all, is legislative in character; the latter, being a determination as 



134 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

to a particular thing, resulting in an order to the owner of it to do a 
specified act, is judicial in character. For a later case, where it is 
pointed out that similar legislative and judicial powers are given to 
the State Board of Health in connection with the pollution of a body 
of water used as a supply of a city or town, see Nelson v. State Board 
of Health, 186 Mass. 330. 

We agree with the defendants' counsel as to what the order here in 
question is not. We agree that it is not a general regulation. What 
is determined by it is, that the discharge of sawdust from the de- 
fendants' mill materially injures the fish in Konkapot River; and it 
orders the defendants to erect a blower, and forbids the defendants 
making a pile of sawdust in connection with the mill; and it resulted 
in an order served on these defendants to do these acts. This is not a 
general regulation. But we do not agree that, because it is not a 
general regulation, it is a judicial action. The question to be decided 
here does not depend upon a choice between the two classes dealt 
with in Salem v. Eastern Railroad, 98 Mass. 431, and in Nelson v. 
State Board of Health, 186 Mass. 330, and for these reasons : — 

We are of opinion, in the first place, that it is within the power of 
the Legislature to protect and preserve edible fish in the rivers and 
brooks of the Commonwealth, and for that purpose, if they think 
proper, to forbid any sawdust being discharged into any brook con- 
taining such fish. 

The right to run a sawmill on the bank of a brook or a river is, 
like all rights of property, subject to be regulated by the Legislature 
when the unrestrained exercise of it conflicts with other rights, public 
or private. (See Commonwealth v. Alger, 7 Cush. 53, 54; Rideout v. 
Knox, 148 Mass. 368.) The defendants' contention, that they have a 
prescriptive right to discharge sawdust into the river (even if it kills 
or injures the fish therein), which prescriptive right cannot be taken 
away or impaired without compensation being made therefor, means 
this, and nothing more: where the Legislature, up to the passage of 
the act here in question (St. 1890, c. 129), had not regulated the busi- 
ness of sawing wood on the banks of streams having in them edible 
fish, and where, in the absence of such regulation, the defendants had 
discharged sawdust into the stream for thirty years, the people have 
lost the power to regulate the conflicting rights of sawmills on the 
bank of the stream, and to preserve fish in the stream itself. The 
statement of the proposition is enough to show that there is nothing 
in it. The decision in Attorney-General v. Revere Copper Co., 152 
Mass. 144, relied on by the defendants, is confined to the gaining of 
prescriptive rights with respect to property owned by the public under 
a statute of limitations, which puts the property rights of the public 
on the same basis as those of individuals. 

We are of opinion, in the second place, that, in case the Legislature 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 135 

thought that in regulating the conflicting rights of individuals to run 
sawmills on the banks of a river on the one hand, aud of the public 
on the other hand to have fish live and increase in the same stream, it 
was not worth while to forbid sawdust being discharged into every 
stream in which there were edible fish, they could leave to a board 
having peculiar knowledge on the subject the selection of the brooks 
and rivers in which the fish were of sufficient value to warrant the 
prohibition or regulation of the discharge of sawdust. The right of 
the Legislature to delegate some legislative functions to State boards 
was considered by this court in Brodbine v. Revere, 182 Mass. 498. 

And further, in case the Legislature thought that an act which 
forbade any sawdust to be discharged into any of the streams selected 
by the Board was an unnecessarily stringent one, they could, in our 
opinion, leave it to the Board to settle in each particular case the 
practical details required to harmonize best these two conflicting rights. 

The power thus delegated to the Board, of fitting the details of regu- 
lation to the particular circumstances of each case, is of the same 
character as that long exercised by the Fish and Game Commissioners 
and their predecessors the Board of Inland Fisheries in prescribing 
the details of the construction of the fishways to be constructed in 
dams where by law fish have to be maintained. (See St. 1866, 
c. 238, §§ 2, 6; St. 1867, c. 344; Pub. Sts., c. 91, § 4; see also Prov. 
Laws, 1745-46, c. 20, State ed., vol. 3, p. 267.) These acts provide 
that the Board, after examination of dams upon rivers where the law 
requires fishways, is to determine whether the fishways in existence are 
sufficient, and to prescribe by an order in writing what changes or 
repairs, if any, shall be made, and at what times the fishways are to 
be kept open, and to give notice thereof to the owners of such dams. 
The action of the Fish Commissioners under these acts is unquestion- 
ably legislative in character, and we cannot doubt that their action 
under them, exercised and acquiesced in by the public for this length 
of time, is valid. 

The result is, that in our opinion the action of the Board in the case 
at bar was the working out of details under a legislative act. The 
Board is no more required to act on sworn evidence than is the Legis- 
lature itself, and no more than in case of the Legislature itself is it 
bound to act only after a hearing, or to give a hearing to the plaintiff 
when he asks for one; and its action is final, as is the action of the 
Legislature in enacting a statute. And, being legislative, it is plain 
that the questions of fact passed upon by the Legislature in adopting 
the provisions enacted by them cannot be tried over by the court. 
This court has been recently asked to try over the expediency of com- 
pulsory vaccination in an action under a statute requiring it. (Com. v. 
Jacobson, 183 Mass. 242.) On its declining to do so, an appeal was 
taken to the Supreme Court of the United States, and its refusal to do 



136 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

so was held to be correct. (Jacobson v. Mass., 197 U. S. 11; see par- 
ticularly p. 30; see also Devens, J. in Train v. Boston Disinfecting Co., 
144 Mass. 531.) 

The practical result is, that the defendants are forbidden to conduct 
their sawmill as they had conducted it for thirty years, by a Board 
who have not heard evidence and have refused the defendants a hear- 
ing; that the action of the Board is final, and that no compensation is 
due to them. 

This result may seem strange. But it is no less strange than the 
practical results in cases which are decided law. Take the case before 
the court in Nelson v. State Board of Health, 186 Mass. 330, namely, 
a farm on the banks of a pond used as the water supply of a town. 
The State Board of Health can pass a general regulation, under statute 
113 of Revised Laws, chapter 75, forbidding privies within a specified 
distance from its shore; and if the defendant had had a privy there 
for thirty years, his right to maintain it would cease, although the 
order was made without hearing, and the action of the Board is final. 
On the other hand, if the Board had proceeded under statute 118 to 
investigate this particular privy, the defendant would have been entitled 
to a hearing, and, on appeal, to a jury, as provided by statute 119. 
Again, take for example the regulation of a local board of health in 
question in Train v. Boston Disinfecting Co., 144 Mass. 523, requiring 
all rags arriving at the port of Boston from any foreign port to be 
disinfected at the expense of the owner before being discharged. The 
power of the local board of health to declare these rags a nuisance 
per se, so as to impose upon the owner without trial the expense of 
disinfecting them, was established by this court in that case. Had the 
local board undertaken to investigate the particular rags in question 
in Train v. Boston Disinfecting Co., under their jurisdiction to inquire 
into sources of filth, and they had been authorized under that act to 
abate the nuisance if they found the rags to be a nuisance, by ordering 
them to be disinfected at the expense of the defendant, they would 
have had to give the defendant a hearing on notice, and from their 
decision the defendant would have had a right to a trial by jury. 
That is what was decided in Salem v. Eastern Railroad, 96 Mass. 431. 

That is to say, on the one hand, where the law is general and the 
question is whether under it the defendants are committing a nuisance,- 
the facts are determined by judicial action; on the other hand, the de- 
termination of the same facts is legislative in case the Legislature 
decides to make the thing a nuisance per se. And where it is legisla- 
tive it is final, and no hearing is necessary; and where, as is the case 
here, it is made in the exercise of the police power, no compensation 
is due. The delegation of such legislative powers to a board is going 
a great way. But the remedy is by application to the Legislature, if a 
remedjr should be given. In our opinion, it is within its constitutional 
power, and the court can give no remedy. 



1906.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 137 

For similar eases, where the use which can be made of property has 
been left to the final determination of boards, see Newton v. Joyce, 166 
Mass. 83; Com. v. Roberts, 155 Mass. 281. See also in this connection 
Wares, petitioners, 161 Mass. 70. The difference between the majority 
and the minority of the court in Miller v. Horton, 152 Mass. 540, was 
on the construction of the act there in question. 

Exceptions overruled. 

John F. Noxon for Commonwealth; Herbert C. Joyner and H. M. 
Whiting for defendants. 

In the examination of the statute a weak point became ap- 
parent, in the fact that no public hearing was prescribed. The 
law has been very properly amended upon this point. We are 
of opinion that this amendment will not diminish the good 
effects of the law, as the State seeks to impose no hardship upon 
any class or individual, but aims at absolute justice for all. It 
must, however, necessarily greatly increase the cost of enforce- 
ment of this law. 

The first petition for a public hearing was filed by Mr. E. E. 
Eames of Paxton. On November 27 the premises were inspected 
by Commissioners Eield and Delano. The public hearing was 
held on November 28, at the county court house in Worcester. 
The conditions connected with this case are probably unique, 
and, as a result of the personal inspection and careful consid- 
eration of the exceptional conditions which obtain here, the fol- 
lowing action was taken by the Board : — 

According to the provisions of section 8, chapter 91, Revised Laws, 
as amended by chapter 356, Acts of 1906, the order issued Sept. 10, 
1900, against the pollution of the waters of Eames Brook, so called, 
upon which this mill is located, should be, and hereby is, revoked, for 
the following reasons : — 

(1) The unusual location of the mill, in reference to the stream and 
to the county road, makes it especially difficult to dispose of the saw- 
dust as required by the order. 

(2) The peculiar character of the bed of the brook and the topog- 
raphy of. the locality tend to minimize the prejudicial effects of the 
sawdust pollution. 

(3) The special character of the water privilege. If it is permissible 
by law to so completely shut off the water that the bed of the brook 
for a long distance becomes entirely devoid of water, the stream by 
that fact becomes uninhabitable for trout, even without the presence 
of sawdust. 



138 FISH AND GAME. [Dec 

(4) Both from a personal inspection of the stream and from the 
absence of direct testimony that trout have ever been taken in this 
brook, we are of the opinion that the fisheries in this brook are not at 
present of sufficient value to warrant the application to this particular 
brook of the law forbidding pollution of streams by sawdust. 

Shad. — There are few more deplorable incidents of human 
greed than are displayed by the decline of our shad fisheries. 
Fifty years ago so numerous as to be freely used for manuring 
the farmers' lands, the next ten years will see the practical 
commercial extinction of this delicious and valuable fish on the 
eastern shor